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Prepared  for  the  Centennial  Celebration  held  at 

Chambersburg,  Penn'a,  July  4th,  1876, 

and  Subsequently  Enlarged 

BY  I.  H.  M'CAULEY. 

Incompleteness  pervades  all  things  human." — Dryden. 


JOHN  M.  POMEROY,  Publisher. 






Over  One  Hundred  Lithographic  Illustrations, 

Drawn  by  W.  W.  Denslow. 

D.  F.  PURSEL,  Publisher. 


Issued  by  D.  F.  PURSEL. 

F.  A.  Davis,  Manager  Pub.  Dep't.  Thomas  Huntbr,  Lithographer 

2.0  9^- 

Copyright,  1877,  by  John  M.  Pomeroy. 
Additional  Matter  Copyrighted,  1878,  by  D.  F.  Piirsel. 


We  do  not  present  this  as  a  perfect  work  to  the  reader.  It  is  unneces 
sary  to  remind  the  intelligent  thinker  that  perfection  is  not  one  oi  the 
human  attributes,  and,  in  our  opinion,  imperfection  is  in  no  place  more 
common,  and  at  the  same  time  more  excusable  than  in  a  volume  like  this. 
Not  only  is  the  publisher  of  the  local  work  liable  to  the  usual  typographi- 
cal and  other  errors  which  will  creep  into  the  most  carefully  prepared 
general  volume,  but  handlinj^  a  variety  of  manuscript,  each  handwriting 
different,  some  written  so  carelessly  as  to  be  liable  to  almost  any  interpre- 
tation, it  becomes  impossible  that  errors,  in  proper  and  family  names,  also 
names  of  places  and  dates,  should  not  occur.  We  have  endeavored  as 
much  as  in  our  power  by  careful  reading  and  proofing,  to  avoid  and  cor- 
rect such  errors,  and  where  they  now  exist  we  can  only  say  in  excuse, 
that  we  have  not  at  any  time  claimed  a  perfecthook^  and  would  ask  where 
is  the  similar  work  in  which  such  errors  do  not  exist.  We  are  proud  of 
the  volume  we  present  to  our  readers,  and  particularly  proud  of  the  artis- 
tic portion.  On  the  pages  of  this  publication,  were  there  not  one  page  of 
letterpress,  posterity  could  form  a  very  fair  idea  of  Franklin  County,  as  it 
existed  ia  1878.  Of  its  Churches,  Court  House,  Educational  Institutions, 
Mercantile,  and  Manufacturing  Establishments,  and  particularly  of  the 
many  delightful  farm  houses,  which,  scattered  over  the  length,  and 
breadth,  of  the  county,  and  numbered  by  the  thousands,  cannot  fail  to 
impress  the  stranger  with  its  agricultural  importance,  and  the  enviable  lot 
of  it8  farmers.  The  sketches  are  all  from  the  pencil  of  Mr.  W.  W. 
Denslow,  a  young,  and  it  is  unnecessary  to  say  talented  artist,  and  are 
drawn  on  stone  at  the  mammoth  lithngraphic  establishment  of  Thomas 
Hunter.  In  the  appendix  we  have  gathered  more  or  less  data  relating  to 
nearly  all  of  the  subjects  of  illustration. 

Arrangements  were  origlnaUy  made  with  D.  M.  Kennedy,  Esq.,  to  edit 
this  appendix,  but  after  about  one  third  of  the  matter  was  printed,  Mr. 
Kennedy  assumed  the  editorship  of  the  Daily  Herald,  and  being  unable 
to  spare  the  necessary  time  he  resigned  the  position,  and  subsequently 
arrangements  were  made  with  Dr.  J.  L.  Suesserott,  under  whose  able 
supervision  the  work  has  been  completed.  Thanks  are  to  be  rendered  in 
this  connection  to  Rev.  J.  C.  Caldwell,  Rev.  A-  J.  Hesaon,  A.  D.  Mor- 
ganthall.  Miss  R.  H.  Schively,  Dr.  A.  H.  Strickler,  Dr.  I.  N.  Snively,  J. 
M.  Cooper,  B.  F.  Mentzer,  G.  A.  Shryock,  Wm.  Heyser,  I.  H.  McCauley, 
J.  C.  Burns,  S.  H.  Eby,  and  many  others  for  valuable  information  or 
finished  articles. 

The  articles  contained  in  the  appendix  of  places  illustrated,  and  also  the 
famil}'  histories  therein  contained,  are  not  to  be  attributed  in  their  present 
form  to  the  persons  now  occupying  the  places  or  representing  the  families. 
Whatever  of  eulogy,  praise,  or  commendation,  may  have  been  predicated 
to  the  dead  or  living,  our  authors  are  solely  responsible  for.  We  have, 
as  a  matter  of  principle,  allowed  no  individual  to  write  his,  or  her  own 
biography,  yet  at  the  same  time  as  it  is  to  be  hoped  the  work,  we  now  have 
the  pleasure  of  presenting  to  our  readers,  is  for  posterity,  as  well  astliose 
now  in  the  flesh,  to  read  and  glean  Iherelrom  such  lessons  as,  it  may  teach 
by  the  lives  and  achievements  it  chronicles,  we  have  urged  our  historians, 
in  no  wise  to  omit,  to  record  the  virtues  of  the  living  men,  and  women 
whose  names  must  necessarially  appear  therein.  We  have  also  hnd  noted 
the  present  state  of  advancement  in  manufactures,  and  farming  operations, 
as  well  as  the  degree  of  improvement  that  has  been  attained  in  the  pro- 
duction of  farm  stock,  and  implements. 

We  shall  no  doubt  meet  with  more  or  less  criticism  from  those  persons 
who,  living  on  the  ideal,  overlook  the  snbstantials  of  life,  on  account  of 
having  embodied  references  to,  and,  to  a  certain  extent,  descriptions  of 
blooded  stock,  yet,  hoio,  we  ask,  could  we  have  done  justice  to  the  agricul- 
tural interests  of  the  county,  and  have  overlooked,  this  most  important 
branch  of  the  industries  and  prosperity  of  "Old  Franklin  V"  an  industry, 
which,  notwithstanding  its  distinguished,  and  to  be  honored  patrons,  is  as 
yei  but  in  its  infancy,  and  is  destined,  within  the  next  fifty  years,  to  be 
developed  into  proportions  which  few  at  present  can  comprehend  All 
honor,  we  say,  to  the  noble  pioneers  in  this  good  work,  and  it  is  with  heart- 
fell  pleasure  and  pride  that  we  accord  them  a  place  on  our  pages. 

Some  articles  which  from  their  general  importance  should  not  have 
been  overlooked  by  Mr.  McCauley  in  his  "Sketches,"  have  been  added, 
having  escaped  his  searching  eye.  Among  such,  can  be  mentioned  "the 
burning  of  Ciiambersburg,"  "flood  of  1877,"  "murder  of  school  children," 
and  others.  We  think,  how^ever.  Mr.  McCauley  is  entitled  to  much  credit 
for  his  arduous  labors,  and  the  errors  or  omissions  of  his  first  M.  S.  S., 
are  to  be  overlooked,  in  consideration  of  his  inexperience.  The  more  so, 
as  his  recently  published  second  edition,  gives  evidence  of  an  efi'ort  to 
overcome  the  above  mentioned  deficiencies.  With  this  constant  improve- 
ment, there  is  no  doubt,  but  some  future  edition,  may  be  as  perfect,  as 
human  frailty  will  allow,  and  we  fondly  hope  and  believe,  that  Mr. 
McCauley's  fellow  citizens,  will  unite  in  bestowing  on  him,  such  high 
honors  as  he  may  be  considered  entitled  to.  Thanking  our  numerous 
patrons  for  their  kind  patronage  we  remain 



The  vindersigned,  in  the  following  "Sketch,"  has  not  attempted  to 
give  a  complete  History  of  our  county.  He  has  sought,  chiefly,  to 
bring  to  notice  those  matters  which  have  escaped  the  attention  of 
former  writers.  In  doing  tliis,  his  labors  have  been  greatly  aug- 
mented by  the  loss  of  the  Public  Records  of  the  county,  and  the 
destruction  of  private  papers,  in  the  great  fire  of  July  30th,  1864. 
He  trusts,  however,  that  he  has  brought  together  many  things  con- 
nected with  the  Past,  that  cannot  fail  to  interest  the  general  reader  ; 
and  in  the  Lists  of  Congressional,  Judicial,  and  other  Public  Officers 
of  past  times,  he  believes  the  people  will  find  a  Record  both  useful 
and  interesting. 

The  undersigned  hereby  returns  his  sincere  thanks  to  Hon.  John 
B.  Linn,  Deputy  Secretary  of  the  Commonwealth  ;  Thomas  M'Cam- 
mant,  Esq.,  his  Chief  Clerk  ;  and  B.  F.  Chandler,  Esq.,  of  the  same 
ofltiee  ;  O.  H.  Miller,  Esq.,  State  Librarian,  and  J.  R.  Orwig,  Esq., 
his  assistant;  B.  M.  Nead,  Esq.,  of  the  Auditor  General's  Office; 
Dr.  Wm.  H.  Egle,  of  Harrisburg  ;  Robert  M.  Agnew,  Esq.,  of  Lan- 
caster; Hon.  Edward  M'Pherson,  of  Gettysburg  ;  Dr.  C.  T.  Maclay, 
Dr.  Wm.  C.  Lane  and  Dr.  Wm.  H.  Boyle,  and  the  various  gentle- 
men of  the  local  committees  of  our  county,  and  others  of  our  citi- 
zens, for  the  valuable  aid  given  by  them  in  furnishing  information 
and  materials  needed  in  the  prosecution  of  his  labors. 

I.  H.  M'CAULEY, 

November,  1876.  Chambersburg,  Pa. 


For  several  years  the  thoughts  of  the  people  of  this  great  Republic 
have  been  turned  towards  the  appropriate  celebration  of  this  the 
Centennial  Anniversary  of  the  birth  of  these  United  States  as  one 
of  the  nations  of  the  earth.  A  retrospect  of  the  century  presents 
so  much  that  is  astonishing  and  unprecedented  in  everything  that 
pertains  to  national  prosperity  and  greatness,  that  our  people  can 
well  be  excused  for  entertaining  those  feelings  of  personal  pride  and 
national  exultation  which  have  caused  this  large  assemblage. 

Nowhere  in  the  history  of  nations  has  any  thing  been  recorded 
comparable  with  the  brief  career  of  this  free,  and  happy,  and  mighty 
people;  and  the  desire  that  this  year,  and  this  day,  should  not  be 
allowed  to  pass  without  some  appropriate  recognition  of  them  by 
those  who  are  enjoyiug  the  liberties  and  privileges  of  our  Union, 
haa  penetrated  every  part  of  the  land,  gained  a  lodgment  in  every 
patriotic  bosom,  brought  into  existence  the  vast  Centennial  Exposi- 
tion now  in  progress  at  Philadelphia,  and  found  expression  in  the 
following  resolution,  passed  by  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  on 
the  13th  of  March  last,  viz.  : 

"J5e  it  resolved  by  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives  of  the 
United  States  of  America  in  Congress  assembled— 

That  it  be  and  is  hereby  recommended  by  the  Senate  and  House 
of  Representatives  to  the  people  of  the  several  States,  that  they 
assemble  in  their  several  counties  or  towns  on  the  approaching 
anniversary  of  our  national  independence,  and  that  they  cause  to 
be  delivered  on  such  day  a  historical  sketch  of  said  county  or  town 
from  its  formation,  and  that  a  copy  of  the  said  sketch  be  filed,  in 
print  or  manuscript,  in  the  clerk's  office  of  the  said  county,  and  an 
additional  copy,  in  print  or  manuscript,  be  filed  in  the  office  of  the 
Librarian  of  Congress,  to  the  intent  that  a  complete  record  may  thus 
be  obtained  of  the  progress  of  our  institutions  during  the  first  cen- 
tennial of  their  existence." 

The  President  of  the  United  States,  and  the  Governor  of  this 
Commonwealth  have,  by  their  respective  proclamations,  called  the 
attention  of  the  people  to  this  resolution  in  the  hope  that  its  objects 
may  meet  with  their  approval;  and  at  the  request  of  a  committee 

6  Hlstorlcdl  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

appointed  by  a  public  meeting  of  the  citizens  of  this  county,  lield 
on  the  lltli  day  of  last  May,  I  have  undertalven  the  preparation  of 
a  brief  sketch  of  the  early  history  of  this  count}'. 

In  consequence  of  the  shortness  of  the  time  allowed  me,  and 
because  of  the  destruction,  in  the  great  fire  of  the  80th  of  July, 
1864,  of  so  many  of  (he  records  of  our  county,  I  have  found  my 
labors  much  more  difficult  than  I  had  imagined;  and  I  will  there- 
fore have  to  crave  your  indulgence  if  you  shall  find  what  I  have 
prepared  less  full  and  complete  than  it  otherwise  would  have  been, 
or  than  you  may  have  expected  it  to  be. 


The  discovery  of  Am-rica  by  Christopher  Columbus  in  1492,  was 
of  the  greatest  value  to  the  rulers  of  Europe,  in  that  it  furnished  to 
them  a  means  of  getting  rid,  for  the  time  at  least,  of  many  of  the 
restless,  unruly,  and  dangerous  spirits  frequenting  their  Courts,  by 
sending  them  off  on  voyages  of  discovery  to  the  New  World.  Such 
enterprises  always  possessed  attractions  of  the  most  alluring  charac- 
ter to  such  persons,  as  fhey  promised  rich  rewards  in  plunder  and 
untold  increase  of  honor. 

The  mode  of  acquiring  title  to  the  unknown  lands  of  the  West, 
then  in  vogue,  had  in  it  more  of  form  than  of  fact— more  of  might 
than  of  right,.'  It  consisted  in  authorizing  some  bold  navigator,  or 
renowned  warrior,  to  seize  upou  and  claim  for  the  sovereign  under 
whose  authority  he  was  acting,  any  and  all  unsettled  countries  he 
might  find,  and  the  mode  of  operation,  as  is  well  known,  was  to  land 
upon  the  coast,  or  in  some  bay  or  river,  plant  a  cross  eiublazoned 
witli  the  insignia  of  his  nationality,  unfurl  his  flag,  and  claim  all 
the  regions  around  for  his  own  monarch,  to  the  exclusion  of  all 
other  claimauts.  In  this  consisted  the  vaunted  "Right  of  Prior 
Discovery" — a  kind  of  kingly  ''squatter  sovereignty" — a  term 
much  known  to  and  quarreled  over  by  the  peojjle  of  these  free 
States  in  years  not  long  since  passed  away. 

It  seems  as  if  the  discovery  of  America  was  made  in  advance  of 
the  necessities  of  the  world,  for  near  two  centuries  passed  away 
before  the  vast  territories  thus  opened  up  to  settlement  and  cultiva- 
tion became  available  for  any  real  good  to  the  mass  of  mankind. 
During  these  long  years  the  New  World  witnessed  many  a  scene  of 
rapine  and  bloodshed,  committed  by  the  followers  of  those  knights 
of  the  sword  and  pistol,  the  musquetoon  and  the  cannon,  by  whom 
the  discoveries  were  made.  The  French,  the  Spanish,  the  Germans, 
and  the  English  contended  for  the  supremacy  all  along  the  coast 

Historical  S/cetch  of  Fran/din  County.  7 

from  Labrador  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  and  their  monarchs  lavishly 
granted  away  princely  domains  to  favorite  courtiers,  or  to  trouble- 
some subjects,  sometimes  for  friendship,  and  at  other  times  for 
money,  of  which  latter  they  were  always  in  great  need. 


Acting  upon  both  these  principles,  Charles  II.  of  England,  on  the 
4th  day  of  March,  1681,  primarily  for  a  debt  of  £16,000  (or  about 
$80,000  of  our  money)  owing  by  his  father,  Charles  I.,  to  Admiral  Sir 
William  Penn,  deceased,  the  father  of  William  Penn,  granted  to  the 
latter  a  district  of  country  lying  west  of  the  Delaware  river,  and 
corresponding  very  nearly  to  the  territory  embraced  in  the  present 
State  of  Pennsylvania— or  "  Penn's  Woods"— which  name  the  King 
bestowed  upon  it  in  honor  of  the  father  of  the  new  proprietor,  and 
against  his  protestations.  Thus  our  whole  Commonwealth,  con- 
taining over  twenty-eight  millions  of  acres,  (28.362,880)  of  the  most 
beautiful  and  valuable  land  on  the  continent  of  America  was  bar- 
tered away  by  King  Charles  for  a  sum  not  equal  to  the  present  price 
of  half  a  dozen  farms  in  our  valley. 

The  Duke  of  York,  afterwards  James  II.  of  England,  was  then 
the  owner  of  the  territory  now  embraced  In  the  State  of  Delaware, 
under  a  grant  from  his  brother.  King  Charles  II.,  made  in  1664,  and 
Penn,  who  wished  to  have  free  access  to  the  sea  from  his  new  pos- 
sessions, purchased  it  from  him  in  the  succeeding  year.  Thus  it 
came  that  for  many  years  after  the  estaV>lishment  of  Penn's  govern- 
ment here,  Delaware,  or  the  three  lower  counties  of  "  New  Castle, 
Kent  and  Sussex,"  were  included  in  and  formed  part  of  the  territory 
of  Pennsylvania. 

William  Penn,  at  the  time  he  received  his  grant  from  King  Charles 
II.,  was  about  thirty -seven  years  of  age.  He  was  a  man  of  elegant 
presence,  of  large  wealth,  of  fair  education,  and  deeply  imbued  with 
the  principles  of  his  religious  sect.  He  had  been  persecuted  time 
and  again  because  of  his  religious  opinions;  had  been  imj^risoned 
and  fintd,  and  had  appealed,  without  success,  to  Parliament  for  tol- 
eration and  protection  for  his  co-religionists  and  for  himself. 

Despairing  of  success  at  home,  Penn  was  the  more  anxious  to  se- 
cure a  home  for  his  persecuted  brethren  in  the  New  World,  to  which 
considerable  numbers  of  them  had  already  emigrated.  Of  the  terri- 
tory granted  to  him  he  was  made  absolute  proprietor.  Its  people 
were  secured  in  the  right  of  self-government  through  representatives 
elected  by  their  own  votes ;  religious  equalitj-  was  guaranteed  to  all ; 
no  taxes  were  to  be  imjjosed  save  by  their  own  legislatures,  or  by 
act  of  Parliament,  and  the  power  to  annul  their  laws  was  only  to  be 
exercised  by  the  King  and  his  Council,  when  those  laws  were  con- 
trary to  the  laws  of  England. 

8  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

William  Penn,  and  those  colonists  who  came  with  him,  reached 
New  Castle,  Delaware,  on  the  27th  of  October,  1682.  In  the  presence 
of  the  Swedish,  Dutch  and  English  settlers  whom  he  found  there,  he 
pledged  himself  to  the  people  that  they  should  ever  have  "liberty 
of  conscience,  and  the  full  and  free  enjoyment  of  all  their  civil 
rights.  "I  propose,"  said  he,  "to  leave  myself  and  my  successors 
no  power  of  doing  mischief,  that  the  will  of  no  one  man  may  hinder 
the  good  of  the  whole  country." 

penn's  treaty. 

One  of  the  first  acts  of  the  new  proprietor  was  to  call  together  the 
chiefs  of  the  neighboring  tribes  of  Indians  and  enter  into  the  cele- 
brated treaty  of  peace  and  friendship  with  them,  under  the  spreading 
elm  at  Shackamaxon— now  Kensington,  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia— 
a  treaty  that  was  confirmed  by  no  oaths,  arid  had  for  its  basis  simply 
a  promise  of  peace  and  good  will,  fair  dealing  and  fair  treatment  in 
all  the  relations  of  the  future.  It  remained  unbroken  for  fifty  years, 
and  well  would  it  have  been  for  those  who  in  after  times  succeeded 
the  upright  and  peace-loving  Quakers,  if  they  had  always  practiced 
towards  the  red  men  of  the  land  the  teachings  of  William  Penu. 
Had  they  done  so  hundreds  of  valuable  lives  would  have  been  saved, 
and  many  years  of  war,  rapine  and  bloodshed  averted  from  the 
hardy,  industrious  and  fearless  settlers  of  the  hills  and  valleys  of  our 
magnificent  State. 


The  first  counties  erected  in  the  State  were  Philadelphia,  Bucks 
and  Chester,  in  1682.  The  latter  extended  westward  to  the  western 
boundary  oi  Penn's  territorial  claim,  and  northward  I  know  not 
exactly  how  far.  It,  however,  included  the  territory  embraced  in 
this  county.  On  the  10th  of  May,  1729,  the  county  of  Lancaster 
was  erected  out  of  the  western  part  of  Chester  county,  and  this  sec- 
tion of  country  was  embraced  within  its  limits,  and  there  remain  d 
until  the  erection  of  Cumberland  county,  ou  the  27th  of  January, 
1750,  a  period  of  over  twenty  years. 


There  were  no  white  settlers  in  this  region  that  I  have  been  able 
to  hear  of,  in  the  year  1729.  There  may  have  been  occasional  visits 
made  by  hunters  and  scouts,  but  if  so  we  have  no  records  of  them. 
The  land  lay  open  in  all  its  virgin  beauty,  its  sole  occupants  being 
scattered  bands  of  the  Susquehanna  and  Shawanese  tribes  of  In- 
dians, who  held  a  nominal  possession  of  it  under  the  protection  of 
the  Iroquois,  or  Six  Nations. 

Ifistorieal  Sketch  of  Fran/din  Cnunti/.  9 

Neither  William  Penn  nor  his  sons,  John,  Thomas  and  Richard, 
wlio  succeeded  to  his  rights  as  proprietors  of  the  colony  after  his 
death,  in  1718,  were  ever  willing  that  settlements  should  be  made 
anywhere  in  their  new  possessions  without  the  consent  of  the 
Indians,  until  their  claims  to  the  soil  had  been  extinguished  by 
purchase.  Thus  for  nearly  seventy  years  the  best  state  of  feeling 
existed  between  the  settlers  and  the  Indians.  The  latter  were 
pleased  to  have  the  former  come  amongst  them,  pointed  out  volun- 
tarily the  most  desirable  locations  for  settlement,  encouraged  the 
making  of  imi)rovements,  aud  lived  in  i^eace  with  those  who  thus 
became  their  neighbors. 

The  lands  in  the  "  Kittochtinny,"  or  i^reseiit  Cumberland  Valley, 
Mere  uot  purchased  from  the  Indians  until  October,  173(5,  and  were 
not,  therefore,  before  that  time  open  for  sale.  But  for  several  years 
prior  to  that  period  the  agents  of  the  proj^rietors,  knowing  the  feel- 
ings of  the  Indians  to  be  favorable,  had  encouraged  settlers  to  come 
hither,  and  had  issued  to  them  special  licenses  for  the  settlement  and 
securing  of  such  tracts  of  land  beyond  the  Susquehanna,  or  '  Long, 
Crooked  river,"  as  might  please  their  fancy.  The  lands  embiaced  in 
Amberson's  Valley,  Horse  Vailey,  Path  Valley,  and  the  present 
counties  of  Bedford,  Fulton,  Blair,  Huntingdon,  Mifflin,  Juniata 
and  Snyder  were  not  purchased  from  the  Indians  until  October 
23d,  1758. 

History  says  that  Benjamin  Chambers  was  the  first  white  man 
who  made  a  settlement  in  what  is  now  known  as  the  county  of 
Franklin.  He  was  a  native  of  the  county  Antrim,  Ireland,  of 
Scotch  descent,  and  between  the  years  1726  and  1730  emigrated, 
with  his  brothers  James,  Eobert  and  Joseph,  to  the  Province  of 
Pennsylvania.  At  that  time  neither  Lj<ncaster,  York,  Harris- 
burg  or  Carlisle  had  any  existence.  Harris'  Ferry  was  the  most 
prominent  place  in  the  interior  of  the  State,  and  to  that  point  the 
Chambers  brothers  made  their  way.  Having  heard  of  the  beauty 
of  the  location  upon  which  our  town  now  stands,  Benjamin  boldly 
pushed  out  into  the  wilderness,  was  kindly  received  by  the  Indians, 
and  obtained  permission  to  settle  on  the  jilace  of  his  choice  and 
make  it  l)is  own.  This  was  about  the  year  1730  ;  and  on  the  30th  of 
March,  1734,  Thomas  Blunston,  the  agent  of  the  proprietaries,  gave 
him  a  license  "  to  take  and  settle  aud  improve  four  hundred  acres  of 
land  at  the  F'alling  Spring's  mouth,  and  on  both  sides  of  the  Cono- 
cochege  Creek,  for  the  eonveniency  of  a  grist  mill  aud  plantation." 
Such  licenses  were  given  bj-  the  agents  of  the  proprietaries  in  advance 
of  the  extinguishment  of  the  Indian  title  to  the  land,  in  order  to 
fill  up  the  valley  speedily'  as  far  south  as  possible  with  those  taking 
title  from  them,  and  thus  crowd  out  and  prevent  the  encroachments 
of  settlers  under  Maryland  rights,  whose  frontier  posts,  because  of 

10  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

the  disputes  and  long  delay  in  determining  the  boundary  between 
the  two  colonies,  were  creeping  too  far  westward  and  too  much 
northward  to  suit  the  views  of  tlie  Pennsylvania  authorities. 

CUMBERLAND   VALLEY   IN   1730-60. 

We  all  know  what  this  part  of  our  valley  now  is,  with  its  thou- 
sands of  large,  well-improved  and  well-tilled  farms,  and  its  hundreds 
of  thousands  of  acres  of  elegant  and  valuable  timbered  lands.  But 
if  the  reports  which  historians  give  us  of  its  characteristics  in  1730-35 
be  true,  it  must  have  then  presented  a  very  different  appearance. 
Day,  in  his  "Historical  Collections  of  Pennsylvania,"  says:  "It  is 
a  tradition,  well  supported,  that  a  great  part  of  the  best  lands  in  the 
Conococheague  Valley  were,  at  the  first  settlement  of  the  country, 
what  is  now  called  in  the  Western  States  prairie.  The  land  was 
without  timber,  covered  with  a  rich,  luxuriant  grass,  with  some 
scattered  trees,  hazel  bushes,  wild  plums  and  crab  apples.  It  was 
then  generally  called  '  the  barrens.'  The  timber  was  to  be  found  on 
or  near  the  water  courses,  and  on  the  slate  soil.  Tliis  accounts  for 
the  preference  given  by  the  early  Scotch-Irish  settlers  to  the  slale 
lands  before  the  limestone  lands  were  surveyed  or  located.  The 
slate  lands  had  the  attractions  of  wood,  water  courses  and  water 
meadows,  and  were  free  from  rock  at  the  surface.  Before  the  intro- 
duction of  clover,  artificial  grasses,  and  the  improved  system  of 
agriculture,  the  hilly  limestone  land  had  its  soil  washed  off,  was 
disfigured  with  great  gullies,  and  was  sold  as  unprofitable,  for  a 
trifle,  by  the  i^roprietors,  who  sought  other  lands  in  Western  Penn- 

Rupp,  in  his  history  of  this  county,  saj's  that  the  Reverend 
Michael  Schlatter,  a  German  Refi)rmed  minister,  passed  through 
this  section  of  country  in  the  year  1748,  and  in  a  letter  dated  May 
9th,  1748,  says:  "On  the  Cono-go-gig  we  reached  the  house  of  an 
Yxone^i  Schweitzer,  (supposed  to  be  Jacob  Snively,  of  Antrim  town- 
ship), where  we  received  kind  entertainment  with  thankfulness. 
In  this  neighborhood  there  are  very  fine  lands  for  cultivation  and 
pasture,  exceedingly  fruitful  without  the  application  of  manures. 
The  Turkish  corn  (Indian  maize)  grows  to  the  height  of  ten  feet, 
and  higher,  and  the  grasses  are  remarkably  fine.  Hereabouts  there 
still  remain  a  good  number  of  Indians,  the  original  dwellers  of  the 
soil.  They  are  hospitable  and  quiet,  and  well  affected  to  the  chris- 
tians until  the  latter  make  them  drunk  with  strong  drink." 

When  we  look  at  the  immense  bodies  of  fine  timber  in  the  lime- 
stone regions  of  our  county,  and  compare  the  procfuctiveness  of  our 
limestone  lands  with  that  of  our  slate  lands,  we  cannot  but  think 
that  '■'■tradition^''  must  have  been  in  error  in  this  report.  But, 
whether  correct  or  incorrect  in  this  regard,  the  fact  is  undeniable 

iristorlcal  Sketch  of  Fran/c/in  County.  11 

that  the  couiitiy  was  very  rapidly  settled.  The  Scotch-Irish,  that 
"  pu^Miacious  and  impracticable  race,"  as  one  of  the  early  governors 
called  them,  flowed  into  the  valley  in  vast  numbers,  and  from  1730 
to  ITS"),  settled  upon  and  improved  large  tracts  of  land  at  various 
points,  from  the  Susquehanna  to  the  southern  line  of  the  province, 
and  by  their  presence  and  well-known  attachment  to  Protestant 
modes  of  thought  and  government,  forever  put  to  rest  all  tlie 
fears  of  the  proprietaries  that  the  adherents  of  Catholic  ISlaryland 
would  ever  take  away  from  them  their  rights  along  the  southern 
boundaries  of  their  possessions. 


And  here  it  may  not,  perhaps,  be  out  of  place  to  devote  a  few 
minutes  to  the  consideration  of  the  facts  connected  with  a  question 
long  since  settled,  but  one  which  for  eighty  years  occupied  the 
attention  of  the  authorities  of  Pennsylvania  and  Maryland,  which 
led  to  much  bad  feeling  between  the  citizens  of  contiguous  territo- 
ries, to  riots,  and  even  to  bloodshed;  which,  after  many  unavailing 
attempts  at  settlement  here  in  the  New  World,  was  adjourned  to  the 
presence  of  the  King  and  his  Lords  in  Council  in  the  Old  World, 
anil  which,  long  after  the  death  of  the  original  parties  in  interest, 
the  Quaker  Penn  and  the  Cavalier  Calvert,  Lord  Baltimore,  was  on 
this  day  (the  4tli  of  July,  1760)  one  hundred  and  sixteen  years  ago, 
amicably  settled  by  their  descendants.  I  refer  to  the  boundary  line 
between  the  colonies  of  Pennsylvania  and  Maryland,  a  line  for  the 
past  one  hundred  and  nine  years  known  as  "Mason  and  Dixon's 
Line,"  because  it  was  run  and  marked  upon  the  ground  by  Charles 
Mason  and  Jeremiah  Dixon,  two  English  astronomers,  in  1767, 
under  aj)pointment  from  the  Penns  and  Lord  Baltimore.  It  forms 
the  southern  boundary  of  our  county  at  oO",  43^  26.3^'  of  north  lati- 
tude. For  one  hundied  and  thirty-two  miles,  or  to  the  eastern  base 
of  Sideling  Hill  mountain,  at  the  end  of  every  fifth  mile  a  stone  was 
l)lanted,  on  which  were  engraven  the  arms  of  the  pro2)rietors  on  the 
sides  facing  their  possessions,  respectively,  the  intermediate  miles 
being  noted  each  by  a  stone  having  M  on  the  one  side  and  P  on  the 
other.  I  have  no  doubt  many  of  you  have  seen  these  stones  scat- 
tered along  the  southern  boundary  of  our  county. 

In  order  to  understand  properly  this  long  vexed  question,  a  brief 
recurrence  to  the  history  of  the  early  settlements  made  on  our 
Atlantic  coast  will  be  necessary. 

The  knowledge  of  American  geography,  in  those  days,  was  very 
imperfect.  It  embraced  little  beyond  the  great  headlands,  bays  and 
rivers,  and  their  true  jwsitions  were  not  reliably  known.  But  the 
monarchs  of  the  Old  World,  who  cared  little  about  their  undevel- 
oped possessions  in  the  New  World,  and  who  executed  conveyances 

12  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

which  covered  the  larger  parts  of  a  continent,  assumed  that  they 
knew  all  about  the  localities  of  capes,  bays,  islands,  and  rivers  and 
towns,  and  that  the  distances  they  placed  them  apart  were  reliable. 
They  were  less  precise  in  the  location  of  points,  and  in  the  use  of 
terms  which  were  to  define  the  boundaries  of  future  States,  than  we 
are  now  in  describing  a  town  lot.  The  consequences  were  conflict- 
ing grants,  leading  to  long  and  angry  dispute,  such  as  that  which 
grew  out  of  the  conflicting  claims  arising  out  of  the  boundary  line 
between  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania. 

It  appears  that  a  certain  Captain  John  Smith,  a  bold  navigator  of 
the  early  part  of  the  17th  century,  liad  been  employed  by  the  com- 
panies to  whom  King  James  I.  of  England  had  granted  the  greater 
part  of  his  American  possessions,  to  explore  our  coast  and  make  a 
map  of  the  true  location  of  its  capes,  bays,  rivers,  &c.  Having 
finished  his  surveys,  he  returned  to  England  in  1614  and  made  out  a 
map  and  an  account  of  his  exjilorations,  which  he  presented  to  the 
King's  son,  afterwards  Charles  I.,  who  thereupon  named  the  terri- 
tory New  England. 

In  June,  1632,  King  Charles  I.  granted  to  Cecilius  Calvert  (Lord 
Baltimore)  all  the  land  from  thirty-eight  degrees  of  north  latitude 
"unto  that  part  of  Delaware  Bay  which  lieth  under  the  fortieth 
degree  of  north  latitude,  where  New  England  terminates;  and  all 
that  tract  of  land,  from  the  aforesaid  hay  of  Delaware,  in  a  right 
line,  by  the  degree  aforesaid,  to  the  true  meridian  of  the  first  foun- 
tain of  the  river  Potomac  " 

At  that  'time  the  whole  territory  within  this  grant,  with  the 
exception  of  a  small  settlement  upon  Kent's  Island,  in  the  Chesa- 
peake bay,  was  a  wilderness,  uninhabited  by  a  single  white  man. 
Captain  John  Smith's  map  was  relied  upon  in  fixing  the  boundaries 
of  Maryland,  and  for  years  afterwards  Lord  Baltimore  and  his  heirs 
paid  no  particular  attention  to  where  those  boundaries  really  were. 
The  grant  to  them  was  undoubtedly  intended  to  carry  Maryland  up 
to  New  England,  and  out  to  the  banks  of  the  Delaivare  eastward, 
and  to  the  sources  of  the  Potomac  on  the  west. 

In  1638  the  first  Swedish  colonists  landed  in  the  Delaware,  and 
bought  from  the  natives  they  found  there  rights  to  settle  along  the 
western  sliore  of  the  bay  and  the  river  up  as  high  as  the  Trenton 
Falls.  They  were  unwittingly  trespassing  upon  Lord  Baltimore's 
territory.  They  multiplied  rapidly  in  numliers,  built  forts  and 
towns,  and  were  very  successful  in  cultivating  tlie  soil  and  in 
obtaining  and  retaining  the  good  will  of  the  surrounding  Indians. 
In  1655  the  Dutch  conquered  the  Swedes,  and  annexed  their  little 
State  to  their  possessions  at  New  York. 

In  1664  King  Charles  II.  granted  New  York,  the  greater  part  of 
New  Jersey  and  Delaware,  to  his  brother,  the  Duke  of  York,  after- 
wards James  II.     So  far  as  this  grant  purported  to  give  away  the 

Historical  Sketch  of  FranJdin  County.  13 

territory'  embraced  in  the  present  State  of  Delaware,  it  was  un- 
doubtedly a  violation  of  the  grant  made  by  King  Charles  I.,  in 
1882,  to  Lord  Baltimore.  His  successor  endeavored,  without  success, 
to  have  this  grant  annulled. 

In  1681  William  Penn  obtained  his  grant  from  Charles  IT.  When 
he  petitioned  for  it,  in  IGSO,  it  was  stated  that  it  was  desired  to  lie 
west  of  the  Delaware  river,  and  north  of  Mari/land.  It  is  well 
known  that  Lord  Baltimore's  charter  was  the  model  used  by  Penn 
when  he  drafted  his  own  charter  for  Pennsylvania.  He  had  thus 
express  notice  that  Maryland  reached  to  the  Delaware  bay,  and 
included  all  the  land  abutting  thereon  "  which  lieth  under  the  fortieth 
degree  of  north  latitude,  where  New  England  terminates."  A  degree 
of  latitude  is  not  a  mere  line,  but  is  a  definite  quantity,  or  belt,  upon 
the  earth's  surface,  of  sixty-nine  and  a-half  statute  miles  in  width, 
and  nothing  short  of  the  northern  end  of  those  sixty-nine  and  a-half 
miles  will  complete  a  degree  of  latitude.  Therefore,  the  end  of  the 
northern  boundary  of  INIaryland  undoubtedly  was  where  the  forty- 
first  degree  of  north  latitude  commenced,  for  the  Neiv  England 
grant  was  f)-om  the  fortieth  degree. 

But  where  was  the  fortieth  degree  of  north  latitude  believed  to  be 
in  1632,  when  Lord  Baltimore's  grant  was  made;  and  in  1681,  when 
William  Penn  received  his  grant?  In  making  these  grants,  history 
says  Captain  Smith's  map  of  1614  was  used,  and  was  believed  to  be 
correct.  By  that  map  the  fortieth  degree  is  laid  down  as  crossing 
the  Delaware  a  little  below  where  New  Castle  stands,  whilst  its  true 
location  is  now  known  to  be  a  little  over  nineteen  miles  north  of 
that  point,  and  above  the  citi/  of  Philadelphia. 

This  error  was  not  discovei'ed  until  in  the  year  1682.  Its  conse- 
<juences  upon  their  respective  claims  and  rights  was  at  once  seen  and 
duly  estimated  by  the  parties  most  deeply  interested— Penn,  Lord 
Baltimore  and  the  Duke  of  York.  The  former  was  most  deeply  dis- 
appointed—Lord Baltimore  was  elated — the  Duke  of  York  was 
rather  indifferent.  He  was  near  the  throne,  being  the  next  heir  to  it, 
and  feared  not  the  result.  Besides,  he  was  in  possession.  It  was  thus 
power  against  parchment  as  far  as  he  was  concerned.  Penn  concluded 
that  might  would  eventually  become  right.  He  bought  the  Duke  of 
York's  title.  A  long  contest  of  eightj^  years  followed.  King 
Charles  died  in  1685,  and  the  Duke  of  ITork  succeeded  him  as 
James  II.  Lord  Baltimore  had  nothing  to  expect  in  that  (juarter. 
In  June,  1691,  William  III.  annulled  the  charter  of  Maryland, 
and  constituted  the  colony  a  royal  province,  of  which  he  appointed 
Sir  Lionel  Copley  Governor.  In  1715  Benedict  Charles  Calvert, 
the  fourth  Lord  Baltimore,  obtained  from  King  George  I.  a  restora- 
tion of  his  rights.  In  1718  William  Penn  <lied,  and  the  boundary 
line  contest  went  on  year  after  year,  each  party  claiming  authority 
over,  and  granting  lands  in  the  disputed   territory,  until   the  year 

1-1  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

173S,  when  the  heirs  of  Penn  and  Lord  Baltimore  made  an  agree- 
ment whereby  the  lines  between  the  two  provinces,  known  to  sur- 
veyors and  in  history  as  the  "Temporary  Line,"  was  established. 
That  agreement  provided  that  Eant  of  the  Susquehanna  river  the 
line  should  be,  until  finally  settled,  fifteen  and  one-quarter  miles 
south  of  the  most  southern  part  of  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  and 
Went  of  the  Susquehanna  to  the  western  end  of  the  line,  at  a  point 
fourteen  a7id  three-quarter  miles  south  of  the  most  southern  part  of 
the  said  city  ;  and  that  the  holders  of  lands  on  either  side  of  the  line 
should  not  be  disturbed  in  their  titles,  whether  granted  by  the 
Penns  or  Lord  Baltimore.  This  agreement  quieted  disputes  about 
all  previous  grants  of  land  north  and  south  of  the  disputed  line,  but 
did  not  determine  exactly  where  the  true  line  should  be  fixed  for 
the  future  ;  and  over  that  the  contest  went  on  until  the  4th  of  July, 
17(50—116  years  ago,  when  a  compromise,  as  I  have  already  stated, 
was  effected,  which  settled  the  true  boundary  and  saved  to  Pennsyl- 
vania a  strip  of  territory  along  her  southern  line,  from  the  Dela- 
ware to  the  Laurel  Hills,  over  nineteen  miles  in  width,  embracing 
hundreds  of  thousands  of  acres  of  the  best  and  most  beautiful  and 
productive  lands  of  the  State.  To  that  great  compromise  are  we  as 
Pennsylvanians  indebted  that  Philadelphia,  Chester,  Media,  West 
Chester,  York,  Gettysburg,  Chambersburg,  and  a  hundred  other 
towns  and  villages  are  not  Maryland  towns,  and  we  citizens  of  the 
South,  and  perhaps  rebels— hoping  yet  for  the  ultimate  triumph  of 
the  "Lost  Cause,"  and  hoping  also  that  Congress  will  soon  pay  us 
for  our  slaves  fi;mancipated  by  the  late  war  for  the  Right. 


The  precise  dates  at  which  settlers  began  to  locate  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  Greencastle,  Welsh  Run,  Merccrsburg,  Loudon,  Strasburg, 
Rocky  Spring,  Shippensburg,  Middle  Spring,  Big  Spring,  Silvers' 
Spring,  and  other  points  towards  the  Susquehanna  are  not  known, 
as  in  many  cases  the  earlier  records  of  even  the  churches  of  the 
valley  are  lost ;  but  they  must  have  been  commenced  between  the 
years  1730  and  1735,  for  within  a  few  years  afterwards  Presbyterian 
congregations  were  organized  at  nearly  all  these  places.  Wherever 
the  Scotch-Irishman  went,  one  of  his  first  efforts,  after  locating,  was 
to  secure  the  stated  preaching  of  the  gospel,  (through  the  organiza- 
tion of  a  congregation  of  his  faith),  and  by  the  year  1740  Presby- 
terian churches  were  found  dotted  over  the  broad  bosom  of  this 
valley,  almost  invariably  in  a  grove  of  shady  trees,  and  near  a  spring 
of  pure,  crystal  water. 

"Their  pews  of  unpainted  pine,  straight-backed  and  tall  ; 

Their  gal'ries  mounted  high,  three  sides  around  ; 
Their  pulpits  goblet-shaped,  half  up  the  wall. 

With  sounding-board  above,  with  acorn  crowned." 


n  i 


Ifi  Jlistorleal  Sketch  of  FranhUn  County. 

17-11 £     9      3s.  2(1. 

1742 8  18  2 

1743 19  10  7 

1744 22      4  7 

1745 IG  14  8 

1746 14  13  8 

1747 11       1  2 

1748 7  19  4 

1749 21  18  8 


Oil  the  29th  day  of  January,  1750,  the  county  of  Cumberland  was 
formed.  It  embraced  all  the  lands  in  the  State  westward  of  the 
Su8(iuehanna  and  the  South  Mountain,  and  included  all  of  Fulton 
and  Bedford  counties.  Tliere  were  then  in  the  Cumberland  Valley 
between  eight  hundred  and  one  thousand  taxables,  and  the  whole 
population  was  between  three  and  four  thousand.  Tlie  courts  were 
first  held  at  Shippensburg,  but  were  removed  to  Carlisle  in  1751, 
after  tliat  town  was  laid  out.  All  the  settlements  in  the  valley  were 
of  inconsiderable  size— mere  straggling  villages— containing  each 
but  a  few  houses  and  a  small  number  of  people. 

According  to  "Rupp's  History  of  the  Six  Counties,"  the  taxables 
in  the  various  townships  of  Cumberland  county,  now  embraced  in 
our  county,  were  then  as  follows— viz  : 

In  Lurgan, 174 

"    Antrim, 133 

"    Peters,  167 

"    Guilford, 31 

"    Hamilton, 42 

Total,  547 

The  settlers  were  at  their  various  "improvements"  scattered  all 
over  the  country,  busily  engaged,  each  for  himself,  in  erecting  his 
necessary  buildings  and  bringing  the  soil  under  fence  and  cultiva- 
tion. The  Indians  had  removed  beyond  the  western  mountains, 
and  only  occasionally  returned  in  small  numbers  to  see  their  for- 
mer possessions  and  trade  off  their  peltries  with  its  possessors. 
Peace  and  friendship  had  reigned  for  time  beyond  the  memory  of  the 
oldest  inhabitant  of  the  land. 


But  this  desirable  condition  of  things  was  fast  hastening  to  a  close. 
War  had  existed  between  England  and  France  for  six  years,  having 
been  declared  by  both  nations  in  1744.  The  settlers  of  this  valley 
had  not  yet  felt  any  of  its  disastrous  consequences  because  of  their 
inland   location.     It  is  true  that  in  1748  they  had  associated   them- 

Historical  Sketch  of  FranMin   County.  17 

selves  together  for  the  support  of  their  home  and  foreign  govern- 
ments, and  had  elected  Ennjamin  Chambers,  Esq.,  their  Colonel, 
Robert  Dunning,  Xhaiv  Lifutenant  Colonel,  and  William  Maxwell, 
their  Major.     Loyalty  to  King  and  country  filled  every  bosom. 

But  their  danger  was  not  to  come  from  the  east,  but  from  the  far 
west.  The  cruel  Indian,  at  the  instigation,  and  often  under  the 
leadership  of  equally  cruel  and  crafty  Frenchmen,  who  had  repudi- 
ated every  common  characteristic  of  their  nationality,  were  to 
lay  their  homes  in  ashes  aud  slaughter  their  helpless  wives  and 
innocent  children,  in  the  hope  that  the  pathway  of  American  em- 
pire westward  might  thereby  be  stayed.  Vain  hope  !  Though  their 
outrages  commenced  by  isolated  abductions  and  murders  in  1752, 
they  became  more  fearful  and  more  horrible  in  1753  and  1754,  and 
culminated  in  1755,  by  the  disastrous  defeat  and  slaughter  of  Gen- 
eral Braddock  and  the  flower  of  the  English  army — and  though  the 
hills  and  valleys  of  this  fair  land,  from  the  Susquehanna  to  far 
down  beyond  the  Potomac,  were  swept  by  fire  and  drenched  with 
blood — yet  the  hardy  settlers  rallied  to  the  contest,  and  after  sending 
their  families  to  places  of  safety,  under  the  leadership  of  Col.  Arm- 
strong, Col.  Potter,  Captain  Smith,  Rev.  John  Steele,  and  other  gal- 
lant spirits,  gave  back  blow  for  blow.  Hundreds  of  lives  were  lost, 
and  the  greatest  distress  everywhere  prevailed.  Sa.ys  Gordon,  in  his 
history  of  Pennsylvania:  "In  the  fall  of  1755  the  country  west  of 
the  Susquehanna  had  3,000  men  in  it  fit  to  bear  arms,  and  in  Au- 
gust 1756,  exclusive  of  the  Provincial  forces,  there  were  not  one 
hundred  left. 


The  war  raged  for  twelve  years.  During  this  period  the  following 
forts  were  built  in  this  and  the  adjoining  valleys,  viz.  : 

Fort  Louther,  at  Carlisle, 1753 

"     Le  Tort,    "        "  1753 

"     Crogan,  in  Cumberland  county,        .        .        .  1754 

"     Morriss,  at  Shippensburg,         ....  1755 
"     Steele,  at  the  "White  Church,".      ...  " 

"     Loudon,  near  Loudon, 1756 

"     M'Dowell,  near  Bridgeport,      ....  " 

"     M'Cord,  near  Parnell's  Knob,  ...  " 

"     Chambers,  at  Chambersburg,  ...  " 

"     Davis,  near  Maryland  line,  at  Davis'  Knob,  " 

"     Franklin,  at  Shippensburg,       ....  " 

"     Lyttleton,  in  Fulton  county,    ....  " 

"     Armstrong,  nortli-east  of  Loudon,  .        .  1764 

"     Dickey,  Cumberland  county,  ...  " 

"     Ferguson,  "  "  .        .        .        .  " 

"     M'Callister,  near  Roxbury,        ....  " 

"     M'Connell,  south  of  Strasburg,       ...  " 


18  ITistorical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

besides  a  number  of  other  private  fortifications  at  various  otlier 
points,  of  which  very  little  is  now  known. 

A  brief  description  of  one  of  these  forts  (Louther,  at  Carlisle) 
will  give  a  fair  idea  of  the  manner  in  which  they  were  nearly  all 
constructed  : 

Around  the  area  to  be  embraced  within  the  fort  a  ditch  was  dug 
to  the  depth  of  about  four  feet.  In  this  oak  logs— or  logs  of  some 
other  kind  of  timber  not  easily  set  on  fire— or  cut  through,  and 
about  seventeen  or  eighteen  feet  long,  pointed  at  the  top,  were  placed 
in  an  upright  position.  Two  sides  of  the  logs  were  hewn  flat,  and 
the  sides  were  brought  close  together  and  fastened  securely  near  the 
top,  by  horizontal  pieces  of  limber  spiked  or  pinned  upon  their 
inner  sides,  so  as  to  make  the  whole  stockade  firm  and  staunch. 
The  ditch  having  been  filled  up  again,  platforms  were  constructed 
all  around  the  inner  sides  of  the  enclosure  some  four  or  five  feet 
from  the  ground,  and  upon  these  the  defenders  stood,  and  fired 
through  loop  holes  left  near  the  top  of  the  stockade,  upon  those  who 
were  investing  or  attacking  the  fort.  A  few  gates  were  left  in  the 
stockade  for  ingress  and  egress,  and  they  were  made  as  strong  and 
secure,  and  as  capable  of  defence  as  the  means  of  those  within 
would  enable  them  to  make  them.  Within  these  forts  the  people  of 
the  surrounding  districts  of  country  were  often  compelled  to  fly  for 
protection  from  the  tomahawks  and  scalping  knives  of  the  savages 
when  they  made  their  forays  into  the  frontier  settlements  of  this  and 
the  neighboring  valleys.  One  of  these  forts  in  our  county  (Mc- 
Cord's,  near  Parnell's  Knob)  was  captured  by  the  Indians  on  or 
about  the  4th  of  April,  1756,  and  burned,  and  all  the  inmates,  twenty- 
seven  in  number,  were  either  killed  or  carried  into  captivity. 


In  1755  instructions  were  given  by  the  proprietaries  to  their  agents 
that  they  should  take  especial  care  to  encourage  the  emigration^  of 
Irishmen  to  Cumberland  county',  and  send  all  the  German  emi- 
grants, if  possible,  to  York  county.  The  mingling  of  the  two  races  in 
Lancaster  county,  they  said,  had  been  productive  of  bad  consequen- 
ces by  causing  ill  feelings  and  serious  riots,  when  they  came  together 
at  elections.  Nearly  all  the  people  in  this  valley  then  were  Irish, 
and  those  known  as  Scotch-Irish,  and  hence,  perhaps,  it  was  the 
part  of  wisdom  in  the  proiirietaries  to  desire  to  have  those  of  one 
blood,  and  nationality,  and  religious  feeling,  togedier.  They  were 
also,  almost  all  of  them,  Presbyterians  of  the  real  "blue-stocking" 

The  term  "Scotch-Irish"  originated  in  this  wise.  In  the  time  of 
James  I.  of  England,  who,  as  is  well  known,  was  a  Scotch  Presby- 
terian, the  Irish  Earls  of  Tyrone  and  Tyrconnell  conspired  against 

Historical  SkcMi  of  FravJdln  County.  19 

his  government,  lied  from  Ireland,  were  outlawed,  and  their  es- 
tates, consistins:  of  about  o00,(1O0  acres  of  land,  were  seized  by  the 
crown.  King  James  divided  these  lands  into  small  tracts  and"  gave 
them  ti)  persons  from  his  own  country  (Scotland)  because  they  were 
Protestants,  on  tlie  sole  condition  that  tliey  should  cross  over  into 
Ireland  within  four  years  and  locate  upon  them.  A  second  insur- 
rection soon  after  gave  occasion  for  anotber  large  forfeiture,  and 
nearly  six  counties  in  the  province  of  Ulster  were  confiscated'  and 
taken  possession  of  by  the  officers  of  the  government.  The  King 
was  a  zealous  sectarian,  and  his  primary  object  was  to  root  out  tlie 
native  Irish,  who  were  all  Catholics,  liostile  to  his  government,  and 
almost  constantly  engaged  in  plotting  against  it,  and  to  re-people  the 
country  with  those  wiiom  he  knew  would  be  loyal.  The  distance 
from  Scotland  to  the  county  Antrim,  in  Ireland,  was  but  twenty 
miles.  The  lands  thu.-^  ofFered  free  of  cost  were  among  the  best  and 
most  productive  in  the  Emerald  Isle,  thougij  blasted  and  made  barren 
by  the  troubles  of  the  times  and  the  indolence  of  a  degraded  jieas- 
antry.  Having  the  power  of  the  government  to  encourage  and  pro- 
tect them,  the  inducements  ofTered  to  the  industrious  Scotch  could 
not  he  resisted.  Thousands  went  over.  Many  of  them,  though  not 
•  Lords,  were  LaircU,  and  all  of  them  were  men  of  enterprise  and 
energy,  and  above  the  average  in  intelligence.  They  went  to  work 
to  restore  the  land  to  fruitfulness,  and  to  show  the  superiority  of 
their  habits  and  belief  to  those  of  the  natives  among  whom  they 
settled.  They  soon  made  the  counties  of  Ayifrim,  Armagh,  Caven, 
Donegal,  Down,  Fermanagh,  Londonderry,  Monaghan,  and' Tyrone 
(names  all  fiimiliar  to  Pennsylvania  ears)  to  blossom  as  the  rose. 

These  were  the  first  Protestants  introduced  into  Ireland.  Thev 
at  once  secured  the  ascendancy  in  the  counties  in  which  they  settled, 
and  their  descendants  have  maintained  that  ascendancy  to  the  pres- 
ent day  against,  the  efTorts  of  the  Government  Church  on  the  one 
liand,  and  the  Romanists  on  the  other.  They  did  not  intermarry 
with  the  Irish  who  surrounded  them.  The  Scotch  were  Saxon  in 
blood  and  Presbyterian  in  religion,  whilst  tlie  Irish  were  Celtic  in 
blood  and  Roman  Catholic  in  religion,  and  these  were  elements 
that  would  not  readily  coalesce.  Hence  the  races  are  as  distinct  in 
Ireland  to-day,  after  a  lapse  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  years,  as  when 
the  Scotcli  first  crossed  over.  The  term  "Scotch-Irish"  is  purely 
American.  In  Ireland  it  is  not  used,  and  here  it  was  given  to  the 
Protestant  emigrants  from  the  north  of  Ireland  simply  becansethey 
were  the  descendants  of  the  Scots,  who  had  in  former  times  taken 
up  their  residence  there. 

But  in  after  times  persecutions  fell  upon  their  descendants,  under 
Catholic  governments,  and  during  the  century  preceding  the  date 
of  which  I  am  speaking-or  from  l(jfj4  to  17()4— large  numbers  had 
emigrated  from  the  north  of  Ireland  and  settled  in  New  Jersey , Mary- 

20  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

land  and  North  Carolina;  and  when  William  Penn  founded  his 
government  here,  and  off'^red  free  lands,  free  opinions,  free  worship, 
and  freedom  to  choose  their  own  rules,  and  make  their  own  laws, 
and  regulate  their  own  taxes,  to  all  who  would  come  hither,  thou- 
sands upon  thousands,  often  embracing  nearly  whole  neighborhoods, 
for  the  reasons  given,  and  because  of  the  high  rents  demanded  by 
their  landlords,  as  fast  as  they  could  get  away,  hastened  to  accept 
the  invitation,  and  year  after  year  the  tide  rolled  westward,  until  it 
almost  looked  as  if  those  parts  of  Ii-eland  were  to  be  depopulated. 
In  September,  1736,  alone,  one  thousand  families  sailed  from  Belfast, 
because  of  their  inability  to  renew  their  leases  upon  satisfactory 
terms,  and  the  most  of  them  came  to  the  eastern  and  middle  coun- 
ties of  Pennsylvania.  They  h(tped  by  a  change  of  residence  to  find 
a  freer  field  for  the  exercise  of  their  industry  and  skill,  and  for  the 
enjoyment  of  their  religious  opinions.  They  brought  with  them  a 
hatred  of  opi^ression,  and  a  love  of  freedom  in  its  fullest  measure, 
that  served  much  to  give  that  independent  tone  to  the  sentiments  of 
our  people  which  prevailed  in  their  controversies  with  their  home 
and  foreign  governments  years  before  they  seriously  thought  of  in- 

They  filled  up  this  valley.  They  cut  down  its  forests,  and  brought 
its  fair  lands  under  cultivation.  They  fought  the  savage  and  stood 
as  a  wall  of  fire  against  his  farther  forays  eastward.  Between  1771 
and  1773,  over  twenty-five  thousand  of  them  (all  Presbyterians) 
came  hither,  driven  from  the  places  of  their  birth  by  the  rapacity  of 
their  landlords.  This  was  just  before  our  revolutionary  war,  and 
whilst  the  angry  controversies  that  preceded  it  were  taking  place 
between  the  American  colonies  and  the  English  government,  and 
these  emigrants,  upon  their  arrival  here,  were  just  in  that  frame  of 
mind  that  was  needed  to  make  them  take  the  part  they  did  with  the 
patriots  in  favor  of  liberty  and  independence  of  the  mother  country. 

The  Scotch-Irish,  in  the  struggle  for  national  independence,  were 
ever  to  be  found  on  the  side  of  the  colonies.  A  tory  was  unheard  of 
amongst  them.  I  doubt  if  the  race  ever  produced  one.  Pennsyl- 
vania owes  much  of  what  she  is  to-day  to  the  fact  that  so  many  of 
this  race  settled  within  her  borders  as  early  as  they  did.  They  were 
our  military  leaders  in  all  times  of  danger,  and  they  were  among 
our  most  prominent  law-makers  in  the  earliest  days  of  the  colony, 
and  through  and  after  the  long  and  bitter  struggle  for  freedom  and 
human  rights.  They  helped  to  make  our  constitutions  and  to  frame 
our  fundamental  laws;  they  furnished  the  nation  with  five  Presi- 
dents, and  our  State  with  seven  Governors,  many  United  States 
Senators,  Congressmen,  Judges,  and  others  eminent  in  all  the  avo- 
cations of  life.  The  names  of  these  patriots  and  wise  men,  as  well 
as  the  names  of  many  of  their  descendants,  are  familiar  words,  not 
only  here  but  throughout  the  Union  ;  and  none  of  the  many  diverse 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franldin  Couyitt/.  21 

nationaMtics  of  which  this  great  people  is  composed,  did  more  for 
the  national  jj^ood,  jirosperity  ami  glory,  than  those  known  as  the 
"Scotch-Irish,"  and  their  descendants. 


In  those  days  the  chief  route  of  communication  from  Philadel- 
phia and  the  eastern  i)arts  of  the  colony  to  the  west,  was  up  this 
valley  to  Shippensburg,  thence  by  the  old  military  road  across  to 
Fort  Loudon,  thence  over  the  mountains  to  Bedford,  an.i  thence  lo 
Fort  Cumberland.  All  transportation  was  done  by  pack  horses, 
each  carrying  about  200  pounds.  Sir  John  Sinclair,  Quarter  Master 
General  of  General  Braddock,  moved  much  of  his  supplies  by  that 
route,  and  had  one  of  his  principal  magazines  at  M'Dowell's  mill, 
or  fort.  And  after  Braddock's  defeat  a  large  part  of  his  dispirited 
and  destitute  troops  returned  by  that  route,  and  were  quartered  at 
Shippensburg  and  Carlisle.  In  1755  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania 
made  a  broad  wagon  road  from  F  rt  Loudon  westward,  which  Gen- 
eral Forbes  and  Colonel  Bouquet  and  others  used  in  their  western 
expeditions.  Upon  that  road,  for  the  greater  part  of  its  length,  the 
present  Chambersburg  and  Pittsburg  turnpike  was  built. 

Colonel  Samuel  Miles,  in  his  manus  ript,  says: 

"In  the  year  1758,  the  expedition  aiiainst  P\)rt  Du  Quesne,  now 
Pittsburg,  was  undertaken,  and  our  batallion  joined  the  British 
army  at  Carlisle.  At  this  time  Captain  Lloyd  had  been  promoted 
to  the  rank  of  Lieutenant  Colonel,  but  retained  his  company,  of 
which  I  had  the  command  as  Captain  Lieutenant,  and  was  left  some 
time  in  command  of  the  garrison  at  Shippensburg.  On  my  march- 
ing from  thence  with  a  brigade  of  wagons  under  my  charge,  at 
Chambers',  about  eleven  miles  from  Shippensburg,  the  men  muti- 
nied, and  were  preparing  to  march,  but  by  my  reasoning  with  them, 
and  at  the  sa;r.e  time  threaterjing  them,  the  most  of  them  consented 
to  resume  their  match  to  Fort  Loudon,  where  Lieutenant  Scott  was 
with  eight  or  ten  months'  pay.  While  the  army  lay  at  Ligonier, 
we  were  attacked  by  a  body  of  French  and  Indians,  and  I  was 
wounded  on  the  foot  by  a  spent  ball.  In  November  of  this  year 
(November  25th,  1758)  the  army  took  possession  of  Fort  Du  Quesne, 
under  the  command  of  General  Forbes, a  poor,  emaciated  old  man, who 
for  the  most  part  of  the  march  was  obliged  to  be  carried  in  a  horse 
litter.  In  the  year  1759  I  was  stationed  at  Ligonier,  and  had 
twenty-five  picked  men,  out  of  the  two  batallions  under  my  com- 
n)aiid."  Miles''  Manuscript,  second  volume,  new  edition  of  Penn- 
sylvania Archives,  pages  559-60. 

This  extract  establishes  the  fact  that,  as  earlj'  as  1758,  transporta- 
tion by  wagons  was  also  done  from  Shippensburg,  past  Mr.  Cham- 
bers' settlement  to  Fort  Loudon,  though  there  wasanotherand  older 
route  across  the  country,  directly  between  those  points. 

22  Historical  Sketch  of  FranJcJin   County. 


In  1764  Benjamin  ('hambers  laid  out  his  town  of  Chanibersbiirg 
at  this  point.  The  settlement,  though  over  thirty  years  old  then, 
must  still  have  been  quite  small.  The  town  plot  was  south  of  the 
Falling  Spring  and  east  of  the  Conoeocheague,  and  looked  more  for 
a  southern  than  a  western  extension,  as  is  evidenced  by  the  improve- 
ments towards  the  south.  Colonel  Chambers,  in  his  advertisement 
in  the  Pennsylvania  Gazette,  \-)Y\nte(\  at  Philadelphia,  in  1764,  in 
which  he  announced  that  the  dmwlm/  for  lots  in  his  new  town 
would  take  place  on  the  28th  of  June,  inst.,  says  that  "it  is  situated 
in  a  ivelt  timbered  part  of  the  country."  This  statement  made  on  ly 
thirty-four  years  after  he  settled  in  the  county,  strongly  negatives 
the  traditionary  report  that  when  the  first  settlements  were  made  in 
this  valley  it  was  a.  prairie  country,  devoid  of  timber,  except  along 
the  streams. 


It  was  to  be  expected  when  the  first  nnitterings  of  our  revolution- 
ary contest  were  heard,  that  the  Scotch- Irish  people  of  this  valley 
would  be  amongst  tlie  earliest  to  rise  up  against  the  threatened  op- 
pression, and  prepare  for  the  struggle.  Accordingly,  we  find  that  as 
early  as  the  12th  of  July,  1774,  the  citizens  of  Cumberland  county  met 
at  Carlisle,  John  Montgomery,  Esq.,  of  Irish  nativity,  in  the  chair, 
and  adopted  resolutions  condemning  the  act  of  Parliament  closing 
the  port  of  Boston,  recommending  a  General  Congress  from  all  the 
Colonies,  the  abandonment  of  the  use  of  British  merchandise,  and 
appointing  deputies  to  concert  measures  for  the  meetingof  the  Gen- 
eral Congress.  The  news  of  the  battles  of  Lexington  and  Concord, 
fought  on  the  19th  of  April,  1775,  was  received  with  a  thrill  of  in- 
dignation all  over  Pennsylvania.  In  the  distant  county  of  Cum- 
berland, the  war  cry  was  no  sooner  sounded  than  its  freemen  rallied 
in  thousands  for  military  organization  and  association,  in  defence  of 
their  rights.  A  writer  in  the  American  Archives,  volume  2,  page 
516,  dated  Carlisle,  May  6th,  1775,  says:  "Yesterday  the  County 
Committe-  from  nineteen  townships  met,  on  the  short  notice  they 
had.  About  3000  men  have  already  associated.  The  arms  returned 
are  about  fifteen  hundred.  The  committee  have  voted  five  hundred 
efficient  men,  besides  commissioned  officers,  to  be  taken  into  pay, 
armed  and  disciplined,  to  march  on  the  first  emergency  ;  to  be  paid 
and  supported  as  long  as  necessary,  by  a  tax  on  all  estates,  real  and 
personal."  Next  morning  they  met  again,  and  votetl  that  they 
were  ready  to  raise  fifteen  hundred  or  two  thousand  men,"  should 
they  be  needed,  and  put  a  debt  of  £27,000  per  annum  upon  the 
county.     That  was  doing  nobly  for  a  poor  backwoods  county. 

During  the  summer  of  1775  various  companies  from  the  county  of 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  23 

Cumberland  marched  to  join  the  army  of  Washington  at  the  soige 
of  Boston.  One  was  from  this  place,  under  the  command  of  James 
Chambers.  Captain  Chambers  was  in  a  short  time  made  a  Colonel, 
and  he,  and  the  company  he  took  from  here,  remained  in  the  ser- 
vice until  near  the  close  of  the  revolutionary  war. 

The  Pennsylvania  Assembly,  in  November,  1775,  appointed  dele- 
gates to  represent  the  Province  in  Congress,  and  expressly  instructed 
them  "that  they,  in  behalf  of  this  colony,  dissent  from  and  utterly 
reject  any  propositions,  should  such  be  made,  that  may  cause  or 
lead  to  a  sipparation  from  our  mother  countrj^  or  a  change  of  the 
form  of  this  government." 


On  the  18th  of  June,  1776,  a  Provincial  Conference  of  committees 
of  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania,  met  at  Carpenter's  Hall,  in  the 
city  of  Philadelphia.  Cumberland  county  sent  the  following  depu- 
ties to  that  conference,  viz.  :  James  M'Lene,  Colonel  John  Allison, 
John  M'Clay,  Dr.  John  Calhoun,  John  Creigh,  Hugh  M'Cormick, 
William  Elliott,  Colonel  William  Clark,  John  Harris,  Hugh  Alex- 
ander. Of  these,  we  know  that  Messrs.  M'Lane,  Allison,  M'Clay, 
Calhoun  and  Creigh,  were  from  this  county,  and  perhaps  some  of 
the  others  also. 

That  conference,  on  the  19th  of  June,  1776,  Resolved  "that  a  con- 
vention should  be  called  to  form  a  new  government,  on  the  author- 
ity of  the  peo)>le  only;"  and  on  the  24th  of  June,  adopted  unani- 
mously, an  address  to  Congress,  in  which  they  declared  that  on  be- 
half of  the  people  of  Pennsylvania  they  were  "willing  to  concur  in 
a  vote  of  Congress  declaring  the  United  Colonies  free  and  independ- 
ent states." 


The  people  of  Cumberland  county,  of  all  nationalities,  Irish,  Ger- 
man, and  English,  were  among  the  first  to  form  the  opinion  that 
the  safety  and  welfare  of  the  colonies  did  render  separation  from 
the  mother  country  necessary;  and  on  the  28th  of  May,  1776,  i^re- 
sented  their  memorial  to  the  Colonial  Assembly,  setting  forth  their 
opinions  and  asking  "that  the  instructions  given  to  the  Pennsyl- 
vania delegates  in  the  Coutinental  Congress,  in  1775,  to  opjiose  any 
action  that  might  lead  to  a  separation  from  Great  Britain,  rnay  6e 
tvithdrawn,^''  and  the  instructions  were  withdrawn,  and  our  dele- 
gates in  Congress  allowed  to  vote  as  they  thought  the  best  interests 
of  the  country  required. 

The  County  Committee,  in  a  letter  to  the  President  of  Congress, 
dated  August  16th,  1776,  said  :  "The  twrlftJi  company  of  our  militia 
marched  to-day,  and  six  companies  more  are  collecting  arms  and 

24  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County, 

are  preparing  to  march."  All  this  was  done  in  six  weeks  after  in- 
dependence was  declared.  The  following  persons  commanded  thir- 
teen of  those  companies,  viz. :  John  Steele,  Samuel  Postlethwaite, 
Andrew  Galbreath,  Samuel  M'Cune, Thomas  Turbott,  James  M'Con- 
nell,  William  Huston,  Thomas  Clarke,  John  Hutton,  Robert  Cul- 
bertson,  Charles  Lecher,  Conrad  Schneider,  Lieutenant  Colonel 
Frederick  Watts.  These  all,  officers  and  men,  were  inured  to  hard- 
ship and  experienced  in  warfare,  and  but  a  few  days  were  required  to 
get  ready  to  meet  their  country's  enemies  wherever  their  services  were 
required  ;  and  during  the  whole  revolutionary  contest  the  people  of 
the  Cumberland  valley  did  their  full  share  in  raising  men  and  money 
for  the  public  service,  and  I  have  referred  to  their  conduct  and  servi- 
ces because  we,  of  the  county  of  Franklin,  althougli  not  then  organ- 
ized as  a  county,  are  justly  entitled  to  a  i)art  of  the  honor  of  their 
deeds,  and  because  I  look  upon  their  deeds  as  part  of  the  history  of 
our  county. 

The  Revolutionary  War  was  closed  by  the  Treaty  of  Paris,  between 
Great  Britain  and  the  "United  States  of  America,"  signed  on  the 
30th  of  November,  1782,  which  was  ratified  by  Congress  in  April, 
1783,  and  during  its  continuance  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania 
contributed  its  full  share  of  men  and  money  towards  the  carrying  on 
of  the  contest.  Of  the  latter  essential,  {money),  I  see  by  the  accounts 
of  the  Provincial  Treasurer,  the  county  of  Cumberland  was  called 
upon  to  furnish  the  following,  viz. : 

Her  quota  of  the  five  million  tax,         .        £17,225  18s.  6d. 

fifteen  "  .  111,968  10  3 

"       y     "        forty-five      "  .  159,o5o      2  6 

"  "        firsteii^'ht  monthly  taxes,    638,220  10  0 

second     "  "  638,220  10  0 

£1,565,190  lis.  3d. 
It  was  impossible  for  the  people  of  the  county  of  Cumberland  to 
pay  all  this  immense  taxation,  and  from  the  same  authority,  out  of 
which  I  have  copied  the  above  statement,  I  learn  that  on  the  first 
of  October,  1782,  the  county  owed  thereon  £442,463,  17s.,  5d.,  in  Con- 
tinental money,  equal  to  £16,986,  2s.,  9d.  of  State  money,  of  the 
value  in  specie,  of  £5,899,  18s.,  lid.  Whether  this  debt  was  ever 
paid,  I  know  not.  I  only  now  refer  to  it  to  show  the  vast  difference 
that  then  existed  between  the  paper  money  of  the  country  and 


On  the  9th  day  of  September,  1784,  an  act  of  Assembly  was  passed 
erecting  the  county  of  out  of  the  south-western  part  of 
the  county  of  Cumberland,  leaving  all  of  Hopewell  township  in 
Cumberland   county.     The  act  of  Assembly  gives  the  following  as 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  25 

the  boundary  line  between  the  two  counties,  viz.  :  "Beginning  on 
the  York  (now  Adams)  county  line,  in  the  South  mountain,  at  the 
intersection  of  the  lines  between  Lurgan  and  Hopewell  townships, 
thence  by  the  line  of  Lurgan  township  (leaving  Shippensburg  to 
the  eastward  of  the  same)  to  the  line  of  Fannett  township;  and 
thence  by  the  lines  of  the  last  mentioned  township  (including  the 
same)  to  the  line  of  Bedford  county." 

Nothing  is  said  about  dividing  Hopewell  township,  and  it  must 
therefore  have  all  been  left  in  Cumberland  county.  There  were,  how- 
ever, some  doubts  about  the  line  near  the  town  of  Shippensburg,  and 
on  the29th  of  March.  1790,  an  act  was  passed  defining  that  partof  the 
line  and  declaring  that  it  should  run  "  so  as  to  leave  the  tract  of  land 
belonging  to  the  late  Edward  Shippen,  Esq.,  whereon  the  town  of 
Shippensburg  is  erected,  within  the  county  of  Cumberland." 

The  proposition  for  the  erection  of  a  new  county  had  agitated  the 
public  mind  for  some  time.  At  the  July  session  of  the  General 
Assembly,  in  the  year  1784,  a  petition  was  presented,  signed  by  John 
Rannells,  John  Johnston,  James  M'Cammont,  John  Scott,  Dr. 
George  Clingin,  Samuel  Royer,  Pat.  Campbell,  Patrick  Vance,  Nat. 
M'Dowell,  Richard  Brownson,  Geo.  Matthews,  Oliver  Brown,  Jas. 
Campbell,  Thos.  Campbell,  John  Colhoun,  Joiin  HoUiday,  John 
Crawford,  Josiah  Crawford,  Edward  Crawford,  John  Boggs,  Jere- 
miah Talbot,  William  Rannells,  Joseph  Armstrong,  James  Broth- 
erton,  Benjamin  Chambers,  Benjamin  Chambers,  Jr.,  Joseph 
Chambers,  James  Chambers,  William  Chambers,  and  a  large  num- 
ber of  other  citizens,  asking  that  the  division  line  should  be  fixed 
at  the  Big  spring,  or  where  Newville  now  is,  so  as  to  put  Hopewell 
township  in  this  county;  and  asking  the  Legislature  to  fix  the 
county  seat  "at  the  most  suitable  and  convenient  place"— which  to 
them,  of  course,  would  be  at  Chambersburg. 

The  contemplated  act  of  Assembly  had  been  published,  and  was 
not  satisfactory  to  the  people  of  Lurgan  townshii),  for  at  the  next 
session  of  the  Assembly,  held  on  the  21st  of  August,  1784,  one  hun- 
dred of  them  remonstrated  against  its  passage  "because  the  militia 
batallion  and  the  religious  society  to  which  they  belonged  would  be 
divided  and  thrown  into  different  counties,  and  the  social  inter- 
course requisite  in  these  respects,  would  be  greatly  obstructed,"  not 
to  mention  the  burdens  that  would  grow  out  of  the  erection  of  a 
new  court  house,  prison,  «&c.  They  therefore  asked  to  be  left 
within  the  boundaries  of  Cumberland  county. 

The  people  of  Greencastle  and  the  southern  part  of  the  county 
thought  that  the  seat  of  justice  should  be  located  there.  Two  hun- 
dred and  thirty-four  of  them,  on  the  21st  of  August,  1784,  presented 
their  petition,  asking  that  the  question  of  the  selection  of  the  county 
seat  be  left  to  a  vote  of  the  people,  allowing  two  or  more  places  for 
the  election  to  be  held  at. 

26  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

They  represented  that  the  town  of  Greencastle  had  been  laid  out 
about  eighteen  months,  on  the  crossing  of  the  main  road  from  Fort 
Pitt  to  Bahimore,  and  the  Carlisle  road  leading  through  Maryland 
and  Virginia,  and  is  equally  as  central  as  Chambers'  town  ;  that 
there  are  already  twenty  houses  in  Greencastle,  and  a  number  more 
building;  and  it  is  much  better  situated  to  draw  the  trade  of  the 
back  countries  from  Maryland,  which  at  present  goes  chiefly  to 
Hagerstown,  and  is  so  considerable,  as  to  enable  more  than  thirty 
persons,  inhabitants  of  that  place,  to  carry  on  business  in  the 
commercial  line.  The  command  of  this  trade  would,  we  apprehend, 
be  a  considerable  advantage,  not  only  to  this  county,  but  to  the 
commonwealth  in  general." 

The  Chambersburgers  were  successful  ;  the  county  was  formed  as 
they  wished  it,  and  the  county  seat  was  fixed  by  the  Legislature, 
at  Chambersburg. 



Some  persons  may,  perhaps,  think  that  here  my  labors  as  the 
historian  of  the  county  of  Franklin  should  have  commenced,  and 
that  all  I  have  already'  given  is  outside  the  record.  But,  would  the 
history  of  this  Union  be  complete  without  including  in  it  our  colo- 
nial history  ?  As  well  might  we  reject  from  the  history  of  our  town 
all  that  is  connected  with  it  prior  to  its  laying  out,  in  1764,  as  to  re- 
fuse to  incorporate  in  the  history  of  our  county  those  things  con- 
nected with  its  settlement  and  its  j^eople  prior  to  its  erection  as  a 
county,  in  the  year  1784.  The  one  is  so  intimately  connected  with 
the  other  that  due  notice  must  be  given  to  all  the  prominent  inci- 
dents connected  with  each,  in  order  to  make  up  a  comi^lete  whole. 


Franklin  is  one  of  the  "southern  tier,"  or  border  counties  of  the 
State.  In  its  earliest  records  it  was  designated  as  the  "  Conoco- 
cheague  Settlement,"  from  the  name  of  the  princiiml  stream  of 
water  flowing  through  it.  It  is  bounded  on  the  east  by  Adams 
county;  on  the  north-east  by  Cumberland  and  Perry  counties;  on 
the  north  and  north-west  by  Juniata  and  Huntingdon  counties  ;  on 
the  west  by  Fulton  county  ;  and  on  the  south  by  the  State  of  Mary- 
land. Its  greatest  extent  from  north  to  south  is  tliirty-eight  miles, 
and  from  east  to  west  thirty-four  miles;  containing  an  area  of 
seven  hundred  and  fifty  square  miles,  or  four  hundred  and  eighty 
thousand  acres.  The  population  in  1870,  according  to  the  census 
returns  of  that  year,  was  forty-five  thousand  three  hundred  and 
sixty-five,  or  about  sixty  persons  to  the  square  mile. 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  27 


Our  valley  lies  about  six  hundred  feet  above  the  tide  level.  The 
eastern  part  of  it  is  broken  and  hilly.  The  South  mountain,  which 
forms  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  county,  rises  from  six  to  nine 
hundred  feet  above  the  central  'part  of  the  valley.  The  northern 
and  north-western  parts  of  the  county  are  mountainous.  The  Kit- 
tatinny,  or  north  mountains,  as  the  first  range  west  of  the  Cumber- 
land valley  is  called,  stretch  through  much  of  that  section  of  the 
county.  Their  most  prominent  elevations  are  Parnell's  and  Jor- 
dan's Knobs,  each  of  which  rises  to  the  height  of  about  twelve 
hundred  feet.  In  the  south-west  are  the  Cove  mountains  with  its 
prominences,  Clay  Lick  and  Two-top  mountains.  Beyond  these  the 
Tuscarora  mountains,  running  from  south-west  to  north-east,  rise  to 
the  height  of  seventeen  hundred  feet,  and  form  the  boundary  be- 
tween our  county  and  the  counties  of  Fulton,  Huntingdon  and 

The  Tuscarora  creek  rises  in  the  north-western  part  of  the  county, 
and  runs  in  a  northern  direction,  by  the  town  of  Concord,  through 
the  Tuscarora  mountains,  and  unites  with  the  main  branch  of  Tus- 
carora creek  in  Juniata  county.  The  AVest  Branch  of  the  Conoco- 
cheague  creek  also  rises  in  the  same  section  of  the  county,  on  the 
borders  of  Perry  county,  flows  south-westwardly  through  Amber- 
son's  and  Path  valleys,  past  Loudon,  and  unites  with  the  east  branch 
of  the  Conococheague  about  three  miles  north  of  the  Maryland  line, 
receiving  in  its  course  many  smaller  streams.  The  East  Conoco- 
cheague creek  rises  in  the  South  mountain,  in  the  eastern  part  of 
the  county,  flows  first  northward,  and  then  south-westward,  receiv- 
ing many  tributaries,  the  principal  of  which  is  the  Falling  Spring, 
at  Chambersburg,  unites  with  the  West  Branch,  and  empties  into 
the  Potomac  at  Williarasport,  Maryland.  The  Conodoguinnet  rises 
in  Horse  valley,  and  flowing  north-east,  passes  through  the  moun- 
tains at  Roxbury,  and  thence  into  Cumberland  county,  and  empties 
Into  the  Susquehanna.  The  Antietam  creek  has  two  branches,  both 
rising  in  the  South  mountain,  in  the  south-eastern  part  of  the 
county.  They  flow  in  a  southern  direction,  and  uniting  near  the 
Maryland  line,  empty  into  the  Potomac.  Cove  creek  drains  the 
south-western  part  of  the  county,  between  the  Cove  and  Tuscarora 
mountains,  flows  south  through  the  Little  Cove,  and  empties  into 
Licking  creek.  The  waters  of  the  northern  third  of  our  county, 
containing  about  one  hundred  and  sixty  thousand  acres,  or  two 
hundred  and  fifty  square  miles,  except  a  part  of  those  in  Amber- 
son's  valley,  are  drained  towards  the  Susquehanna.  Those  of  the 
remaining  i^arts  of  the  county  flow  into  the  Potomac. 

28  Jlistorical  Sketch  of  FranJdin  County. 


Much  the  greater  part  of  the  land  in  our  county  is  limestone. 
The  limestone  lands  east  of  the  Conococheague  are  well  watered, 
fertile,  and  in  a  high  state  of  cultivation.  They  are  estimated  at 
one  hundred  and  eighty  thousand  acres.  Along  the  base  ot  the 
South  mountain,  and  between  it  and  the  limestone  lands,  is  a  strip 
of  territory  from  one  to  two  miles  wide,  known  as  the  "pine  lands," 
which  for  the  most  part  is  said  to  be  equal  for  fertility  and  certainty 
of  product  to  any  in  the  county,  and  is  estimated  to  contain  twenty 
thousand  acres.  It  is  composed  of  sand,  mixed  with  clay,  and 
water-worn  pebbles.  West  of  the  Conococheague  the  slate  lands 
prevail,  mixed  however,  here  and  there  with  limestone.  They  are 
estimated  at  one  hundred  and  sixty  thousand  acres,  and  are  not 
generally  so  fertile  as  the  limestone,  but  more  easilj'^  cultivated,  and 
abounding  in  pure  streams  of  water,  and  in  luxuriant  meadows. 
The  experience  of  late  years  leads  to  the  conclusion  that  these  lands 
when  generously  treated  with  lime,  or  other  fertilizers,  are  as  de- 
sirable and  as  productive  and  remunerative,  all  things  considered* 
as  the  higlier  priced  lands  of  the  limestone  regions.  The  moun- 
tainous districts,  on  the  eastern  and  western  boundaries  of  the 
county  contain  about  one  hundred  and  twenty  thousand  acres  of 
land,  much  of  it  quite  valuable  because  of  its  excellent  timber,  and 
other  large  bodies  of  it  very  valuable  because  of  the  inexhaustible 
quantities  of  iron  ore  contained  in  them. 


A  minute  description  of  the  many  and  varied  formations  in  the 
geological  structure  of  our  county  would  consume  too  much  space 
for  this  sketch.  The  South  mountain  consists  almost  entirely  of 
hard,  white  sandstone.  The  valley  west  of  it  contains  the  great 
limestone  formation.  Several  belts  of  difTerent  colored  slates,  and 
sometimes  sandstones  are  found,  here  and  there,  intermixed  with  it. 
West  and  north-west  of  the  east  branch  of  the  Conococheague  creek 
the  slate  lands  predominate,  though  even  among  them,  at  various 
places  there  are  belts  of  limestone  found.  The  south-western  part 
of  the  county  is  of  the  same  geological  character.  The  mountain 
ranges  in  the  west  and  north-western  sections  of  the  county  are 
composed,  mainly,  of  the  Levant  white,  red,  and  gray  sandstones. 
We  have  no  coal  in  any  part  of  the  county,  but  iron  ore  abounds 
along  the  base  of  the  mountains  on  both  sides  of  the  county,  and  in 
Path  valley. 

LAWS   IN   FORCE   IN   1784. 

At  the  time  of  the  organization  of  our  county  in  1784,  the  State 
Constitution  of  1776  was  in  force.     It  provided  that  the  State  should 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  29 

be  apportioned  for  representatives  in  the  General  Assembly  every 
seven  years.  They  were  to  be  elected  annually  and  could  not  serve 
more  than  four  years  in  seven. 

It  also  provided  for  the  election  of  a  body  called  the  "Supreme 
Executive  Council,"  one  of  whom  was  to  be  elected  for  each  county, 
to  serve  for  three  years,  and  no  Councillor  could  serve  for  more  than 
three  years  out  of  seven.  They  were  Justices  of  the  Peace  for  the 
whole  State. 

The  President  and  Vice  President  of  theSupremeExeeutive  Coun- 
cil were  to  be  chosen  annually,  from  the  members  of  the  council,  by 
the  joint  votes  of  the  members  of  the  General  Assembly  and  the 
council.  The  council  met  annually  at  the  same  time  and  place  as 
the  General  Assembly,  and  the  President,  or  in  case  of  his  absence, 
the  Vice  President,  exercised  the  executive  functions  of  the  Com- 

It  also  provided  that  delegates  to  Congress  should  be  elected  an- 
nually by  the  General  Assembly,  and  might  be  superseded  at  any 
tim«,  by  the  General  Assembly  appointing  others  in  their  places. 
And  no  delegate  could  serve  more  than  two  years  successively,  nor 
be  reappointed  for  three  years  afterwards. 

Sheriffs  and  Coroners  were  to  be  voted  for  by  the  people  annually, 
two  for  each  office  to  be  returned  to  the  Supreme  Executive  Coun- 
cil, who  appointed  and  commissioned  one  of  the  persons  thus  re- 
turned. No  Sheriff  or  Coroner  could  serve  more  than  three  years 
in  seven. 

Prothonotaries,  Clerks  of  Courts,  Registers  and  Recorders  were  to 
be  appointed  by  the  Supreme  Executive  Council,  to  hold  during 
their  pleasure. 

One  Justice  of  the  Peace  was  to  be  elected  for  each  ward,  town- 
ship or  district,  to  be  commissioned  by  (he  Supreme  Executive 
Council,  to  serve  for  seven  years. 

The  County  Courts  of  Common  Pleas,  Quarter  Sessions,  &c.,  were 
composed,  generally,  only  of  such  of  the  Justices  of  the  Peace  of 
the  counties  as  were  specially  appointed  and  commissioned  to  act  as 
Judges  of  said  courts,  three  of  whom  formed  a  quorum. 

In  Philadelphia,  and  some  of  the  older  and  larger  counties  of  the 
State,  the  Presidents  of  the  county  courts  were  gentlemen  learned 
in  the  law. 


The  first  general  election  in  our  county  was  held  on  Tuesday,  the 
12th  day  of  October,  1784,  in  Chambersburg,  there  being  but  one 
voting  place  for  the  whole  county,  and  to  it  all  those  who  desired  to 
vote  had  to  come.  The  county  was  entitled  to  elect  one  member  of 
the  Supreme  Executive  Council,  and  three  representatives  in  the 
Legislature.     James  M'Lene  was  elected   Councillor,  to  serve  for 

30  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

three  years,  and  James  Johnston,  Abraham  Smith  and  James 
M'Cahnont  were  elected  Representatives.  Jeremiah  Talbot,  Sher- 
iff; John  Rhea,  Coroner;  and  James  Poe,  John  Work  and  John 
Beard,  County  Commissioners.  The  vote  for  County  Commission- 
ers was  as  follows,  viz.  :  James  Poe,  S22 ;  John  Work,  421 ;  Jolin 
Beard,  339. 


By  the  act  of  the  13th  of  September,  17S5,  the  county  was  divided 
into  two  election  districts,  the  ^/-si^  district  composed  of  the  town- 
ships of  Antrim,  Peters,  Guilford,  Lurgan,  Hamilton,  Letterkenny, 
Franklin,  (or  Chambersburg)  Washington,  Southampton  and  Mont- 
gomery, to  vote  at  the  court  house  in  Chambersburg;  and  Fannett 
township,  the  second  district,  to  vote  at  the  house  of  the  widow 
Elliott,  in  said  township. 

By  the  act  of  the  lOth.of  September,  1787,  our  county  was  divided 
into  four  election  districts,  the_;?r.s^  district  composed  of  the  town- 
ships of  Guilford,  Franklin,  Hamilton,  Letterkenny,  Lurgan  and 
Southampton,  to  vote  at  the  court  house  in  Chambersburg.  The 
second  district,  Fannett  township,  to  vote  at  the  house  of  widow 
Elliott,  in  that  township.  The  third  distinct,  composed  of  Antrim 
and  Washington  townships,  to  vote  at  the  house  of  George  Clark, 
in  Greencastle;  and  tha  fourth  district,  Peters  and  Montgomery 
townships,  to  vote  at  the  house  of  James  Crawford  in  Mercersburg. 

These  provisions,  drawn  from  the  acts  of  Assembly,  show  that  our 
forefathers  were  enabled  to  exercise  the  inestimable  privileges  of  the 
ballot  only  at  a  great  sacrifice  of  time,  trouble  and  expense.  Now 
we  have  our  voting  places  often  within  a  stone's  throw  of  our  resi- 
dences, and  rarely,  even  in  the  rural  districts,  more  tlian  a  few 
miles  away,  and  all  of  easy  and  speedy  access  ;  then  the  voters  were 
compelled  to  travel  many  weary  miles,  over  new,  rough,  and  un- 
broken roads,  and  ford  or  swim  unbridged  and  dangerous  streams, 
if  they  desired  to  cast  their  ballots  for  or  against  the  men  or  meas- 
ures of  the  day. 

At  the  second  county  election  held  in  October,  1785,  James 
M'Calmont,  Abraham  Smith  and  John  Rhea  were  elected  members 
of  the  Assembly;  Jeremiah  Talbot,  Sheriff;  and  John  Johnston, 


The  eleventh  section  of  the  act  of  Assembly,  for  the  organization 
of  a  county,  appointed  James  Maxwell,  James  M'Cammont,  Josiah 
Crawford,  David  Stoner  and  John  Johnston  trustees  to  procure  two 
lots  of  ground  for  the  sites  of  a  court  house  and  prison  for  the  new 
county;  and  the  twelfth  section  directed  that  the  county  commis- 
sioners should  pay  over  to  the  said  trustees  a  sum  not  exceeding  one 

Historical  Sketch  of  FranJdin  County.  31 

thousand  two  hundred  pounds  ($3, 200)  to  be  by  them  expended  in 
the  erection  of  the  necess-ary  ])ublic  buildinfjs. 

On  the  2Sth  September,  1784,  CoL  Benjamin  Chambers,  for  the 
nominal  consideration  of  ten  pounds,  or  twenty-six  dollars  and 
sixty-six  and  two-third  cents,  conveyed  to  the  county  of  Franklin 
the  lot  on  which  the  court  house  now  stands,  to  be  used  as  a  site  for 
a  court  house  and  i^ublic  buildings,  and  no  other;  and  the  lot  on  the 
north  side  of  East  Market  street,  opposite  the  present  "Washington 
House,"  for  the  site  of  a  county  prison. 

Messrs.  Maxwell,  M'Cammont  ct  al ,  the  trustees  appointed  by 
the  Legislature  to  build  a  court  house  and  jail  rbr  our  county,  con- 
tracted with  Captain  Benjamin  Chambers  to  put  up  the  former,  and 
with  David  and  Joshua  Riddle  to  put  up  the  latter.  When  these 
buildings  were  contracted  for  and  what  were  the  prices  .for  erecting 
them  cannot  now  be  told,  as  all  the  records  in  relation  thereto  have 
been  destroyed.  The  first  payments  on  the  court  house  were  made 
in  1792,  amounting  to  about  £700,  and  its  whole  cost,  so  far  as  I  can 
judge  by  the  drafts  granted  Captain  Chambers,  was  about  $4,100.00. 
It  was  not  finished  until  1794. 

According  to  the  advertisement  of  the  trustees,  the  contract  for 
the  prison  was  to  have  been  given  out  on  the  10th  of  September, 
1786.  When  it  was  made  I  know  not.  It  was  gotten  under  roof 
about  1791.  In  November,  1796,  the  sum  of  £337  10s.  was  paid  on  it, 
but  it  was  not  finished  until  about  1797  or  '98,  as  ajipears  by  the  ex- 
penditures made  on  account  of  it. 


This  building  was  of  brick,  two  stories  high,  and  about  fifty  feet 
square.  It  stood  immediatelj^  west  of  the  present  l)uilding.  its 
eastern  wall  being  about  four  or  five  feet  distant  from  the  western 
end  of  the  present  court  house,  and  it  was  occupied  by  the  courts 
and  public  offices  whilst  the  new  building  was  being  erected.  It 
was  then  torn  down,  and  the  portico  and  steps  of  the  present  build- 
ing were  put  up  on  part  of  its  site.  It  was  well  and  substantially' 
built,  presented  a  rather  pleasing  appearance,  and  was  fully  suffi- 
cient for  those  early  times.  The  main  front  faced  Marketstreet,  and 
there  was  a  heavy  cornice  all  around  the  building.  There  were  a 
cupola  and  bell  on  the  building.  The  spire  was  surmounted  by  an 
iron  rod,  with  a  large  copper  ball  on  it  next  the  top  of  the  spire; 
then  above  that  a  "Rooster,"  and  above  the  latter  a  smaller  ball. 
The  main  entrance  was  on  the  southern  front,  but  it  was  not  used 
for  many  years.  A  door  in  the  western  end,  near  the  southern  cor- 
ner, was  the  usual  place  of  entrance.  Opposite  this  last  door  was 
another  door  in  the  eastern  end,  opening  into  the  yard.  The  court 
hall  occupied  all  the  lower  floor.     Along  its  southern  side  was  a  tier 

32  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

of  seats  for  spectators,  some  three  or  four  in  number,  rising  high  up 
the  wall.  These  were  put  in  after  the  building  was  completed,  and 
they  crossed  over  and  closed  up  the  main  door  in  the  south  side  of 
the  room.  Between  these  seats  and  the  bar,  which  occupied  nearly 
one-half  the  floor,  there  was  a  space  of  about  ten  feet  in  width, 
paved  with  red  brick.  The  bar  was  raised  some  two  or  three  steps 
above  this  pavement,  and  the  Judges'  seat,  which  was  on  the  north 
side  of  the  room,  was  some  two  or  three  steps  above  the  bar.  The 
traverse  jur,y  box  was  on  the  east  side  of  the  bar,  and  the  grand  jury 
box  on  the  west  side,  adjoining  the  stairs  leading  to  the  second  story, 
in  which  there  were  a  grand  jury  room  and  two  traverse  jury  rooms. 


Tlie  first  jail  built  by  the  county  was  of  stone,  two  stories  high, 
about  forty  by  sixty  feet  in  size,  and  stood  on  the  north-east  corner 
of  Second  and  Market  streets,  where  Peiffer  &  Doeblt^r's  coach  shop 
now  stands.  It  was  often  crowded  with  poor  "debtors"  in  those 
early  days,  men  who  were  so  unfortunate  as  to  be  in  debt  and  have 
no  goods  nor  money  with  which  to  pay  their  liabilities.  To  honest 
men  it  was  a  fearful  place;  but  rogues  laughed  at  its  nail-studded 
doors,  iron  bars  and  thick  but  poorly-constructed  walls.  Between 
the  date  of  the  formation  of  our  county  in  1784,  and  the  completion 
of  the  "old  stone  jail  "  in  1798,  persons  charged  with  the  commis- 
sion of  grave  offences  in  this  county  were  kept  in  the  jail  at  Carlisle. 
The  county  accounts  for  those  years  contain  many  items  for  tlie  ex- 
penses of  taking  prisoners  to  Carlisle,  keeping  them  there,  and 
bringing  them  here  for  trial.  Persons  charged  with  offences  of  a 
minor  grade  were  kept  here  in  a  temporary  prison,  and  there  are 
also  numerous  charges  for  "repairs"  to  that  prison— for  "  iron  for 
bars,"  for  "leg  bolts,  manacles,  «fcc.,"  and  for  the  pay  of  those  who 
acted  as  "guards"  at  the  prison.  Tradition  says  tiiat  tliis  prison 
was  an  old  log  house  on  the  lot  now  the  property  of  Levi  D.  Hum- 
melsine,  on  the  west  side  of  South  Main  street.  That  it  was  some 
such  insecure  place  is  evidenced  by  the  expenditures  made  ujwn  it 
above  referred  to,  and  also  from  the  fact  that  in  1785,  the  commis- 
sioners of  the  county  paid  Samuel  M'Clelland  £2,  5s.,  6d.  for  "  un- 
derpinning the  prison."  There  were  no  brick  buildings  here  in 
1785,  and  only  three  stone  ones,  viz.:  Chambers'  fort,  John  Jack's 
tavern  and  Nicholas  Snider's  blacksmith  shop.  All  the  rest  were 
of  logs,  sniall  and  inconvenient,  and  it  must  have  been  one  of  the 
worst  of  these  that  was  used  as  a  prison  at  first,  for  only  such  an 
one  would  have  needed  "underpinning,"  and  require  bars,  leg  bolts, 
manacles,  and  guards  to  keep  its  inmates  safely. 

Nor  were  prisoners  then  allowed  to  spent!  tlieir  time  in  idleness 
whilst  in  jail,  as  at  the  present  time.     They  were  kept  at  labor,  as  is 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  33 

evidenced  by  the  numerous  exi^enditures  for  "picks  and  shovels" 
and  "wheel-borroughs,"  and  for  the  pay  of  the  superintendents  and 
keepers  of  the  "wheel-borrough  men." 


Between  the  years  1784  and  1809,  a  period  of  twenty- five  years, 
Edward  Crawford,  Esq.,  held  the  offices  of  Prothonotary,  Register 
and  Recorder  and  Clerk  of  the  Courts,  and  for  twenty-two  years  he 
had  his  office  in  a  building  which  he  erected  for  the  purpose,  at  his 
■  residence  on  east  Market  street,  on  the  site  now  occupied  by  the  law 
office  of  Messrs.  Kennedy  &  Stewart,  In  the  month  of  October, 
1806,  the  first  county  offices  were  finished  and  occupied.  The  build- 
ing stood  about  twenty  feet  east  of  the  old  court  house,  facing  on 
Market  street,  and  cost  about  $2,500.00.  It  was  of  brick,  two  stories 
high,  and  about  forty  feet  long  by  twenty-five  feet  wide.  Tlie  Pro- 
thonotary and  Clerk's  offices  were  in  the  western  end,  and  the  Reg- 
ister's and  Recorder's  offices  in  the  eastern  end,  the  building  being 
divided-  by  a  hall  in  the  centre.  In  the  rear  of  each  office  was  a 
small  vaulted  room  for  the  preservation  of  the  records  and  papers  of 
the  offices.  On  the  second  story  were  the  offices  of  the  County 
Commissioners,  County  Treasurer,  Deputy  Surveyor,  &c.  This 
building  was  torn  down  when  the  new  courthouse  was  commenced, 
about  the  year  1842. 


I  have  already  stated  that  the  "county  courts"  in  those  days  were 
held  by  such  Justices  of  the  Peace  of  the  county  as  were  specially 
commissioned  to  act  as  Judges  of  the  said  courts.  Three  of  them 
formed  a  quorum  to  do  business.  They  then  held  their  offices  for 
seven  years  ;  and  by  the  5th  section  of  the  act  erecting  our  county, 
it  was  i^rovided  that  the  commissions  of  all  Justices  residing  within 
the  boundaries  of  the  new  county  should  continue  in  force  until  the 
expiration  of  their  several  terms.  How  many  such  there  were  I 
know  not.  I  give,  however,  the  names  of  such  of  them  as  acted  as 
Judges  of  our  courts  after  our  county  was  organized. 

The  fifth  section  of  the  act  erecting  our  county  provided  that  the 
Courts  of  Common  Pleas  and  Quarter  Sessions  should  be  held  four 
times  in  each  year,  and  that  the  Quarter  Sessions  should  sit  tJirce 
days  in  each  session,  and  no  more. 

This  act  was  approved  on  Thursdaj^  September  9th,  1784.  On 
Saturday,  September  11th,  17S4,  Edward  Crawford,  Esq.,  was  ajj- 
pointed  and  commissioned  Prothonotary,  Register  and  Recorder  and 
Clerk  of  the  Courts  for  our  county.  He  was  also  at  the  same  time 
commissioned  a  Justice  of  the  county  courts  of  our  county.  I  sup- 
pose he  was  at  the  seat  of  government  (Philadelphia)  at  the  time, 
looking  after  the  passage  of  the  law  creating  our  county,  for  on  tlie 
same  day  he  appeared  before  the  Supreme  Executive  Council,  and 

34  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

was  sworn  into  office  and  got  his  commissions.  On  the  next  Wed- 
nesday, September  15th,  1784,  four  days  afterwards,  ho  was  at  home, 
and  the  first  court  held  in  our  county  was  convened  that  day,  be- 
fore Humphrey  Fullerton  and  Thomas  Johnston,  Esq's,  Justices  for 
Antrim  township,  and  James  Finley,  Esq.,  a  Justice  of  Letterlcenny 
township— all  of  them  former  Justices  and  Judges  in  Cumberland 
county,  whose  commissions  were  in  force,  and  who  were  therefore 
qualified  to  hold  court  in  Franklin  county.  There  were  no  jurors 
present,  no  causes,  civil  or  criminal,  for  trial,  and  I  incline  to  the 
opinion  that  there  wei'e  no  lawyers  present  butoue,  John  Clark,  Esq., 
of  the  York  bar,  who  was  married  to  a  daughter  of  Nicholas  Bitting- 
er,  who  lived  near  Mont  Alto  Furnace.  Mr.  Clark  was  most  likely 
here  casually.  He  had  been  a  Major  in  the  Pennsylvania  Line  in 
the  revolutionary  war,  had  been  a  member  of  the  bar  of  long  stand- 
ing and  of  extended  reputation,  yet  he  was,  on  his  own  request, 
admitted  to  the  bar  of  our  county.  Had  there  been  any  "brother 
attorney"  present,  entitled  to  the  privileges  of  his  profession,  Mr. 
Clark  would  not  have  been  compelled  to  request  his  own  admission. 

The  second  session  of  our  county  court,  bei ug  the  j^rs;;  business 
session,  was  held  on  Thursday,  December  2d,  1784,  in  the  second 
story  of  John  Jack's  stone  tavern  house,  which  stood  where  A. 
J.  Miller's  drug  store  now  is,  up  until  the  fire  of  1864.  The  Judges 
present  were  William  M'Dowell,  of  Peters  ;  Humphrey  Fullerton,  of 
Antrim  ;  and  James  Finley,  of  Letterkenny ;  Edward  Crawford, 
Jr.,  Prothonotary  and  Clerk ;  Jeremiah  Talbott,  Sheriff.  The 
grand  jury  were  thirteen  in  number,  viz.  :  James  Poe,  Henry  Pawl- 
ing, William  Allison,  Wilham  M'Dowell,  Robert  Wilkins,  John 
M'Connell,  John  M'Carney,  John  Ray,  John  Jack,  Jr.,  John  Dick- 
son, D.  M'Clintock,  Joseph  Chambers  and  Joseph  Long. 

The  courts  were  held  up  stairs,  and  tradition  says  the  crowd  was 
so  great  as  to  strain  the  joists  of  the  floor,  causing  great  alarm  to  the 
Court  and  bar,  and  others  in  the  house.  Whether  this  tradition  is 
true  or  false,  I  know  not,  but  it  is  very  probable  that  the  incident 
did  occur.  That  the  courts  were  held  in  John  Jack's  house  for 
several  years,  whilst  the  court  house  was  being  built,  and  up  until 
1789,  inclusive,  is  conclusively  shown  by  the  following  extracts  from 
the  county  expenditures,  found  in  the  annual  accounts  of  the  Com- 
missioners for  the  years  named,  viz.  : 

1785.  "By  an  order  to  John  Jack  for  the  use  of  his  house 

to  hold  courts  in,  &c.," £12  7s.  6d. 

1789.  "By  a  draw  given  to  Margaret  Jack  (John's  widow) 

for  the  use  of  her  house  to  hold  courts  in,"     .        .  £  9 

1790.  "Order  to  Mrs.  Jack  for  firewood  and  candles  for 

the  court," £  4  4s.  5d. 

A  change  was  then  made,  for  in — 
1790.  "An  order  was  issued  to  Walter  Beatty  for  prepar- 
ing a  p^ace  for  court,"        £15  6s. 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  35 

Where  this  place  was  I  know  not,  but  it  was  no  douht  some  tem- 
porary selection.  Walter  Beatty  was  the  sub-contractor,  under  Cap- 
tain Benjamin  Chambers,  for  the  building  of  the  court  house.  The 
court  house  and  the  old  stone  jail  were  then  being  built.  The  latter 
must  have  been  gotten  under  roof  at  least  in  1791,  for  that  year  the 
Commissioners  paid  Walter  Beatty  "for  preparing  for  the  court  to 
sit  in  the  prison^  £15, 19s."  In  1792  they  also  paid  Captain  Benjamin 
Chambers,  on  the  court  house,  £1,074,  10s.,  3d.  ;  and  that  it  was  not 
finisheJ  in  1793  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  the  Commissioners,  by  order 
of  the  courts  paid  that  j'ear  to  Walter  Beatty,  £10,  10s.  "for  detain- 
ing his  hands  from  work  on  the  court  house."  The  Judges  took 
possession  and  occupied  the  court  house  for  county  purposes  before 
it  was  finished,  and  ordered  Mr.  Beatty  to  be  paid  for  the  lost  time 
of  his  liands,  as  aforesaid. 

At  the  -econd  session  of  our  courts,  on  motion  of  John  Clark,  Esq., 
Robert  Magaw,  Thomas  Hartley,  James  Hamilton,  Thomas  Duncan, 
Thomas  Smith,  Ross  Thompson,  Ralph  Bowie,  James  Ross,  James 
Riddle,  Stephen  Chambers  and  John  M'Dowell  were  admitted  to 
practice  the  law  in  the  courts  of  this  county. 

Our  county  courts,  as  thus  constituted,  continued  to  administer 
justice  until  the  adoption  of  the  constitution  of  1790.  That  instru- 
ment went  into  force,  for  most  purposes,  on  the  2d  of  September, 
1790,  but  the  third  section  of  the  schedule  to  it  extended  the  commis- 
sions of  the  Justices  of  tlie  Peace  and  Judges  then  in  office  until  the 
first  day  of  September,  1791. 


The  following  list  gives  the  names  of  the  Justices  of  the  Peace 
who  were  Judges  of  our  county  courts  for  this  county,  from  the  9th 
of  September,  1784,  to  the  2d  of  September,  1791,  with  the  townships 
they  were  appointed  from  and  the  dates  of  their  respective  commis- 
sions, which  ran  for  seven  years  : 

William  M'Dowell,  Peters,  November  13th,  1778. 

Humphrey  Fullerton,  Antrim,  April  18th,  1782. 

Thomas  Johnston,  Antrim,  April  18th,  1782. 

James  Finley,  Letterkenny,  March  1st,  1783. 

Edward  Crawford,  Jr.,    Cliarabersburg,  September  11th,  1784. 

James  Chambers,  Peters,  September  17th,  1784. 

George  Matthews,  Hajnilton,  February  4th,  1785. 

John  Rannels,  Guilford,  March  1st,  1785. 

Noah  Abraham,  Fannett,  October  31st,  1785. 

John  M'Clav,  Lurgan,  November  2d,  1785. 

Richard  Bard,  Peters,  March  15th,  1786. 

Samuel  Royer,  Washington,  March  27th,  1786. 

John  Scott,  Chambersburg,  August  4th,  1786. 

John  Boggs,  Chambersburg,  August  4th,  1786. 

James  Maxwell,,*  Montgomery,  August  26th,  1786. 

*  Commissioned  President  of  the  Courts. 

36  Historioal  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

John  Harring,  SoTithampton,     November  1st,  1786. 

John  Andrew,  Guilford,  April  16th,  1787. 

John  Martin,  Chambersburg,  December  8th,  1787. 

James  Maxwell,  Montgomery,      September  17th,  1788. 

William  Henderson,  Greencastle,        September  2.5tb,  1788. 

James  M'Calmont,  Letterkenny,      September  23d,  1789. 

Christian  Oyster,  Chambersburg,   July  16th,  1790. 

Thomas  Johnston,  Antrim,  September  29th,  1790. 


By  the  second  section  of  the  act  of  the  13th  of  April,  1791,  the 
State  was  divided  into  ^ye  judicial  districts.  The  fourth  district 
was  composed  of  the  counties  of  Cumberland,  Franklin,  Bedford, 
Huntingdon  and  Mifflin.  And  the  third  section  of  the  same  act  fur- 
ther provided  that  a  President  Judge,  learned  in  the  law,  should  be 
ai^pointed  by  the  Governor  for  each  district,  and  not  fewer  than 
three  nor  more  than  four  Associate  Judges  should  be  appointed  for 
each  county.     They  were  each  to  hold  during  good  behavior. 

On  the  17th  of  August,  1791,  Governor  Mifflin  appointed  the  fol- 
lowing persons  Associate  Judges  of  our  courts,  to  hold  from  the  first 
of  September  following,  viz.  : 

James  M'Dowell,  Peters,  First  Associate. 

James  Maxwell,  Montgomery,  Second       " 

George  Matthews,  Hamilton,  Third         " 

James  M'Calmont,  Letterkenny,  Fourth       " 

On  the  20th  of  August,  1791,  Governor  Mifflin  also  appointed 
Thomas  Smith,  Esq.,  President  Judge  of  this  judicial  district,  who 
continued  to  serve  in  that  position  until  his  ajjpointment  as  an  As- 
sociate Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court,  on  the  31st  of  January,  1794. 


The  following  is  a  statement  of  the  first  tax  laid  in  this  county, 
in  1785 : 



State  Tax. 

County  Tax. 


Samuel  M'Cullock, 



•  l^- 


Is.  4d. 


William  Shanon, 





19    11 


Nathaniel  Paul, 





19    10 


Peter  Fry, 





8      2 


William  Dickson, 





7      8 


George  Stinger, 





18      9 


Gavin  Morrow, 





16      4 


,  Thomas  Kennedy, 





7      4 


Hugh  M'Kee, 





10      0 


Frederick  Foreman 

.,    262 




15      2 





4      6 

Being,  for  state  purposes. 


.     $6,694  91 

for  county    " 

•       1) 

,115  27 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

The   following  is  a  statement  of  the  property  assessed  in  this 
county  in  the  year  1786  : 

































30,992' £3 








1,153     5 










19,962     2,  10s. 









21,835     '>.  15 












2,  10 


Letterkenny ... 


2,  15 













2,  12J 






























2,  17>V 











2,  10 



















The  tax  levied  upon  this  j^roj^erty  was  £2,368,  9s. 
$6,315.96,  distributed  thus: 

8d.,  equal  to 





or,    $885  08 

Franklin,   . 




246  48 

Fannett,     . 




511  07 

Guilford,     . 




542  .85 

Hamilton,  . 




566  47 





774  54 





296  81 





685  04 





726  98 





418  07 





663  07 




$6,315  96 

To-day,  though  there  is  no  state  tax  upon  real  estate,  the  taxes 
paid  by  the  people  of  this  county  are  as  follows,  viz. : 

For  slate  purposes  on  money  at  interest,  &c.,       .    $  6,144  00 
P^or  county  purposes, 56,015  97 

From   tax   returns  made  in  1786  and  1788 
Franklin^  which  was  made  up  of  the  town  of  Chambersbu 

$62,159  97 
for  the  township  of 


38  Historical  SJcetch  of  Franklin  County. 

some  seven  tracts  of  land  adjoining,  I  gatlier  the  following  results, 
viz.  :  That  there  were  in  the  said  township,  in  the  said  years— 

1786.  1788. 

Improved   lots, 96  134 

Unimproved  lots, 40  24 

Horses, 98  105 

Cows, 115  126 

Oxen, 6  4 

Bulls, 0  1 

Slaves, 20  18 

Servants, 6  6 

Chairs, 0  1 

Physicians,  Four,  viz.  :  Dr.  Abraliam  Senseny,  Dr.  John  Jack,  Dr. 

George  Sloan  and  Dr.  Alexander  Stewart, 
Attorneys,     Three,   viz.  :    Andrew   Dunlap,   James    Riddle,   John 

Merchants,   Four,  viz.  :  John  Calhoun,  Patrick  Campbell,  Samuel 

Purviance  and  Edward  Fitzgerald. 
Justices  and  ex-officio  Judges  of  the  courts,  Four,  viz.  :  John  Boggs, 

Edward  Crawford,  Jr.,  Jolin  Martin  and  John  Scott. 
Inn  Keepers,  Twelve,  viz.:    Hugh   Gibbs,   John   Martin,    William 
Morrow,  Wm.  Shannon,  Jacob  Von   Statinfelt,   Benj. 
Swain,  Fred'k.  Reimer,  George  Gressinger,  Wra.  Bevis, 
Wm.  Cowan,  Benj.  Swain  and  John  Caldwell. 
Estimating  six  persons  to  a  dwelling,  the  population  of  Cham- 
bersburg  in  1786,  should  have  been   five  hundred   and  seventy-six 
persons,  and  in  1788,  eight  hundred  and  four  persons. 

The  following  lands  were  also  assessed  in  the  SMid  township  of 
Franklin  in  the  years  1786  and  1788,  showing  conclusively  that  it 
embraced  more  territory  than  the  mere  plot  of  the  town  of  Cham- 
bersburg,  viz. : 

John  Alexander, 194  acres. 

George  Chambers, 58       " 

Benj.  Chambers,  Jr., 105       " 

Joseph  Chambers, 297       " 

James  Chambers, 100       " 

John  Kerr, 300       " 

Thomas  M'Kean 100       " 

1154  acres. 

CHAMBERSBURa   IN   1784-8. 

Colonel  Benjamin  Chambers,  as  I  have  already  stated,  laid  out 
Chambersburg  in  1764.  The  town  pto<  was  entirely  east  of  the 
creek  and  south  of  the  Falling  Spring.  Third  street,  now  the  bed 
of  the  railroad,  was  its  eastern  limit,  and  it  did  not  extend  further 



STORE  or  J.H0KE8<C0.  DRY  GOODS,  NOTIONS,  8rC.CHAMB'G.  PA.   fago^// 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  39 

south  than  where  Mr.  James  Log:an  resides.  The  lots  south  of  that 
point  were  laid  out  by  John  Kerr,  taken  from  his  farm  of  three 
hundred  acres,  and  for  a  long  time  that  part  of  the  jilace  was  called 
"Kerr's  town." 

That  part  of  our  town  north  of  the  Falling  Spring  was  laid  out  by- 
Colonel  Thomas  Hartley,  of  York,  in  1787.  He  purchased  the  land 
from  Joseph  Chambers,  Esq.,  whose  farm  of  near  three  hundred 
acres  lay  north  and  east  of  the  town.  Edward  Crawford  Esq.,  also 
subsequently  bought  of  Mr.  Joseph  Chambers,  the  land  between  the 
railroad  and  the  eastern  point,  and  Market  and  Queen  streets,  and 
laid  it  out  into  town  lots. 

In  1791  Captain  Benjamin  Chambers,  who  had  a  farm  of  over  one 
hundred  acres  along  the  west  side  of  the  Conococheague  creek,  laid 
out  that  part  of  the  town. 

Our  town  in  those  days  (say  from  1784  to  1788)  presented  a  very 
different  appearance  from  what  it  now  does,  or  from  what  it  did  be- 
fore the  great  fire  of  1864.  There  were  no  bridges  of  any  kind 
across  the  creek.  The  east  hank  of  the  stream  through  the  town 
site,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  places,  was  quite  steep,  and  covered 
with  a  forest  of  cedars,  oaks  and  walnuts,  aud  a  thick  undergrowth 
of  bushes.  There  was  quite  a  depression  between  Market  street  and 
the  hill  upon  which  the  Baptist  church  stands,  and  a  number  of 
fine  springs  of  water  issued  out  of  the  bank  at  various  points,  and 
poured  their  crystal  treasures  into  the  creek. 

West  of  the  creek  was  the  farm  of  Captain  Benjamin  Chambers. 
The  road  from  Strasburg  and  the  north-western  jjarts  of  the  county 
came  in  on  the  same  route  it  now  does,  but  passed  down  to  the 
"  lower  fording,"  at  Sierer's  factory,  crossed  the  creek  there  and 
entered  town  by  West  Queen  street. 

Main  street  was  not  then  opened  north  of  the  Falling  Spring. 
The  ground  between  the  spring  and  the  present  residence  of  James 
G.  Elder,  Esq.,  was  a  deep  swamp.  Tbe  road  towards  Carlisle  and 
the  upper  fording,"  at  Heyser's  paper  mill,  left  Main  street  at  King 
street,  passed  westward  out  King  street  to  the  Falling  Spring,  crossed 
it  just  east  of  where  Mr.  Martin  Ludwig  lately  resided,  passed  north 
and  east  along  the  west  side  of  the  spring,  over  the  old  Indian  burial 
ground,  through  the  Presbyterian  churchyard,  skirting  the  base  of 
the  hill  on  which  the  church  stands,  and  connected  with  the  road 
in  front  of  the  church.  The  present  pike  leading  to  Carlisle  was 
not  then  made.  Indeed,  there  was  no  road  from  this  to  Shippens- 
burg  east  of  the  Conococheague.  Persons  going  to  Shippensburg 
and  points  east  went  out  the  Strasburg  road  and  branched  ofl'by  the 
Row  road.  Mr.  George  K.  Harper,  who  came  to  our  town  between 
1790  and  1793,  informed  me  that  at  that  time  Strasburg  was  a  much 
more  important  point  than  Chambersburg;  that  the  mail  for  the 
north  and  east  went  from  Chambersburg  hy  loay  of  Strasburg,  and 

40  Historical  Sketch  of  Franldin  County. 

that,  because  the  transportation  and  travel  over  the  mountains  were 
done  by  horses  alone,  there  was  more  life  and  energy  at  Strasburg 
than  at  Chambersburg,  as  many  as  one  hundred  and  fifty  pack 
horses,  loaded  with  merchandize,  arriving  or  departing  at  a  time. 

At  the  period  of  which  I  speak  the  streets  of  the  town  were  nearly 
in  the  same  condition  as  when  laid  out,  although  some  twenty  to 
twentj'-four  years  had  passed  since  their  dedication  to  public  use. 
Pavements  were  few  and  of  the  worst  kind,  made  to  suit  the  conve- 
nience or  fancy  of  the  persons  by  whom  they  were  constructed. 
The  court  house  and  the  new  jail  were  going  up  slowly.  Immedi- 
ately around  the  "Diamond"  there  were  but  few  improvements. 
John  Jack's  stone  house,  in  which  the  courts  were  held,  was  the 
best  building  there.  John  Martin  kept  tavern  in  a  low,  two-story 
log  house,  about  twenty  by  twenty-five  feet  in  size,  where  Mrs. 
Watson  resides.  The  lot  where  Ludwig's  building  now  is  was 
vacant,  and  remained  so  until  1795,  when  Stephen  Rigler  built  the 
stone  house  on  it  so  long  known  as  Noel's  hotel.  Hugh  Gibb  kept 
a  tavern  in  a  small,  two-story  log  house  which  stood  where  the 
JSTational  Bank  now  stands.  A  small  blacksmith  shop  stood  where 
the  Franklin  County  Bank  now  stands,  and  Samuel  Lindsay  owned 
and  occupied  a  small  log  house  which  stood  on  the  lot  the  Repository 
hall  now  occupies.  The  other  lots  facing  the  diamond  were  then 

Tliere  were  about  one  hundred  and  thirty-five  dwellings  in  the 
town,  but  as  the  whole  population  of  the  county  had  to  come  to 
Chambersburg  to  vote,  for  several  years  after  the  organization  of  the 
county,  a  liberal  provision  in  the  shape  of  taverns  was  made  for  its 
accommodation.  In  addition  to  those  named  already,  Owen  Aston 
kept  a  tavern  in  the  Geo.  Goettman  property,  on  the  south-east  cor- 
ner of  Main  and  King  streets  for  a  while,  and  was  succeeded  by 
Jacob  Von  Stattenfleld  ;  Nicholas  Snider,  where  the  Montgomery 
hotel  is;  Benj.  Swain,  where  the  late  Rev.  B.  S.  Schneck  lived  ; 
Wm.  Morrow,  where  Peter  Bruner  now  lives  ;  Thomas  Shannon, 
wliere  Captain  Jeffries  lives;  Wm.  Shannon,  where  the  Union 
Hotel  stands;  George  Graesing,  where  Mrs.  Fohl  lives  ;  Wm.  Ttiorn 
and  Geo.  Wills,  opposite  the  Academy,  on  east  Queen  street; 
John  Smith  and  David  Fleming,  at  John  Stevenson's  old  property, 
west  Queen  street;  Frederick  Reamer,  ^ecA;'s  old  property,  south 
Main  street;  William  Bevis,  on  west  side  of  south  jNIain  street, 
corner  of  the  alley,  in  the  house  now  belonging  to  Mrs.  Byers. 
Besides  these  there  were  several  others  whose  location  I  don't 
know  with  certainty. 

I'OSTAL    FACrLITIES   IN   1788. 

We  have  now  the  Cumberland  Valley  railroad,  running  through 
our  valley,  from  the  Susquehanna  to  the  Potomac,  with  branches 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  41 

and  connecting  roads  to  Dillsburg,  South  Mountain,  Mont  Alto, 
Mercersburg,  and  Path  Valley  at  the  Richmond  furnace;  and  we 
have  daily  postal  communications  with  Pittsburg,  Harrisburg,  Phila- 
delphia, New  York,  Baltimore,  Washington  city,  and  even  points 
more  distant,  and  also  receive,  almost  daily,  the  news  of  current 
events  in  Europe  and  Asia,  and  other  more  distant  parts  of  the 
earth.  But  it  was  not  so  in  the  times  of  which  I  am  now  writing, 
as  is  evidenced  by  the  following  resolution  passed  by  the  Congress 
of  the  United  States  on  the  20th  of  May,  1788,  viz.  : 

^'Ecsolved,  That  the  Post  Master  General  be  and  he  is  hereby  di- 
rected to  employ  posts  for  the  regular  transportation  of  the  mail  be- 
tween the  city  of  Philadelphia  and  the  town  of  Pittsburg,  in  the 
State  of  Pennsylvania,  by  the  route  of  Lancaster,  York  town,  Car- 
lisle, Chambers'  town  and  Bedford,  and  that  the  mail  be  dispatched 
once  in  each  fortniglit  from  the  said  post  offices,  respectively." 
Journal  of  Congress,  volume  4,  page  817. 

It  is  remarkable  that  Harrisburg,  the  capital  city  of  our  now  great 
Commonwealth,  is  not  even  mentioned  in  this  resolution  ;  and 
nothing  that  I  know  of  so  emphatically  shows  the  progress  we  have 
made  as  a  nation,  in  the  past  eighty-eight  years,  as  the  difference 
between  the  postal  facilities  contemplated  by  this  resolve  of  Con- 
gress and  the  postal  facilities  we  now  enjoy. 

From  the  Hon.  James  H.  Marr,  Acting  First  Assistant  Postmaster 
General,  I  learn  that  a  post  office  was  first  established  at  Chambers- 
burg  on  the  1st  of  June,  1790.  I  had  an  idea  that  we  had  a  post 
office  here  at  a  much  earlier  date.  The  settlement  was  then  sixty 
years  old  ;  the  town  had  been  in  existence  twenty-six  years  and  the 
county  nearly  six  years,  and  it  is  surprising  to  think  that  our  ances- 
tors did  so  long  without  governmental  postal  facilities.  The  same 
authority  informs  me  that  the  following  persons  filled  our  post  office 
in  the  earlier  years  of  its  existence,  viz.  : 

John  Martin,       ....     Appointed  1  June,  1790. 

Patrick  Campbell,      ...  "1  July,  1795. 

Jeremiah  Mahony,     ...  ''1  January,  1796. 

John  Brown,       ....  "         5  July,  1802. 

Jacob  Dechert,    ....  "7  April,  1818. 

John  Findlay,    ....  "20  March,  1829. 

William  Gilmore,      ...  "24  November,  1838. 

I  hope  to  be  able  to  state  hereafter  when  the  several  other  post 
offices  of  our  county  were  established. 

The  Shippensburg  post  office  was  first  established  13th  May,  1790, 
but  a  few  days  before  ours.  Prior  to  these  dates  our  people  had  to 
depend  upon  private  carriers  to  get  their  mail  matter  from  older 
offices,  or  await  the  semi-monthly  coming  of  the  post  rider  referred 
to  in  the  resolution  of  Congress  just  given. 

42  Historical  Sketch  of  Frcmklln  County. 


The  Constitution  of  the  United  States  Avent  into  operation  on  the 
first  Wednesday  of  March,  1789.  What  number  of  the  people  of  our 
State  were  then  entitled  to  vote  I  know  not;  but  amongst  the  pro- 
ceedings of  the  Supreme  Executive  Council  of  Pennsylvania,  un- 
der date  of  the  31st  of  December,  17S8,  the  returns  of  the  election  of 
members  of  Congress  held  just  before,  are  given,  from  which  it 
appears  that  but  15,774  votes  were  polled  in  the  whole  State,  and 
that  the  highest  candidates  upon  the  two  tickets  received  the  fol- 
lowing number  of  votes  respectively,  viz.  : 

Fred'k.  Augustus  Muhlenberg,  of  Montgomery,         .     8,707 
John  Allison,  of  Franklin, 7,067 


From  the  organization  of  our  county,  in  September,  1784,  to  July 
14th,  1790,  there  was  no  newspaper  published  in  Franklin  county, 
and  all  the  sherifTs  proclamations,  notices  of  candidates  for  office, 
of  real  estate  offered  for  sale,  estrays,  runaway  negroes,  desertions 
of  bed  and  board  by  wives,  &c.,  &c.,  were  published  in  The  Carlisle 
Gazette  and  Iie2JOsitory  of  Knowledge,  printed  at  Carlisle,  Cum- 
berland county. 

It  has  been  claimed  that  a  paper  called  the  Franklin  Minerva  was 
published  at  Chambersburg  before  the  year  1790  by  Mr.  Robert  Har- 
per. I  doubt  the  truth  of  this  claim.  No  copy  of  the  paper  now 
exists,  by  which  to  determine  the  doubt,  hut  the  fact  that  Sheriff 
Johnston,  in  July,  1790,  published  his  proclamation  in  the  Carlisle 
Gazette,  shows  almost  to  a  demonstration  that  there  was  no  news- 
paper here  about  the  beginning  of  June,  1790,  when  that  proclama- 
tion was  first  inserted  in  the  Carlisle  Gazette.  Again,  I  do  not  think 
that  Robert  Harper  was  then  here.  An  examination  of  the  assess- 
ment lists  of  the  county  shows  that  his  name  appears  for  the  first 
time  as  a  taxpayer  in  Franklin  township  (Chambersburg)  in  the 
year  1794,  so  that  it  is  most  likely  became  here  sometime  in  the 
previous  year,  jierhaps  about  the  time  he  formed  the  partnership 
with  Mr.  Davison,  hereafter  referred  to.  It  is  known  that  William 
Davison  commenced  the  publication  of  his  paper  at  Chambersburg 
on  the  14th  of  July,  1790,  under  the  name  of  '■'The  Western  Adver- 
tiser and  Charnhershnrg  Wrekltj  Newspajjrr,^'  and  the  assessment 
lists  for  1791  contain  his  name  as  one  of  the  taxpayers  in  Franklin 
township  for  that  year.  Mr.  Davison  afterwards,  about  the  year  1792 
or '93,  formed  a  partnership  with  Mr.  Harper,  which  continued  until 
the  fall  of  1793,  when  he  died,  and  Mr.  Harper  became  sole  owner 
of  the  paper.  On  the  12th  of  September,  1793,  Mr.  Harper  changed 
the  name  of  the  paj)er  to  that  of  "  The  Chambersburr/  Gazette,''''  under 
which  title  it  was  published  until  the  25th  of  April,  1796,  when  he 

Historical  Sketch  of  FranJclin  County.  43 

again  changed  its  name  to  that  of  the  ''Franklin  Bej^ositori/.'"  It 
was,  when  fli'st  establislied,  a  small,  three  column  concern,  about  ten 
by  sixteen  inches  in  size,  and  cost,  fifteen  shillings  per  year.  It  was 
almost  wholly  made  up  of  advertisements  and  extracts  from  foreign 
journals,  for  tiiose  were  the  days  when  Napoleon  was  stirring  up  the 
nations  of  the  old  world  generally. 

In  the  year  ISOO  George  Kenton  Harper  became  the  sole  editor 
and  proprietor  of  the  Rej^ository,  and  conducted  it  until  January, 
1S40,  when  he  .sold  out  to  Mr.  Joseph  Pritts.  So  indifferent  were 
the  post  office  arrangements  for  the  carrying  and  delivering  of 
newspapers  from  179-t  to  182S,  that  the  Harpers  (Robert  and  George 
K.)  employed  their  own  "Post  Riders,"  who  once  a  week  rode 
through  large  sections  of  the  county  to  ensure  the  certain  and  speedy 
delivery  of  the  Repository  at  all  points  where  it  could  not  be 
sent  through  the  mails. 

For  much  of  the  subsequent  history  of  the  Repository  and 
other  newspapers  which  were  heretofore  published  in  our  county,  I 
am  indebted  to  an  article  written  by  B.  M.  Nead,  Esq.,  and  pub- 
lished in  the  Repository  on  the  27th  of  March,  1872. 

"As  above  seen,"  says  Mr.  Nead,  "Mr.  Harper  gave  up  the  con- 
trol of  ''The  Franklin  Repository''^  to  Mr.  Pritts  in  the  year  1840. 
Mr.  Pritts  served  an  apprenticeship  and  worked  as  a  journeyman  at 
the  printing  business  in  Cumberland,  Maryland,  from  which  place 
he  removed  to  Chambersburg  about  the  year  1820.  In  1823  he  be- 
came the  editor  and  proprietor  of  a  Democratic  paper  styled  the 
*' Franklin  Republican^''''  started  in  1808  by  William  Armour, who  was 
followed  in  its  editorship  by  John  Hershberger,  John  M'Farland  and 
John  Sloan,  whose  successor  Mr.  Pritts  was.  This  paper  Mr.  Pritts 
continued  to  edit  until  the  year  1828,  wheti  the  anti-Masonic  excite- 
ment arose.  He  then  gave  up  the  publication  of  the  Franklin  Re- 
publican, bought  the  Anti-Masonic  Press,  a  paper  which  had  been 
established  by  Mr.  James  Culbertson,  and  started  a  new  paper, 
strongly  advocating  anti-Masonic  principles,  under  the  name  of 
"The  Anti-Masonic  Whig.''^  This  paper  Mr.  Pritts  continued  to  edit 
until  the  year  18-10,  when  he  purchased  the  Rejjository  from 
Mr.  Harper,  and  united  the  two  papers  under  the  name  of 
the  "Repository  and  Whig."  In  1840  Mr.  Benjamin  Oswald, 
of  Kittanning,  Pennsylvania,  was  associated  with  Mr.  Pritts  in 
editing  the  paper,  and  in  1S41  Wm.  R.  Rankin,  Esq.,  filled  the  same 
position.  In  1842  Wm.  H.  Downey  bought  Mr.  Pritts'  interest  in 
the  paper,  aud  continued  to  publish  it  until  1846,  when  he  sold  out 
to  ]\Ir.  Wm.  Brewster.  Mr  Pritts  continued  about  the  office,  as  a 
general  superintendent,  adding  weekly  to  its  spiciness  by  his  wit 
and  satire,  until  the  year  1848,  when  he  died.  The  paper  was  then 
in  the  hands  of  Messrs.  John  F.  Denny,  Hugh  W.  Reynolds  and 
D.  O.  Gehr.     On  the  1st  of  February,  1849,  Mi",  Reynolds  withdrew, 

44  Historical  Sketch  of  FranMin  County. 

and  the  remaining  partners  carried  on  the  paper  until  1st  of  May  of 
that  year,  wlien  they  sold  out  to  Messrs.  John  W.  Boyd,  of  Hagers- 
town,  and  David  E.  Stover,  of  Green  castle." 

"On  the  4th  of  July,  1849,  Messrs.  Henry  A.  Mish  and  Lewis  A. 
Shoemaker  started  a  paper  called  '^The  Franklin  Intelligencer^''''  and 
continued  its  publication  until  1851,  wlien  it  was  purchased  by 
Stover  &  Boyd  and  merged  in  the  Repository.  In  the  spring  of 
1852  Mr.  Stover  became  sole  proprietor  of  the  Repository^  and  on  the 
first  of  May  of  that  year  Col.  A.  K.  M'Clure  purcliased  a  half  inter- 
est in  the  paper,  and  in  Sej^tember  following  obtained  the  entire 
control  of  it." 

"On  the  4th  of  July,  1853,  R.  P.  Hazelet,  who  for  some  time  had 
been  issuing,  semi-monthly,  a  ten  by  twelve  advertising  sheet,  called 
'■'•The  Omnibus,^''  began  the  publication  of  a  paper  called  "■The  Trans- 
cript.'''' In  October,  1854,  Geo.  Eyster  &  Co.  became  interested  with 
Mr.  Hazelet  in  the  Transcript.^  and  continued  to  publish  it  until 
December,  1855,  when  they  sold  it  to  Washington  Crooks  &  Co., 
who  about  the  same  time  i^urchased  the  Repository  from  Col.  M'- 
Clure. They  consolidated  tlie  two  papers  under  the  name  of  the 
^^  Repository  and  Transcrijyt.''''  A  few  years  after  they  sold  out  to  G. 
H.  Merkline  &  Co.  About  1861,  A.  N.  Rankin,  one  of  the  latter 
firm,  got  sole  control  of  the  paper.  Soon  after  Snively  Strickler, 
Esq.,  became  proprietor,  and  in  1863  he  sold  it  to  A.  K.  M'Clure  and 
H,  S.  Stbner,  who  again  changed  the  name  to  "  The  Franklin  Repos- 

"On  the  19th  of  April,  1861,  G.  H.  Merkline  &  Co.  started  the 
Semi- Weekly  JDisjyafoh.  It  continued  till  June,  1863,  when  it  was 
purchased  by  Messrs.  M'Clure  &  Stoner,  and  merged  in  tlie  Reposi- 
tory. On  the  30th  of  July,  1864,  the  Repository  office,  and  every- 
thing connected  with  it,  was  destroyed  when  our  town  was  burnt 
by  the  Rebels.  It  was  started  again  soon  after  in  the  lecture-room 
of  the  Presbyterian  churcli,  from  which  it  was  issued  till  June,  1866, 
when  it  was  removed  to  its  present  location." 

"On  the  1st  of  July,  1865,  '  The  Repository  Association '  was  formed, 
and  the  paper  was  issued  under  its  auspices,  with  Messrs.  M'Clure 
and  Stoner  as  editors  and  publishers.  On  the  30th  of  May,  1868, 
they  retired  and  Messrs.  Jere  Cook  and  S.  W.  Hays  obtained  con- 
trol of  it  as  editors  and  publishers.  On  the  1st  of  July,  1870,  Mr. 
Hays  retired  and  Mr.  H.  S.  Stoner  took  his  place,  and  the  paper  was 
published  by  Messrs.  Cook  and  Stoner  until  the  15th  of  August, 
1874,  when  it  went  into  the  hands  of  Major  John  M.  Pomeroy,  its 
present  owner  and  editor.  It  has  now  reached  the  ripe  old  age  of 
eighty-seven  years.  It  is  Republican  in  politics,  and  has  a  circula- 
tion of  about  2,200. 

The  first  English  Democratic  paper  that  I  have  been  able  to  hear 
of,  published  in  our  county,  was  called  '^ The  Franklin  Rrpuhlican," 

Historical  Sketch  of  FranJdin  County.  45 

and  was  started  by  William  Armour  about  the  year  ISOG.  He  was 
succeeded  by  Frederick  Goeb,  or  Geib,  and  Richard  White.  They 
published  two  papers,  one  in  German  and  one  in  English.  The 
German  part  of  the  office  was  owned  by  Goeb,  and  White  owned 
the  English  part.  About  the  year  1808  John  Hershberger  bought 
these  gentlemen  out. 

About  this  time  George  K.  Harper  was  publishing  a  German  paper 
in  the  same  office  with  the  Rcj^OHitory,  called  "■  Der  Eedlkhc  Regis- 
trator  "— "  The  True  Recorder."  This  paper  Mr.  Harper  sold  to  F. 
W.  Sehoepflin  about  the  year  1814,  who  removed  it  from  the  Repos- 
itory office  and  conducted  it  as  a  Democratic  paper  until  his  death, 
in  1825,  when  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  Henry  Ruby,  who  had 
learned  the  printing  business  with  Mr.  Schoepfiiu.  He  published 
it  until  1831,  when  he  discontinued  it. 

Mr.  Hershberger  conducted  "2'Ae  Franklin  Rcpuhlican^''  as  the 
Democratic  organ  of  the  county,  at  the  same  time  publishing  the  Ger- 
man paper  formerly  issued  by  INIr.  Goeb.  After  several  years  he  sold 
both  papers  to- Mr.  James  M'Farland,  by  whom  the  German  jiaper 
was  discontinued.  Mr.  M'Farland  sold  the  "■Republican''''  to  John 
Sloan,  about  the  year  1816,  who  continued  to  publish  until  his  death, 
in  1831.  Some  time  after  Joseph  Pritts  married  the  widow  of  Mr. 
Sloan,  and  thus  obtained  control  of  the  printing  office.  Mr.  Pritts 
was  then  a  strong  Democrat,  and  greatly  enlarged  and  improved  the 
paper,  and  as  a  reward  for  his  devotion  to  his  party  and  its  interests 
was  appointed  county  treasurer  for  several  years. 

In  the  year  1828  the  anti-Masonic  excitement  reached  its  height, 
and  Mr.  Pritts,  being  dissatisfied  with  the  course  of  the  Democratic 
party  in  relation  to  the  United  States  Bank,  and  on  other  political 
questions,  and  being  actuated  by  a  dread  of  the  pernicious  influence 
of  secret  societies  upon  the  future  of  the  country,  with  large  num- 
bers of  his  former  Democratic  associates,  joined  the  new  party  and 
purchased  the  ''Anti- Masonic  P7'ess,'^  a  paper  which  Mr.  James  Cul- 
bertson  had  shortly  before  established  here.  This  ijaper  Mr.  Pritts 
conducted  for  a  short  time,  as  only  he  could  conduct  a  newsi>aper, 
in  the  interests  of  the  anti-Masonic  party,  when  he  purchased  the 
^'■Franklin  Repository''''  and  consolidated  the  two  papers. 

When  Mr.  Pritts  ceased  to  publish  the  Republican  as  a  Democratic 
paper  the  Democratic  party  were  left  without  an  organ  in  our  county. 
But  in  the  year  1831,  or  thereabouts,  Messrs.  Henry  Ruby  and  James 
Maxwell  started  a  new  Democratic  paper  called  "The Franklin  Tele- 
graph.^^  After  publishing  it  for  about  six  or  seven  years,  they  sold 
it  to  Messrs.  Michael  C.  Brown  and  Hiram  Kesey,  who,  in 
the  j-ear  1841,  sold  it  to  John  Brand,  who  changed  the  name 
to  ^'The  Chambcrsburg  Times.^^  In  1843  he  sold  out  to  Frank- 
lin G.  May,  who,  in  1845,  associated  Mr.  Enos  R.  Powell  with 
himself  in  the  con<luction  of  the  paper.     In  1848  Mr.  May  retired 

46  HlstoHcal  Sketch  of  FranJdin  County. 

and  A-lfred  H.  Smith  took  his  place,  and  the  name  of  the  paper  was 
changed  to  "  T'^e  Cwm6er^a»d  Valley  Sentinel.^''  In  1851  Messrs.  B. 
F.  Nead  and  John  Kinneard  became  the  proprietors,  with  Joseph 
Nill,  Esq.,  and  afterwards  Dr.  William  H.  Boyle,  as  editors  On 
the  1st  of  July,  1852,  the  paper  passed  into  the  hands  of  Messrs. 
John  M.  Cooper  and  Peter  S.  Deehert,  and  was  merged  into  'TAe 
Valley  Spirit,^''  which  paper  these  gentlemen  had  removed  from 
Shippensburg  to  Chambersburg  about  a  year  i^reviously.  In  1857 
Messrs.  Cooper  &  Deehert  sold  the  paper  to  Messrs.  George  H.  Men- 
gel  &  Co.,  Dr.  Boyle  continuing  as  editor.  In  1860  Messrs.  Mengel 
and  Ripper  became  the  owners.  Dr.  Boyle  continuing  as  editor. 

In  April,  1858,  Messrs.  R.  P.  Hazeletand  David  A.  Wertz  started  a 
paper  called  ''■The  Independent.''''  In  1859  they  sold  it  to  W.  I.  Cook 
and  P.  Dock  Frey,  who  changed  its  name  to  '■'The  T'lmes.^''  Mr.  Cook 
retired  in  a  short  time,  and  gave  place  to  Mr.  M.  A.  Foltz.  In  1860 
Messrs.  Jacob  Sellers  and  Wm.  Kennedy  became  the  owners  of  The 
Times,  and  published  it  as  a  Democratic  paper.  In  1862  ISIessrs  H. 
C.  Keyser  and  B.  Y.  Hamsher  purchased  the  Va.Uey  Spirit  from 
Messrs.  Ripper  and  Mengel,  and  shortly  after  Mr.  Kennedy  associa- 
ted himself  and  his  paper  with  them,  and  the  name  of  the  paper 
was  changed  to  that  of  "  The  Spirit  and  Times,^^  and  published  by  B. 
Y.  Hamsher  &  Co.  In  1803  Mr.  Kennedy  retired  and  the  name  of 
the  paper  was  again  changed  to  ''The  Valley  Spirit.''^  In  July,  1867,  J. 
M.  Cooper  &  Co.  again  became  the  owners.  In  September,  1867,  it 
passed  into  the  hands  of  Messrs.  Augustus  Duncan  and  Wm.  S. 
Stenger,  who  continued  its  publication  until  1876,  when  they  sold 
out  to  Mr.  Joseph  C.  Clugston,  the  i)resent  proprietor.  It  is  now 
edited  by  John  M.  Cooper,  Esq.,  is  Democratic  in  politics,  and  has 
a  circulation  of  2,160. 

The  following  newspapers  are  now  also  being  published  in  our 
county,  viz.  : 

The  "Public  Opiinion,^^  at  Chambersburg.  It  was  established  in  the 
year  1869  by  its  present  editor  and  proprietor,  Moses  A.  Foltz.  It  is 
Republican  in  politics,  and  has  a  circulation  of  about  1,700. 

The  "Mercersburg  Journal,''''  published  at  Mercersburg,  is  owned 
and  edited  by  M.  J.  Slick,  Esq.  It  is  neutral  in  politics,  and  has  a 
circulation  of  about  500.     It  was  established  in  1846. 

"The  Village  Record''  is  published  at  Waynesboro',  by  W.  Blair, 
who  is  editor  and  proprietor.  It  was  established  in  1847,  has  a  cir- 
culation of  about  1,000,  and  is  neutral  in  politics. 

"The  Valley  Echo''  is  published  at  Greencastle,  by  George  E. 
Haller,  editor  and  proprietor.  It  was  established  in  1867,  has  a  cir- 
culation of  about  500,  and  is  neutral  in  politics. 

"The  Keyatone  Qazette"  is  a  new  weekly  paper,  the  publication  of 
which  was  commenced  at  Waynesboro'  in  our  county,  about  the  1st 
of  September  last,  by  Messrs.  J.  C.  West  and  W.  J.  C.  Jacobs,  edi- 

Jlisiorical  Sketch  of  FranJcHn  County.  47 

tors  and  proprietoi'Hi.     It  is  Democratic  in  politics  and  claims  a  cir- 
culation of  about  five  hundred. 

The  '^Saturday  LocaV  is  a  weekly  newspaper  recently  started  at 
Chambersburg,  by  Joseph  Ponieroy  &  Co.     It  is  neutral  in  politics. 


On  the  first  of  October,  1794,  President  Washington  left  Philadel- 
phia for  the  western  part  of  this  State,  called  thither  by  the  troubles 
known  in  our  history  as  the  "Whisky  Insurrection."  He  was  ac- 
companied by  General  Henry  Knox,  the  Secretary  of  War  ;  General 
Alexander  Hamilton,  Secretary'  of  the  Treasury;  Hon.  Richard 
Peters,  Judge  of  the  District  Court  of  the  United  States  for  Penn- 
sylvania; Mr  Dandridge,  his  Private  Secretary,  and  others  of  his 
offlcial  family.  On  Friday,  the  4th  or' the  month,  the  party  reached 
Harrisburg,  and  on  Saturday,  the 5th,  Carlisle,  where  aconsiderable 
part  of  the  army  was  already  assembled.  The  President  remained  at 
Carlisle  until  the  11th  inst.  During  that  time  he  had  several  inter- 
views with  commissioners  from  the  insurgents,  who  wished  him  to 
disband  thearmy,  assuring  him  that  the  people  of  the  insurrectionary 
counties  would  obey  the  laws  without  marching  the  troops  out  there. 
He  refused  to  accede  to  their  request,  yet  he  assured  them  that  no 
violence  would  be  done,  that  all  that  he  desired  was  to  have  the 
people  come  back  to  their  allegiance. 

On  the  morning  of  Saturday,  the  11th  inst.,  the  Presidential  party 
left  Carlisle  and  reached  Chambersburg  that  evening.  Whilst 
here  they  stopped  with  William  Morrow,  wlio  kept  a  tavern  in  a 
stone  house  which  stood  on  south  Main  street,  on  the  lot  recently 
owned  by  Dr.  J.  C.  Richards,  dec'd.,  now  the  property  of  Peter  Bru- 
ner.  The  President  and  party  went  south  from  this,  through  Green- 
castle,  to  Williamsport,  Maryland,  and  from  thence  to  Fort  Cumber- 
land ;  but  as  they  did  not  reach  Williamsport  until  the  evening  of 
Monday,  the  13th,  the  presumption  is  that  they  remained  in  our 
town  over  Sunday,  the  12th  inst.,  as  it  is  well  known  that  President 
Washington  was  very  averse  to  doing  any  work  on  the  Lord's  Day 
which  could  be  avoided. 


For  three  or  four  years  ])rior  to  the  date  of  President  Washing- 
ton's visit  to  our  town,  the  larger  part  of  tlie  people  of  the  counties  of 
Fayette,  Allegheny,  Westmoreland  and  Washington,  in  our  State, 
had  been  in  open  rebellion  against  the  general  government,  because 
of  the  United  States  excise  tax  upon  whisky.  The  tax  was  origin- 
ally only  four  i^ence  per  gallon,  and  was  subsequently  reduced  be- 
low that  sum.  The  people  of  that  section  of  the  State  were  mainly 
the  descendants  of  Scotch-Irishmen,  who  hated  the  name  and  office 

48  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

of  an  exciseman.  There  were  no  temperance  societies  then  in  ex- 
istence, and  to  make  and  drink  whisky  was  common,  and  was  not 
regarded  as  disreputable  by  any  one ;  and  the  fame  of  their  "Old 
Monon^ahela"  was  proverbial  east  and  west.  The  only  surplus  pro- 
ducts of  the  people  of  that  region  were  corn  and  rye,  and  it  would 
not  pay  to  transport  them  to  the  eastern  markets  by  pack  hr)rses, 
the  only  means  they  had.  A  horse  could  carry  but  four  bushels  of 
rye  over  the  miserable  roads  then  in  existence,  but  he  could  carry 
the  product  of  twenty-four  bushels  in  the  shape  of  whisky.  They 
therefore  made  whisky  everywhere.  Almost  every  farmer  had  bis 
"still."  They  thought  that  as  they  had  cultivated  their  lands  for 
years,  at  the  peril  of  their  lives  every  hour,  and  had  fought  the 
savages  unaided  most  of  the  time  by  the  government,  which  gave 
them  little  protection,  the.y  had  a  right  to  do  as  they  jDleased  with 
the  surplus  products  of  their  labors.  And  so  they  made  it  into 
whisky,  knowing  that  it  could  be  easily  sliipped  east  to  a  market 
where  it  would  find  a  ready  sale.  They  denied  the  right  of  the 
government  to  tax  it,  refused  to  pay  the  tax,  tarred  and  feathered 
the  tax  collectors,  and  compelled  them  to  resign  theirofRces  or  leave 
the  country.  So  wide  spread  was  the  opposition  to  the  enforce- 
ment of  the  law,  and  so  inflamed  the  state  of  the  public  mind,  that 
it  was  found  necessary  to  send  a  large  body  of  troops  out  to  the  in- 
surrectionary districts  to  bring  the  people  to  reason  and  obedience. 

The  opposition  to  the  enforcement  of  the  excise  laws  was  not  con- 
fined exclusively  to  the  people  of  the  western  counties  of  the  State 
There  were  many  persons  east  of  the  mountains  who  were  very 
hostile  to  the  excise  laws,  and  who  sympathized  with  the  alleged 
grievances  of  their  western  friends  and  kinsmen.  General  James 
Chambers,  in  a  letter  from  Loudon  Forge,  to  A.  J.  Dallas,  Esq., 
Secretary  of  the  Commonwealth,  under  date  of  Se})tember  22d,  1794, 
says:  "On  the  16th  inst.  I  arrived  iu  Chambersburg,  and  to  my 
great  astonishment  I  found  the  Rabble  had  raised  what  they  Caled 
a  Liberty  pole.  Some  of  the  most  active  of  the  inhabitants  was  at 
the  time  absent,  and  upon  the  whole,  perhaps,  it  was  best,  as  mat- 
ters has  Since  taken  a  violent  change.  When  I  came  hear  I  found 
the  magistrates  had  opposed  the  sitting  of  the  pole  up,  to  the  utmost 
of  their  power,  but  was  not  Supported  by  the  majority  of  the  Citty- 
zens.  They  wished  to  have  the  Royators  Subject  to  Law,  and  (Mr. 
Justice  John  Riddle,  John  Scott  and  Christian  Oyster)  the  magis- 
trates of  this  place  informed  me  of  their  zealous  wish  to  have  them 
brougiit  to  Justice.  I  advised  them  to  Call  a  meeting  of  the  inhab- 
itants of  the  town  on  the  next  morning,  and  we  would  have  the 
matter  opened  to  them,  and  Show  the  necessity  of  Soporting  Gov- 
ernment, Contrassed  with  the  destruction  of  one  of  the  best  govern- 
ments in  the  world." 

The  meeting   was   held   in  the  "Coorthous"— Mr,   John   Riddle 

Ifistorical  Sketch  of  Fran/din  Count)/.  49 

delivered  "a  very  animating  address"  to  the  people — Resolves  were 
passed  and  drawn  up  for  the  people  to  sign,  pledging  them  to  sup- 
port the  Justices  in  their  efforts  "to  bring  the  Royators  to  tryal," 
and  General  Chambers  continues:  "I  am  now  hapjjy  to  have  in 
my  power  to  request  you,  Sir,  to  inform  his  Excellency,  the  Gove- 
nour,  that  these  exertions  has  worked  the  desired  Change.  The  mag- 
istrates has  sent  for  the  men,  the  very  Same  that  Errected  the  pole, 
and  I  had  the  pleasure  of  Seeing  them,  on  Saturday  Evening,  Cut 
it  down  ;  and  with  the  Same  waggon  that  brought  it  into  town,  they 
were  oblidgeed  to  draw  the  remains  of  it  out  of  town  again.  The  Cir- 
cumstance was  mortifying,  and  they  behaived  very  well.  They 
seem  very  penetant,  and  no  person  offeretl  them  any  insult.  It  has 
worked  such  a  change.  I  believe  we  will  be  able  Shortly  to  Send 
our  Quota  to  Carlisle." 

Liberty  poles  were  also  erected  at  Carlisle  and  other  places,  and 
the  peo[)le  everywhere  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  State  were  very 
reluctant  to  turn  out  at  the  c  tU  of  President  Washington  against 
the  "whisky  boys,"  whose  grievances  they  believed,  for  the  most 
part,  to  be  well  founded.  Secretary  Dallas,  in  his  report  to  the 
Senate,  under  date  of  September  10th,  1794,  said  :  "According  to 
the  information  I  have  received  from  several  parts  of  the  country, 
it  appears  that  the  militia  are  unwilling  to  march  to  quell  the  in- 
surrection. They  say  that  they  are  ready  to  march  against  a  foreign 
enemy,  but  not  against  the  citizens  of  their  own  State." 

The  troops  called  into  the  field  under  the  requisition  of  President 
Washington,  dated  the  7th  of  August,  1794,  numbered  12,950,  and 
were  from  Virginia,  Maryland,  New  Jersey  and  Pennsylvania. 
Those  from  New  Jersey  and  Pennsylvania  assembled  at  Carlisle, 
Governor  Thomas  Mifl^in,  of  Pennsylvania,  and  Governor  Richard 
Howell,  of  New  Jersey,  had  command  of  the  quotas  of  their  re- 
spective States — met  them  there,  and  in  company  with  President 
Washington  reveiwed  them.  The  Pennsylvania  troops  were  in  one 
Division  of  5,196  men,  under  the  command  of  Major  General  Wil- 
liam Irvine.  It  was  composed  of  three  Brigades,  the  first  com- 
manded by  Brigadier  General  Thomas  Procter,  the  second  by  Briga- 
dier General  Francis  Murray,  and  the  third  by  Brigadier  General 
James  Chambers,  of  our  county.  General  Cliambers'  Brigade  was 
composed  of  1,762  men,  568  of  whom  were  from  Lancaster  county, 
550  from  York  county,  363  from  Cumberland  county,  and  281  from 
Franklin  county.  Tliese  troops  passed  through  our  county  by  way 
of  Strasburg,  from  whence  they  crossed  the  mountains  to  Fort  Lyt- 
tleton  on  their  march  to  Pittsburg,  which  place  they  reached  in  the 
month  of  November  following.  Happily  the  supremacy  of  the 
laws,  and  the  enforcement  of  order,  were  secured  by  this  display  of 
power  on  part  of  the  G'-neral  Government,  without  firing  a  gun,  and 
without  any  of  the  sutlerings  or  losses  incident  to  a  state  of  actual 


Historical  Sketch  of  FranJdin  County. 

war.  On  Tuesday,  the  15th  of  November,  1794,  the  Pennsylvania 
troops  left  Pittsburg  on  their  return  home.  They  marched  by  way 
of  Greensburg,  Ligonier,  Bedford,  Sideling  Hill,  Fort  Lyttleton, 
Strasburg  and  Shippensburg,  to  Carlisle,  where  they  were  disbanded. 


According  to  the  assessment  lists  for  the  year  1786,  the 
of  our  county  numbered  two  thousand  three  hundred  and 
two,  divided  among  the  several  townships  as  follows,  viz.  : 









Peters,    . 





















Totals,  1,370  522  430    2,322 

In  1793  our  taxables  had  increased  to  three  thousand  five  huudred 
and  seventy;  and  our  whole  population  has  been  as  follows,  viz.  : 

In  1790, 15,655 

"    1800, 19,638 

"    1810,         23,173 

"    1820, 31,892 

"    1830, 35,037 

"    1840,         37,793 

"    1850, 37,956 

"    1860, 42,126 

"    1870 45,365 

So  that  we  have  not  quite  tripled  our  population  in  the  last 
eighty-six  years. 


The  following  statement  of  the  votes  cast  in  our  county  at  several 
of  the  earlier  elections  for  Governor  may  be  of  interest  as  showing 
the  progress  of  the  county  in  population  : 

Evangelical  LuTHERf^N  Church  of  creencastle  pa.     ^(^^285 

Rev.  Fred'k Klinefelter  pastor, 
erected  1875,  —  dimensions  —  48  x  85  feet. 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 


For  Governor, 

In  1790. 
Thomas  iMifflin 

Gen,  Arthur  St.  Clair 
For  Senator,  Abraham  Smith 

Robert  Johnston 
For  Representatives,  James  Johnston 

(two  elected) 
For  Sheriff, 

For  Coroner, 

For  Commissioner, 

For  Governor, 

For  Governor, 

For  Governor, 

James  M'Lene 
Henry  Work 
James  Irwin 
George  Clark 
George  Stover 
James  Poe 
Daniel  Royer 

In  1799. 
James  Ross 
Thomas  M'Kean 

In  1802. 
Thomas  M'Kean 
James  Ross 

In  1805. 
Simon  Snyder 
Thomas  M'Kean 

received,     1508  votes. 


"  985 

"  565 

"  1G5G 


"  792 




"  818 

"  588 




The  election  districts  and  vote  at  this  last  election  were  as  follows, 
viz. : 












][r  Kean. 





There  were  no  turnpikes,  no  canals  and  no  railroads  in  those  days. 
All  transportation  of  merchandize,  such  as  groceries,  iron,  salt,  &c., 
was,  as  already  stated,  by  pack  horses,  from  Winchester,  Hagers- 
town,  Chambersburg,  and  other  points  in  tiie  east,  across  the 
mountains  to  Bedford,  Fort  Cumberland,  Hanna's  town,  Pittsburg, 
and  other  points  in  the  west.  The  people  of  all  sections  of  the 
country,  east  and  west,  had  long  before  this  realized  the  fact  that 
the  pack  horses  of  the  day  were  not  equal  to  the  demands  of  the 
times  in  furnishing  transi^ortation  facilities.     The  Provincial  great 

52  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

roads,  opened  by  Pennsylvania  and  Virginia  for  the  use  of  General 
Braddock's  army,  from  Loudon  town  and  Wincliester  to  Fort  Cum- 
berland, were  originally  poorly  and  hastily  constructed,  had  become 
much  out  of  repair,  and  so  far  as  the  needs  of  Pennsylvania  were 
concerned,  were  useless  beyond  the  town  of  Bedford.  Accordingly, 
attention  was  turned  towards  making  better  roads.  Private  citizens 
subscribed  money  for  this  purpose,  many  of  the  townships  along  the 
lines  gave  pecuniary  aid,  and  in  1789  the  first  wagon  that  passed  over 
the  mountain  barriers  separating  the  east  from  the  west,  went  from 
Hagerstown,  Maryland,  to  Brownsville,  Pennsylvania.  It  was 
drawn  by  four  horses,  contained  two  thousand  pounds  of  freight, 
and  was  near  a  month  passing  over  the  road,  a  distance  of  about  one 
hundred  and  thirty  miles. 


The  first  turnpike  company  incorporated  in  the  State  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, was  "The  Philadelphia  and  Lancaster  Company,"  April  9th, 
1792.  In  a  few  years  quite  a  number  of  others  were  incorporated, 
but  it  was  not  until  about  the  years  18U-'21,  that  the  making  of 
turnpikes  seized  hold  upon  the  public  mind.  During  those  years 
the  State  became  a  large  subscriber  to  the  stock  of  various  turnpike 
companies,  I  suppose  because  the  Legislature  thought  that  the 
public  treasury  should  aid  in  the  making  of  improvements  designed 
for  the  public  benefit.  The  Carlisle  and  Chambersburg  road  received 
nearly  $100,000  from  the  State  ;  the  Chambersburg  and  Bedford  road 
$175,000;  and  the  Waynesboro',  Greencastle  and  Mercersburg  road 
about  $25,000.  The  State  got  but  few,  and  very  small  dividends  on 
these  investments,  and  some  twenty-five  years  ago  these  stocks 
were  sold  by  the  State  Treasurer  at  the  nominal  prices  of  from  fifty 
cents  to  a  dollar  per  shai'e.  The  roads,  however,  remain  ;  and  in  the 
days  of  wagoning  and  staging  they  were  of  vast  use  to  the  peojile, 
repaying  them  an  hundred  fold  the  public  moneys  invested  in  their 

We  have  now  eighty-eight  miles  of  turnpike  in  our  county,  viz. : 
Waynesboro',  Greencastle  and  Mercersburg,  forty-two  miles  ;  Cham- 
bersburg and  Bedford,  nineteen  miles  ;  Chambersburg  and  Carlisle, 
eleven  miles ;  Chambersburg  and  Gettysburg,  nine  miles ;  Green- 
castle and  Maryland  line,  five  and  a  half  miles;  and  Waynesboro' 
and  Maryland  line,  one  and  a  half  miles. 


The  first  stage  coach  line  from  Chambersburg  to  Pittsburg  was 
established  in  the  year  180-4.  The  doom  of  that  mode  of  travel  was 
sealed  when  the  locomotive  scaled  the  heights  of  the  Alleghenies; 
but  in  their  day  the  old  Concord  coaches  were  the  most  speedy  and 
most  pleasant  means  of  passing  from  the  east  to  the  west,  and  those 
who  can   remember  will  bear  me  out  in  sajnng  that  the  arrival  or 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Counfy.  53 

departure  of  half  a  dozen  coaches  of  the  rival  lines,  with  horns 
blowing,  streamers  flying,  and  h-.rses  on  the  full  run,  was  one  of 
the  most  inspiring  of  scenes.  It  was  witnessed  about  twice  a  day, 
at  any  time,  in  our  good  old  town,  some  thirty  years  ago. 


We  have  now  three  railroads  in  our  county,  viz.:  The  "Cumber- 
land Valley,"  which  embraces  the  old  "Franklin  Railroad,"  and 
extends  through  the  valley  from  Harrisburg  to  the  Maryland  line, 
a  distance  of  about  sixty-eight  miles;  the  "Mont  Alto  Railroad," 
twelve  and  thirty  one-hundredths  miles  long;  and  the  "Southern 
Pennsylvania  Railway,"  twenty-one  and  four-tenth  miles  in  length, 
making  a  total  railroad  mileage  in  the  county  of  about  fifty-nine 
and  thirty-four  one-hundredths  miles.  The  Cumberland  Valley 
Railroad  was  incorporated  in  1S31.  Work  was  commenced  upon 
it  in  1835,  and  in  August,  1837,  it  was  opened  from  Harrisburg  to 
Carlisle,  and  in  November,  1837,  to  Chambersburg.  Thomas  G. 
M'CuUoh,  Esq.,  was  its  first  President.  Upon  his  resignation  Hon. 
Frederick  Watts,  of  Carlisle,  succeeded  him,  and  served  for  some 
twenty-five  years.  In  1850  the  road  was  relaid  with  heavy  T  rails, 
at  a  cost  of  about  $270,000.  About  the  year  1865  a  consolidation  with 
the  Franklin  Railroad  was  effected,  whereby  the  Cumberland  Val- 
ley Railroad  was  extended  to  Hagei'stown,  Maryland,  In  1873 
Thomas  B.  Kennedy,  Esq.,  of  Chambersburg,  succeeded  to  the 
Presidency  of  the  road,  upon  the  resignation  of  Judge  Watts.  It 
now  has  a  continuous  line  of  road,  94  miles  in  length,  from  Harris- 
burg, Pennsylvania,  to  Martinsburg,  West  Virginia,  whilst  the  total 
length  of  the  main  line  and  its  connections  is  one  hundred  and 
twenty-five  miles.  The  Cumberland  Valley  Railroad  is  most  sub- 
stantially built,  with  convenient  and  tasteful  station-houses,  clean 
and  neat  cars,  first-class  engines  and  rolling  stock,  and  accommo- 
dating and  gentlemanly  conductors  and  other  emploj'es  ;  and  there 
is  no  better  constructed  or  better  managed  railroad  in  the  Common- 
wealth than  it  is.  The  total  cost  of  the  road  has  been  about  $2,500, 
000 ;  and  its  property  is  now  worth  fully  $3,500,000. 


By  an  act  of  Assembly  passed  the  24th  of  February,  1806,  the  State 
was  divided  into  ten  judicial  districts,  Adams,  Cumberland  and 
Franklin  counties  being  the  ninth  district.  By  the  15th  section  of 
the  same  act  the  Associate  Judges  of  the  courts  were  reduced  from 
four  to  two  in  each  county,  as  their  commissions  expired.  On  the 
first  of  March,  1806,  Hon.  James  Hamilton,  of  Carlisle,  one  of  the 
most  distinguished  lawyers  of  the  State,  was  appointed  President 
Judge  of  this  district,  and  served  until  the  13th  of  March,  1819,  when 
he  died  suddenly  at  Gettysburg  whilst  holding  court. 

54  Historical  Slcefch  of  FranJdln  County. 


By  the  act  of  the  11th  of  March,  1809,  the  Southern  District  of  the 
Supreme  Court,  composed  of  the  counties  of  Cumberland,  Franklin, 
Adams,  Bedford  and  Huntingdon,  was  created,  the  sessions  to  be 
held  annually  at  Chanibersburg.  This  act  was  repealed  and  the 
district  abolished  by  the  act  of  the  14th  of  April,  1834,  reorganizing 
the  Supreme  Court,  but  during  the  intervening  twenty-five  years, 
the  Supreme  Court  sat  annually  in  our  old  court  house,  and  Chief 
jTistices  Tilghman  and  Gibson,  and  Justices  Yeates,  Breckenridge, 
Duncan,  Huston,  Rogers,  Tod,  Smith,  Ross,  Kennedy  and  Ser- 
geant, delivered  there  some  of  the  ablest  and  most  important  judi- 
cial opinions  to  be  found  in  our  State  Reports. 


The  first  bank  established  in  our  county  was  started  in  the  year 
1809,  under  "Articles  of  Association,"  with  a  capital  of  $250,000,  in 
two  thousand  five  hundred  shares  of  $100  00  each.  It  was  called  the 
"Chambersburg  Bank,"  and  was  simply  a  private  organization,  re- 
ceiving deposits  and  discounting  notes,  drafts,  &c,  Edward  Craw- 
ford was  President  and  Alexander  Calhoun,  Cashier,  and  the  follow- 
ing persons  were  the  first  Board  of  Directors,  viz. :  John  Calhoun, 
Mathias  Maris,  John  HoUiday,  Jacob  Whitmore,  John  Shryock, 
Wm.  M.  Brown,  Jacob  Heyser,  Patrick  Campbell,  (of  Peters),  Peter 
Eberly  and  James  Riddle.  It  continued  to  do  business  under  these 
articles  of  association  until  the  year  1814,  when  it  was  merged  into 
the  "Bank  of  Chambersburg,"  under  the  Omnibus  act  of  that  year, 
next  referred  to. 

On  the  21st  of  March,  1813,  an  act  was  passed  by  the  Legislature 
"Regulating  Banks,"  which  divided  the  State  into  twentj'-seven 
districts  and  provided  for  the  creation  of  forty-one  new  banks,  with 
a  capital  of  over  $17,000,000.  It  gave  the  county  of  Franklin  two 
banks,  one  to  be  called  the  "Bank  of  Chambersburg,"  with  a  capi- 
tal of  $600,000,  the  other  "The  Farmers'  and  Mechanics'  Bank  of 
Greencastle,"  with  a  capital  of  $250,000.  Governor  Snyder  vetoed 
the  bill,  but  at  the  next  session,  on  the  21st  of  March,  1814,  it  was 
"log  rolled"  through,  notwithstanding  the  veto. 

The  'Bank  of  Chambersburg,"  now  the  "National  Bank  of  Cham- 
bersburg," has  been  in  full  operation  ever  since,  and  deservedly 
ranks  as  one  of  the  best  conducted  and  most  reliable  banking  insti- 
tutions in  the  State. 

"The  Farmers'  and  Mechanics'  Bank  of  Greencastle"  was  duly 
organized  under  its  charter  of  1814,  but  from  some  causes  now  un- 
known, soon  got  into  trouble,  and  about  the  year  1818  failed  most 
disastrously,  entailing  financial  trouble  and  ruin  upon  almost  every 
person  connected  with  it. 

Historical  SJcetch  of  Franklin  Counfy.  55 

In  iiddition  to  the  National  Bank  of  Cbambersburg,  wliieli  has  a 
capital  of  15260,000,  we  have  now  in  operation  in  this  county,  tlie 
National  Bank  of  Greencastle,  with  a  capital  of  $100,000  ;  the  Na- 
tional Bank  of  Waynesboro',  capital  $75,000;  the  F'rankHn  County 
Bank,  at  Chambersburg,  with  a  capital  of  $65,000;  and  the  Farmers' 
Bank  of  Mercersburg,  with  a  capital  of  some  $20,000.  The  last  two 
are  banks  of  discount  and  deposit  alone,  owned  by  individuals. 


About  the  year  181S  the  first  attempt  was  made  to  introduce  water 
into  our  town.  It  was  taken  from  the  Falling  Spring,  about  »  Jialf 
mile  east  of  the  railroad  bridge,  being  forced  thence  to  the  reservoir 
(which  was  where  the  dwelling  of  Samuel  Myers  now  is)  by  the 
power  of  the  stream  acting  upon  the  buckets  of  a  large  water  wlieel 
placed  in  the  current.  The  pipes  extended  tlirough  Market  street 
to  Franklin,  a  short  way  on  Second  street,  and  on  Main  street  from 
King  street  ta  German.  Tliere  were  no  flre  plugs — nothing  but 
hydrants  for  family  use — and  the  reservoir  being  small,  the  works 
were  wholly  useless  in  times  of  tire.  The  i^ipes  soon  rotted  out,  and 
by  the  year  1823  the  whole  thing  was  abandoned.  Being  very  prim- 
itive in  all  their  appointments,  these  works  could  not  have  been 
very  expensive,  although  some  of  our  old  citizens  say  that  they  cost 
about  forty  thousand  dollars. 

Our  present  excellent  water  works  are  the  property  of  the  borough, 
constructed  through  the  energy  of  our  Town  Council.  They  are  said 
to  be  well  built,  and  reflect  great  credit  upon  all  connected  with 
their  erection.     Their  total  cost  is  about  fifty-five  thousand  dollars. 


The  manufacture  of  writing  and  i)rinting  paper  was  commenced 
at  Chambersburg,  or  Chambers'  town,  as  it  was  then  called,  by  Jolin 
Scott  &  Co.,  in  September,  1788,  and  for  about  eight  years  thereafter 
the  newspapers  at  Pittsburg,  and  west  of  the  mountains  generally, 
were  supplied  from  this  point.  The  paper  was  transported  upon 
pack  horses,  hundreds  of  which  could  at  any  time,  as  late  as  1796,  be 
found  loading  witli  merchandize  at  Strasburg,  Loudon,  Mereersburg 
and  Chambersburg,  for  the  westeru  country. 


straw  paper  was  manufactured  at  Chambersburg  as  early  as  1831, 
by  George  A.  Shryock  and  Dr.  Samuel  D.  Culbertson.  It  never  got 
into  general  use  in  the  mercantile  community,  being  too  brittle  for 
wrapping;  but  in  the  shape  of  binders'  boards,  and  in  other  styles 
of  manufacture,  it  met  with  large  sales,  and  proved  very  remuner- 
ative to  those  engaged  in  the  business. 

56  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 


By  the  Constitutions  of  1776  and  1790  (eacli)  it  was  provided  that 
a  system  of  Public  Free  Schools  should  he  founded  in  each  county, 
for  the  instruction  of  the  poor ;  and  this  was  done  by  the  public 
paying  those  who  kept  private  pay  schools  to  instruct  the  indigent 
poor  who  were  sent  to  them.  It  was  not,  however,  until  about  the 
year  1836  (or  forty  years  ago)  that  the  present  magnificent  Common 
School  System  of  our  State  was  established.  At  first  it  was  bitterly 
opposed  in  many  parts  of  the  Commonwealth,  and  many  years 
elapsed  before  it  was  generally  adopted.  In  our  county  there  were 
last  year  two  hundred  and  fifty-four  schools,  kept  open  an  average 
of  six  months,  having  in  them  one  hundred  and  ninety  male,  and 
seventy-two  female  teachers.  The  number  of  male  scholars  in  these 
schools  was  six  thousand  three  hundred  and  seven,  and  of  females 
five  thousand  two  hundred  and  twenty-eight.  The  total  receipts 
were  $86,860.42,  and  the  expenditures  9^82,623.40,  of  which  $49,698.47 
were  applied  to  the  payment^  or'  teachers'  salaries,  and  the  balance  to 
other  expenses. 


In  addition  to  the  facilities  afforded  by  our  common  schools  to  the 
youth  of  our  county,  both  male  and  female,  to  obtain  a  complete 
education,  we  have  the  "Mercersbury:  College"  at  Mercersburg,  in  a 
department  of  which  Theology  is  also  taught,  of  which  Professor 
E.  E.  Higbee,  D,  D.,  is  Principal ;  the  "Chambersburg  Academy" 
at  Chambersburg,  of  which  Professor  J.  H.  Shumaker  is  Principal ; 
the  "Kennedy  Academy"  at  Welsh  Run,  of  which  Rev.  J.  H. 
Fleming  is  Principal ;  the  "Wilson  College"  (for  females)  at  Cham- 
bersburg, of  which  Rev.  W.  F.  Wylie,  A.  M.,  is  President;  and  the 
"Mercersburg  Female  Seminary"  at  Mercersburg,  of  which  Rev.  J. 
H.  Hassler  is  Principal.  Besides  these  there  are  a  number  of  other 
private  schools  of  a  high  grade  in  various  parts  of  the  county, 
wliere  both  a  common  and  classical  education  may  be  acquired. 


In  the  late  war  of  the  Rebellion  our  county  suffered  more,  and 
our  people  lost  more,  than  any  other  county  in  the  northern  States. 

Ours  was  the  debatable  ground  over  which  friend  and  foe  alike 
passed  at  discretion  in  the  carrying  out  of  their  military  oj>erations, 
and  by  cacli  were  our  people  caused  to  suffer.  Under  the  authority 
of  a  Union  (jtovernor  of  Pennsylvania,  the  horses,  saildlos,  bridles, 
«fec.,  of  our  rural  population  were  seized  and  taken  for  the  public 
use,  and  many  of  these  seizures  have  never  been  paid  for.  Tiie 
Confederate  troops  raide(l  upon  our  county  several  times  and  stripped 
our  people  of  their  horses,  their  wagons,  their  carriages,  tlieir  cattle, 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  57 

their  merchandize  and  their  money;  and  in  1S63,  Lee,  the  great 
captain  of  the  hosts  of  the  rebellion,  with  the  pride  andflowerof  his 
following,  near  one  hundred  thousand  strong,  invaded  our  county 
and  held  it  in  his  undisputed  control  for  three  weeks  or  more. 

During  all  the  years  of  the  rebellion  the  people  of  the  border 
counties  were  in  all  things  loyal  to  the  government.  Upon  us  the 
waves  of  the  rebellion  beat,  and  our  sufferings  and  losses  were  the 
protection  of  the  people  of  other  parts  of  our  Commonwealth.  Dis- 
interested, unprejudiced  and  sworn  appraisers  have,  for  the  third 
time,  said  that  the  losses  of  the  border  counties  were  $3,452,515.95, 
distributed  as  follows,  viz. : 

Somerset  county, $  120  00 

Bedford  "  6,818  03 

Fulton  "  56,504  98 

Franklin        "  846,053  30 

Chambersburg,  1,625,435  55 

Adams  county,  489,438  99 

York  "  -  216,366  15 

Cumberland  and  Perry  counties,       .        .        .         211,778  95 

$3,452,515  95 
And  yet  the  representatives  of  the  great  State  of  Pennsylvania 
have  hitherto  turned  a  deaf  ear  to  the  petitions  of  our  plundered 
people,  many  of  whom  lost  their  all.  Not  one  penny  has  ever  been 
given  to  the  peoples  ot  any  of  these  districts,  save  to  the  burned  out 
population  of  Chambersburg,  who,  after  much  tribulation  and  many 
years  waiting,  obtained  less  than  fifty  per  cent,  of  their  losses. 

In  the  great  fire  of  30th  July,  1864,  by  which  the  town  of  Cham- 
bersburg was  destroyed,  the  following  buildings  were  burned,  viz.: 

Residences  and  places  of  business, 278 

Barns  and  stables, 98 

Out-buildings  of  various  kinds 173 

Total 549 

The  total  losses  of  the  people  of  the  town  have  been  appraised  at 
$1,625,435.55,  of  which  near  $785,000  was  for  real  estate  alone.  The 
county  was  also  a  great  sufferer,  and  her  losses  are  not  included  in 
this  estimate.  Our  beautiful  court  house,  which,  in  1843,  cost  us 
$44,545  16,  was  totally  destroyed,  and  the  rebuilding  of  it  cost  our 
people  $52,083.25,  though  the  old  walls  were  used.  But  the  greatest 
loss  our  people  sustained  was  in  the  destruction  of  the  large  mass  of 
our  public  records,  which  were  burned  with  the  court  house.  Their 
loss  is  irreparable.  They  never  can  be  restored,  and  it  is  only 
among  the  legal  fraternity  that  the  magnitude  of  the  calamity  is 
duly  appreciated.  I  have  known  more  than  one  case  where  minors 
have  lost  their  whole  estates,  by  reason  of  the  destruction  of  these 

58  Historical  Sketch  of  FranJdin  County. 

records,  and  their  consequent  inability  upon  coming  of  age  to  prove 
wlio  were  their  guardians,  or  the  bail  of  these  guardians;  and  iu 
other  cases  where  the  names  of  the  guardians  were  known,  but  have 
become  insolvent,  the  moneys  in  their  hands  have  been  lost,  because 
of  inability  to  prove  who  their  securities  were. 


Nine-tenths  of  the  first  white  inhabitants  of  the  Cumberland  val- 
ley were,  as  has  already  been  stated,  Scotch-Irish,  with  some  Eng- 
lishmen and  pure  Scotchmen  amongst  them.  They  were  generally 
of  the  better  class,  brought  up  to  regard  the  laws  of  God  and  man  ; 
the  most  of  them  being  members  of  some  church.  They  were, 
therefore,  desirable  additions  to  the  population  of  the  country  ;  good 
citizens,  who  generally  lived  at  peace  with  each  other,  and  when 
they  did  violate  the  law,  their  crimes  were  not  of  a  very  heinous 
character.  Their  morality  was  regulated  by  the  ideas  of  the  age  in 
which  they  lived,  and  in  those  days  many  things  were  thought  quite 
proper  and  right  which  would  not  now  meet  with  approval.  The 
use  of  strong  liquors  was  general  amongst  them,  and  to  an  excessive 
indulgence  in  them,  was  attributable  most  of  their  departures  from 
the  rules  of  right  and  good  conduct.  Hence  the  crimes  that  our 
courts  in  early  times  were  most  often  called  upon  to  try  and  punish 
were  petty  larcenies,  assaults  and  batteries,  riots,  &c.  The  higher 
crimes,  such  as  arson,  burglary,  robbery  and  murder  were  of  rare 
occurrence  among  the  inhabitants  of  this  valley.  Indeed,  I  do  not 
know  of  a  single  instance,  in  this  county,  at  least,  where  a  Scotch- 
Irishman  was  convicted  of  either  of  these  offences.  There  have 
been  but  five  capital  convictions  in  our  county,  so  far  as  I  have  any 
record,  since  its  organization,  over  ninety-two  years  ago.  Four  of 
these  were  for  murder  and  one  for  rape. 

At  a  court  of  Oyer  and  Terminer,  held  at  Chambersburg,  in  No- 
vember, 1785,  before  Hon.  Thomas  M'Kean,  Chief  Justice  of  the 
Supreme  Court,  John  Hanna,  of  Franklin  township,  and  Josiah 
Ramage,  of  Letterkenny  township,  were  severally  convicted  of 
murder  in  the  first  degree. 

The  names  of  the  grand  jurors  who  found  the  indictments  were  as 
follows,  viz.  :  James  Maxwell,  foreman,  William  M'Dowell,  Thomas 
Johnston,  George  Matthews,  John  M'Clay,  James  Findlej',  Johu 
Allison,  James  Watson,  Frederick  Byers,  William  Scott,  Elias 
Davidson,  Richard  Beard,  Charles  M'Clay,  Nathan  M'Dowell, 
James  Chambers,  Patrick  Maxwell,  William  Rannels,  Matthew 
Wilson,  .lames  Moore  and  James  Campbell. 

John  Hanna  was  charged  with  having  murdered  John  Devebaugh, 
on  the  22d  day  of  June,  1785,  near  the  Catholic  church  in  Cham- 
bersburg, by  striking  him  with  an  iron  stone  auger.     The  names  of 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  59 

the  jurors  who  tried  him  were  Robert  Wilson,  John  Cunningham, 
John  Lawrence,  John  Gaff,  Robert  M'Karland,  Robert  Patton, 
James  Withers,  Matthew  Ferguson,  William  Strain,  John  Young, 
Thomas  Lucas  and  James  M'Farland.  The  crime  was  committed 
in  the  heat  of  passion,  growing  out  of  a  sudden  quarrel,  and  strong 
efforts  were  made  for  his  pardon.  Such  was  the  influence  brought 
to  bear  in  his  favor  that  the  Supreme  Executive  Council  at  its  next 
meeting,  on  the  17th  of  December,  1785,  refused  to  issue  a  warrant 
for  his  execution. 

Josiah  Ramage  was  charged  with  having  killed  his  wife,  Mary 
Raraage,  on  the  24th  of  March,  1785,  in  Letterkenny  township,  by 
striking  her  on  the  head  with  a  pair  of  Are  tongs.  The  names  of 
the  jurors  who  tried  him  were  John  Young,  James  M'Farland, 
James  Withers,  Robert  Davidson,  William  Berryhill,  Robert  M'- 
Farland, John  Lawrence,  Daniel  Miller,  John  Cunningham,  Wil- 
liam Strain,  Robert  Wilson  and  Gean  Morrow. 

The  cases  of  Hanna  and  Ramage  were  again  before  the  Supreme 
Executive  Council  on  the  6th  of  April,  1786,  when  it  was  ordered 
that  they  should  be  executed  on  Wednesday,  the  third  day  of  May, 
of  that  year;  and  they  were  on  that  day  hung  by  Jeremiah  Talbot, 
the  first  Sheriff  of  the  county,  who  was  paid  by  the  county  in  the 
year  1788,  a  fee  of  £9,  4  shillings  therefor. 

A  negro  slave,  named  Jack  Durham,  the  property  of  Andrew 
Long,  of  this  county,  was  convicted  of  the  crime  of  rape,  at  a  court 
of  Oyerand  Terminer,  held  on  the  3d  day  of  June,  1788,  before  Hon, 
Thomas  M'Kean,  Chief  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court,  and  Wm. 
Augustus  Atlee  and  George  Bryan,  his  Associates,  and  on  the  21st 
of  June  of  that  year  the  Supreme  Executive  Council  ordered  that 
his  execution  be  "made  and  done"  on  Tuesday,  the  8th  day  of  July 
following.  John  Johnston,  the  second  Sheriff  of  our  county  exe- 
cuted Durham,  and  was  paid  by  the  county  a  fee  of  £7,  10  shillings 

The  crime  was  committed  at  Southampton  township,  upon  the 
person  of  one  Margaret  Stall.  The  jury  valued  Durham  at  thirty 
pounds,  Pennsylvania  currency,  or  $80.00,  which  was  paid  his  owner 
by  the  Commonwealth.  The  names  of  the  jurors  who  tried  him 
were  John  Ray,  George  King,  Robert  M'Culloeh,  James  Erwin, 
Robert  Parker,  Edward  Crawford,  Robert  Culbertson,  John  M'Mul- 
lan,  Henry  Pawling,  John  M'Clellan,  William  Henderson  and  Jo- 
seph Chambers. 

On  the  12th  day  of  November,  1807,  a  man  named  John  M'Kean 
was  convicted  of  the  murder  of  his  wife,  in  Washington  township, 
on  the  30th  of  August  previously,  and  was  executed  by  Jacob  Sny- 
der, Esq.,  Sheriff  of  our  county,  on  the  22d  day  of  December,  1807. 
He  was  the  last  man  executed  in  this  county. 

The  jury  who  tried   M'Kean    were   Thomas  Anderson,    Henry 

60  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

Davis,  John  Witherow,  Christian  Kryder,  James  Smith,  David 
Jolin,  William  Brewster,  James  M'Curdy,  (of  James),  Jolin  Holli- 
da^',  David  Kennedy,  John  Irvin  and  Jacob  Smith,  of  Lurgan. 

John  Murtaugh,  an  Irisli  raih'oad  hand  employed  in  the  making 
of  the  "Tape-worm,"  as  the  railroad  leading  from  Gettysburg  to- 
wards Hagerstown  was  called,  was  convicted  at  the  April  sessions, 
1838,  of  the  murder  of  one  of  his  fellow  workmen,  named  James 
M'Glinchey,  and  sentenced  on  the  7th  of  April,  1838,  to  be  hung, 
but  he  became  insaneafter  his  conviction,  was  several  times  respited, 
and  finally  died  in  prison. 

Ramage  and  Hannawere  hung  on  the  hill  north  of  the  present 
residence  of  Jacob  Nixon,  and  Durham  and  M'Kean  east  of  tlie 
present  residence  of  William  M'Lellan,  Esq.,  about  where  the  new 
residence  of  James  A.  M'Knight  has  been  built.  Hence  that  hill  was 
called  for  many  years  "Gallows  Hill." 

Much  of  the  criminal  business  of  our  county  for  the  last  fifty  years, 
indeed  the  most  of  it,  even  up  to  and  including  the  present  period, 
has  been  caused  by  the  presence  of  the  large  number  of  colored  peo- 
ple amongst  us.  Our  Commonwealth  having,  as  early  as  1780,  passed 
"An  act  for  the  gradual  abolition  of  slavery"  within  her  borders,  it 
became  a  common  occurrence  for  the  free  negroes  of  Maryland  and 
Virginia  to  leave  those  States  and  remove  to  Pennsylvania,  and  our 
county  being  immediately  i;pon  the  dividing  line  between  the  free 
and  the  slave  States,  they  were  content,  as  soon  as  they  got  north  of 
that  line,  to  settle  down  and  remain  where  they  were  safe  from  the 
oppressive  laws  of  their  former  condition  of  servitude.  In  many 
instances  the  executors  of  deceased  slave  owners,  who  had  manu- 
mitted their  slaves,  brought  the  new  freedmen,  sometimes  number- 
ing thirty  or  forty  in  a  lot,  within  the  borders  of  our  county,  and 
there  left  them  to  provide  for  themselves.  To  these  causes  it  is  ow- 
ing that  we  have  had  so  many  colored  people  amongst  us.  Some  of 
them  were  sober,  industrious  and  economical,  but  the  greater  part 
of  them  were  improvident,  lazy,  and  addicted  to  the  use  of  strong 
drinks  whenever  tliey  could  get  them.  Hence  they  were  quarrel- 
some and  riotous,  and  through  their  improvidence  and  laziness  were 
frequently  before  our  courts  for  fighting  or  stealing,  or  were  the  in- 
mates of  our  poor  house,  from  want,  in  all  cases  taxing  our  treasury 
for  their  punishment  and  support. 

To  Pennsylvania  belongs  tlie  lasting  honor  of  being  the  first  one 
of  the  "United  Colonies"  to  acknowledge  before  God  and  the  na- 
tions of  the  world,  the  duties  and  obligations  resting  upon  her  to  do 
justice  to  the  colored  people  within  her  borders,  by  providing  for 
their  equality  before  the  law  as  men;  and  by  giving  to  them  and 
their  descendants  the  right  to  enjoy  the  inestimable  privileges  of 
life,  liberty,  and  happiness,  for  which  the  war  of  the  revolution 
was  then  being  waged  with  Great  Britain. 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  61 

On  the  Sth  of  February,  1779,  when  General  Joseph  Reed  was 
President  of  the  Supreme  Executive  Council  of  our  State,  George 
Brj'an,  Esq.,  Vice  President,  and  James  M'Lene,  Esq.,  a  Councilor 
from  the  county  of  Cumberland,  the  Council  called  the  attention  of 
the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  to  the  subject  of  the  abolition  of 
slavery  in  Pennsylvania,  in  language  so  remarkable,  because  of  its 
being  so  much  in  advance  of  the  sentiments  of  the  people  of  other 
sections  of  the  land  at  that  day,  and  so  different  from  the  views  held 
even  now  by  a  great  many  of  our  people,  both  north  and  south,  that 
I  feel  constrained  to  give  it  here. 

"We  think,"  said  they,  "we  are  loudly  called  on  to  evince  our 
gratitude  in  making  our  fellow  men  joint  heirs  with  us  of  the  same 
inestimable  blessings  we  now  enjoy,  under  such  restrictions  and 
regulations  as  will  not  injure  the  community,  and  will  impercepti- 
bly enable  them  to  relish  and  improve  the  station  to  which  they 
will  be  advanced.  Honored  will  that  State  be  in  the  annals  of  man- 
kind which  shall  first  abolish  this  violation  of  the  rights  of  man- 
kind ;  and  the  memories  of  those  will  be  held  in  grateful  and 
everlasting  remembrance  who  shall  pass  the  law  to  restore  and 
establish  the  rights  of  human  nature  in  Pennsylvania." 

On  the  first  day  of  March,  1780,  the  representatives  of  the  Key- 
stone State  of  the  Union,  in  General  Assembly  met,  in  the  city  of 
Philadelphia,  close  by  the  Congress  of  the  United  Colonies,  then 
also  in  session  there,  passed  Pennsylvania's  act  for  the  gradual  abo- 
lition of  human  slavery.  The  struggle  for  national  independence 
was  then  still  undetermined.  Continental  currency  had  depreciated 
so  much  that  one  dollar  of  specie  would  purchase  three  thousand  of 
currency.  The  British  on  the  east,  and  the  savages  on  the  west, 
pressed  hard  upon  the  struggling  patriots.  The  national  govern- 
ment was  without  credit;  the  army  and  the  navy  were  without  the 
material  needed  to  conduct  the  war  to  a  successful  ending ;  and  all — 
army,  navy,  and  people— were  sadly  straitened  for  the  necessaries  of 
life.  And  yet,  Pennsylvania's  representatives,  undismayed  by  their 
surrounding  ,  and  unheedful  what  the  representatives  in  Congress 
of  the  slave-holding  States  of  the  nation  might  think  of  their  action, 
gave  utterance  to  their  views  of  slavery,  and  the  conclusions  they 
had  come  to  about  it,  in  language  so  beautiful  and  so  forcible,  that 
justice  to  their  memory  impels  me  to  extract  the  Preamble  to  the 
law  they  then  enacted,  long  though  it  be,  as  I  am  satisfied  that  the 
great  majority  of  the  people  have  never  seen  or  read  it. 

I.  "When,"  say  they,  "we  contemplate  our  abhorrence  of  that 
condition,  to  which  the  arms  and  tyranny  of  Great  Britain  were 
exerted  to  reduce  us ;  when  we  look  back  on  the  variety  of  dangers 
to  which  we  have  been  exposed,  and  how  miraculously  our  wants, 
in  many  instances,  have  been  supplied,  and  our  deliverance  wrought, 
when  even  hope  and  human  fortitude  have  become  unequal  to  the 

62  Historical  Sketch  of  Franldin  Count}/. 

conflict,  we  are  unavoidably  led  to  a  serious  and  grateful  sense  of  the 
manifold  blessings  which  we  have  undeservedly  received  from  the 
hand  of  that  Being  from  whom  every  good  and  perfect  gift  cometh. 
Impressed  with  these  ideas,  we  conceive  that  it  is  our  duty,  and  we 
rejoice  that  it  is  in  our  power,  to  extend  a  portion  of  that  freedom 
to  otliers  which  hath  been  extended  to  us,  and  release  from  that 
state  of  thraldom,  to  which  we  ourselves  were  tyrannically  doomed, 
and  from  which  we  have  now  every  prospect  of  being  delivered.  It 
is  not  for  us  to  enquire  why,  in  the  creation  of  mankind,  the  in- 
habitants of  the  several  parts  of  the  earth  were  distinguished  by  a 
difference  in  feature  or  complexion.  It  is  sufficient  to  know  that 
all  are  the  work  of  an  Almighty  hand.  We  find  in  the  distribution 
of  the  human  species,  that  the  most  fertile,  as  well  as  the  most  bar- 
ren parts  of  the  earth  are  inhabited  by  men  of  complexions  diflfer- 
ent  from  ours,  and  from  each  other;  from  whence  we  may  reason- 
ably, as  well  as  religiously,  infer,  that  He,  who  placed  them  in  their 
various  situations,  hath  extended  equally  His  care  and  protection  to 
all,  and  that  it  becometh  not  us  to  counteract  His  mercies.  We 
esteem  it  a  peculiar  blessing  granted  to  us,  that  Ave  are  enabled  this 
day  to  add  one  more  step  to  universal  civilization,  by  removing,  as 
much  as  possible,  the  sorrows  of  those  who  have  lived  in  undeserved 
bondage,  and  from  which,  by  the  assumed  authority  of  the  kings  of 
Great  Britain,  no  efTectujil,  legal  relief  could  be  obtained.  Weaned 
by  a  long  course  of  experience,  from  the  narrow  prejudices  and  parti- 
alities we  had  imbibed,  we  find  our  hearts  enlarged  with  kindness 
and  benevolence  towards  men  of  all  conditions  and  nations ;  and 
we  conceive  ourselves  at  this  particular  period  extraordinarily 
called  upon,  by  the  blessings  which  we  have  received,  to  manifest 
the  sincerity  of  our  profession,  and  to  give  a  substantial  i^roof  of  our 

II.  "And  whereas,  the  condition  of  those  persons,  who  have  here- 
tofore been  denominated  negro  and  mulatto  slaves,  has  been  attended 
with  circumstances,  which  not  only  deprived  them  of  the  common 
blessings  that  they  were  by  nature  entitled  to,  but  has  cast  them 
into  the  deepest  afflictions,  by  an  unnatural  separation  and  sale  of 
husband  and  wife  from  each  other,  and  from  their  children,  an  in- 
jury, the  greatness  of  which  can  only  be  conceived  by  supposing 
that  we  were  in  the  same  unhappy  case.  In  justice,  therefore,  to 
persons  so  unhappily  circumstanced,  and  who,  having  no  prospect 
before  them  wherein  they  may  rest  their  sorrows  and  their  hopes ; 
have  no  reasonable  inducement  to  render  their  service  to  society, 
which  they  otherwise  might,  and  also  in  grateful  commemoration 
of  our  own  happy  deliverance  from  that  state  of  unconditional  sub- 
mission to  which  we  were  doomed  by  the  tyranny  of  Great  Brit- 
ain."    Therefore  be  it  enacted,  &c. 

How  different  these  ideas  and  purposes  from  those  entertained  by 

Hhtorlcal  Sketch  of  Iranklln  County.  03 

many  persons,  especially  in  the  southern  States,  at  the  present  day. 
Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  the  constitution  of  the  United  States, 
the  supreme  law  of  the  laud,  gives  to  all  men,  of  every  class  and 
color,  equal  rights  and  privileges,  its  provisions  are  wholly  disre- 
garded in  many  sections  of  the  Union,  to  the  everlasting  disgrace 
of  the  nation  and  the  States  permitting  it. 

It  is  to  be  deplored  that  the  criminal  business  of  our  county  has 
so  greatly  increased  of  late  years.  It  is  now  a  vast  and  constantly 
increasing  burthen  lo  our  people.  Twenty-five  years  ago  the  office 
of  Prosecuting  Attorney  was  one  that  a  lawyer  in  full  practice  cared 
not  to  accept,  because,  whilst  it  gave  considerable  trouble  to  the 
holder  of  the  office,  the  fees  received  from  it  afforded  no  adequate 
comi^ensation  for  the  labor  connected  with  the  discharge  of  its  duties. 
But  now  the  office  of  District  Attorney  is  amongst  the  most  desira- 
ble and  lucrative  positions  in  the  gift  of  our  people,  all  things  con- 
sidered. Much  of  the  increased  expenditure  in  our  criminal  courts 
is  attributable  to  the  indiscriminate  entertainment  by  magistrates  of 
charges  for  petty  offences  that  should  never  have  been  dignified  by 
being  brought  before  a  court  and  jury. 


In  the  early  days  of  the  settlement  of  the  Cumberland  valley, 
whilst  this  part  of  it  was  jei  in  Lancaster  and  Cumberland  counties, 
there  were  quite  a  number  of  our  citizens  who  figured  prominently 
in  the  military  matters  of  the  day.  Indian  forays,  murders,  pur- 
suits and  fights  were  quite  frequent,  and  numerous  lives  were  lost 
in  them.  Of  those  brave  and  hardy  pioneers,  in  most  instances,  we 
know  nothing  but  their  names.  They  were  more  active  in  making 
history  than  in  writing  it ;  and  of  many  of  them  we  have  no  records 
except  such  as  are  traditional.  Of  others  the  historians  have  spoken 
here  and  there,  and  it  is  their  deeds  aud  fame  that  I  wish  to  rescue 
from  oblivion. 

Among  the  earliest  of  these  of  whom  we  have  any  reliable  account 
is  Colonel  James  Smith,  a  native  of  Peters  township,  in  our  county. 
In  May,  1755,  whilst  engaged  with  others  in  opening  a  road  from 
Fort  Loudon  to  Bedford,  he  was  captured  by  the  Indians.  He  was 
subsefiuently  adopted  into  the  Caughnewaga  tribe,  remained  with 
them  until  1759,  then  escaped  to  Montreal,  and  got  home  in  1760. 
In  1763  he  was  actively  engaged  against  the  Indians  as  a  captain  of 
rangers.  He  next  served  as  an  ensign  in  the  English  Provincial 
army.  In  1764  he  took  service  under  General  John  Armstrong,  and 
was  a  lieutenant  in  Bouquet's  expedition  against  the  savages.  In 
1765  he  was  the  leader  of  a  band  of  settlers  who  burnt  the  goods  of 
some  Indian  traders  because  they  had  with  them  powder  and  lead, 
which  they  feared  would  be  sold  in  the  west  to  the  Indians,  and  be 

64  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

used  against  the  frontier  settlements.  A  number  of  the  residents  in 
tlie  neigliborhood  of  Mercersburg  and  Fort  Loudon,  who  had  noth- 
ing to  do  with  this  burning,  were  arrested  by  the  British  troops  and 
confined  at  Fort  Loudon.  Smith  and  his  "boys"  rallied  to  tlie 
rescue,  and  soon  took  more  of  the  soldiers  (Higlilanders)  prisoners 
than  there  were  of  their  friends  confined  at  the  fort.  An  exchange 
was  eflt'ected  and  Smitli's  neighbors  were  released. 

In  1769  some  settlers  were  arrested  and  confined  in  Fort  Bedford  for 
their  alleged  former  participation  in  the  destruction  of  the  goods  of 
the  Indian  traders.  Smith  raised  a  company,  marched  to  Bedford, 
captured  the  fort  and  all  its  garrison,  and  liberated  the  men.  Some 
time  afterwards  he  was  arrested  for  this  act,  and  in  the  struggle  his 
travelling  companion  was  shot  and  killed.  He  was  charged  witli 
the  shooting,  was  arrested  and  imprisoned  at  Bedford,  and  subse- 
quently taken  to  Carlisle  for  trial,  the  offence  having  been  com- 
mitted in  Cumberland  county.  A  body  of  six  hundred  of  his  old 
companions  and  neighbors  assembled  as  soon  as  they  heard  of  his 
arrest,  marched  to  Carlisle  and  demanded  his  release.  Smith  refused 
to  be  released,  made  a  speech  to  his  friends,  and  counseled  them  to 
return  home,  which  they  did.  He  remained  in  i)rison  for  four 
months,  was  tried  before  the  Supreme  Court  at  Carlisle,  in  1769,  and 
acquitted.  Shortly  after  he  was  elected  and  served  for  three  years 
as  a  County  Commissioner  in  Bedford  countj^,  then  removed  to 
Westmoreland  county  and  served  there  three  years  in  tlie  same 
office.  In  1774  he  was  captain  of  a  company  operating  against  the 
Indians.  In  1776  he  commanded  a  company  of  rangers  in  New 
Jersey,  and  w'ith  thirty-six  men  defeated  a  detachment  of  two  hun- 
dred Hessians,  taking  a  number  of  prisoners.  In  1776  he  was  elected 
a  member  of  the  Convention  of  Pennsylvania  from  Westmoreland 
county.  In  1777  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Assembly  from  that 
county,  and  re-elected  as  long  as  he  desired  to  serve.  In  1777  Gen- 
eral Washington  oflfi-red  him  a  commission  as  major,  but  not  liking 
the  colonel  of  the  battalion,  he  declined  it.  Whilst  serving  in  the 
Assembly  he  applied  for  and  got  leave  of  absence  to  raise  a  battalion 
of  rifle  rangers  to  serve  against  the  British  in  Xew  Jersey.  James 
M'Cammont,  of  this  county,  was  the  major  under  him,  and  when, 
afterwards.  Colonel  Smith  was  taken  sick,  took  the  command  of  his 
troops  and  did  good  service.  In  1778  he  was  commissioned  a  colonel, 
and  served  against  the  western  Indians.  In  the  expedition  against 
the  Frencli  Creek  Indians  he  commanded  a  battalion  of  four  hun- 
dred riflemen,  and  did  good  service.  In  the  year  1788  he  removed  to 
Bourbon  county,  Kentucky,  where  he  served  in  the  State  Conven- 
tion and  in  the  Legislature  continuously  till  1799,  and  died  about 
the  beginning  of  the  present  century. 

Major  General  James  Potter  was  another  of  these  ancient  wor- 
thies.   He  was  a  son  of  John  Potter,  the  first  Sherift'of  Cumberland 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  65 

county.  In  1758  he  was  a  lieutenant  in  Colonel  Armstrong's  bat- 
talion from  tliis  and  Cumberland  counties.  On  the  26th  of  July, 
1764,  he  appears  in  command  of  the  company  of  settlers  who  were 
pursuing  tlie  Indians  wlio  murdered  the  schoohiiaster  and  eliildren 
at  Guitner's  school  house,  a  few  miles  south-west  of  Marion.  He 
subsequently  removed  to  what  is  now  Centre  county,  where  lie  pur- 
chased a  large  body  of  land,  and  built  a  stockade  fort,  widely  known 
in  those  days  as  "Potter's  Fort."  He  was  appointed  a  brigadier 
general  April  5th,  1777,  and  a  major  general  Mny  23d,  1782.  He 
was  Vice  President  of  the  State  in  1781,  and  a  member  of  the  Coun- 
cil of  Censors  in  1784,  and  on  one  occasion  came  within  one  vote  of 
being  made  President  of  the  State.  In  the  year  1789,  having  received 
an  injury,  he  came  to  his  daughter's,  Mrs.  Poe,  near  Marion,  to  have 
the  advantage  of  the  advice  and  attendance  of  Dr.  John  M'Lellan, 
of  Greencastle.  He  died  there  in  the  fall  of  that  year,  and  was 
buried  in  the  Brown's  Mill  grave-yard.  No  monumental  stone 
marks  the  place  of  his  repose. 

Major  James  M'Calmont  (or  M'Cammont,  as  he  wrote  his  name) 
was  another  of  the  celebrated  men  of  this  region  of  our  State  in  the 
last  century.  He  was  l)orn  in  Letterkenny  township,  in  this  coun- 
ty, near  where  the  town  of  Strasburg  now  stands,  in  the  year  17.39. 
He  grew  up  surrounded  by  all  the  dangers  and  excitements  of  a 
frontier  life.  "With  the  hills  and  dales  of  his  native  district,  and  all 
the  wild  recesses  of  its  neighboring  mountains,  he  was  i^erfectly 
familiar.  His  soul  delighted  in  the  free  air  of  the  woods.  He  was 
skilled  in  the  use  of  the  rifle,  and  fear  was  an  emotion  unknown 
to  his  nature.  His  swiftness  of  foot  was  most  extraordinary,  and 
obtained  for  him  the  cognomen  of  "Supple  M'Cammont."  He  was 
generally  selected  as  the  leader  of  the  parties  called  into  service  to 
pursue  the  savages  whenever  they  made  an  incursion  into  the 
neighborhood  of  his  j^lace  of  residence ;  and  so  successful  was  he  in 
tracing  the  route  of  their  retreat,  or  discovering  their  haunts ;  and 
so  summary  was  the  vengeance  inflicted  upon  them  through  his 
efforts,  that  he  soon  became  quite  celebrated  as  an  Indian  scout,  and 
was  acknowledged  by  the  savages  as  a  daring  and  formidable  foe. 
He  was  an  ardent  patriot,  and  when  the  revolution  broke  out  hast- 
ened to  enter  the  service  of  his  country.  When  the  British  occu- 
pied Philadelphia  he  had  command  of  a  troop  of  rangers,  whose 
business  it  was  to  prevent  the  Tories  of  the  interior  furnishing  pro- 
visions to  their  friends  in  the  city.  Whilst  on  duty  one  time  in 
New  Jersey,  he  captured  a  number  of  Hessians,  whom  he  induced 
to  locate  near  Strasburg,  and  whose  descendants  are  there  yet.  He 
served  as  major  of  the  sixth  battalion  of  the  Cumberland  county 
troops  in  the  revolutionary  army,  under  command  of  Col.  Samuel 
Culbertson  of  this  county,  and  also  as  major  of  a  battalion  of  rifle 
rangers,  under  Colonel  James  Smith,  and  was  known  as  a  bravo 

66  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County 

and  accomplished  soldier.  He  was  one  of  the  trustees  appointed 
by  the  Legislature  to  build  a  court  house  and  jail  for  our  county. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  House  of  Representatives  from  thi>*  county 
for  the  years  1784-'85,  1785-'S6,  1786-'87,  and  1787-'88;  and  in  1789 
was  appointed  one  of  the  Judges  of  our  courts,  and  reappointed 
fourth  Associate  Judge,  under  the  constitution  of  1790,  on  the  17th 
of  August,  1791,  which  position  he  held  until  his  death,  on  tlie  19th 
of  July,  1809.  He  was  then  seventy-two  years  of  age,  and  lies 
buried  at  the  Rocky  Spring  church. 

Another  of  our  ancient  worthies,  whose  daring  adventures  have 
been  pored  over  by  every  school  boy  iu  the  land,  was  Captain 
Samuel  Brady,  the  celebrated  Indian  scout.  He  was  born  at  Ship- 
pensburg  in  1756  or  1758.  Though  not  a  native  of  our  county,  yet 
on  our  soil  many  of  his  earlier  days  Avere  spent  in  roaming  our  hills 
and  dales. 

"He  knew  each  pathway  through  the  wood. 
Each  dell  unwarmed  by  sunshine's  gleam  ; 
Where  the  brown  pheasant  led  her  brood, 
Or  wild  deer  came  to  drink  the  stream." 
The  first  drum-tap  of  the  revolution  called  him  to  arms,  and  he 
commenced  his  services  at  Boston,  and  was  in  most  of  the  principal 
engagements  of  the  war.  At  the  battle  of  Princeton  he  served  under 
Colonel  Hand,  and  at  the  massacre  of  Paoli  he  barely  escaped  cap- 
ture. After  the  battle  of  Monmouth  he  was  promoted  to  a  captain- 
cy and  ordered  to  Fort  Pitt  to  join  General  Broadhead,  with  whom 
he  became  a  great  favorite,  and  by  whom  he  was  almost  constantly 
employed  in  scouting.  The  murder  of  his  father  and  brother  in 
1778-'79,  by  the  Indians,  turned  the  current  of  his  hatred  against  the 
treacherous  red  man,  and  it  never  died  out.  A  more  implacable  foe 
never  lived.  Day  and  night,  year  in  and  year  out,  he  lived  only  to 
kill  the  Indians.  Being  well  skilled  in  all  the  mysteries  of  wood- 
craft, he  followed  the  trail  of  his  enemies  with  all  the  tenacity, 
fierceness  and  silence  of  a  sleuth  hound.  Most  of  his  exploits  took 
place  in  Ohio,  north-western  Pennsylvania,  and  western  New  York. 
He  was  a  dread  terror  to  the  Indians,  and  a  tower  of  strength  to  the 
whites.  He  commanded  the  advance  guard  of  General  Broadhead's 
troops  in  the  expedition  against  the  Indians  of  the  upper  Allegheny 
in  the  year  1780,  and  he  and  his  rangers  aided  greatly  in  defeating 
the  savages  under  Bald  Eagle  and  Corn  Planter,  at  the  place  now 
known  as  Brady's  Bend.  Of  his  famous  "leap"  of  more  than 
twenty-five  feet  across  the  Cuyahoga  river,  and  his  other  numerous 
and  daring  adventures  and  hair-breadth  escapes,  I  will  not  speak. 
The  l»o()ks  are  full  of  them.  He  died  at  West  Liberty,  West  Vir- 
ginia, about  the  year  ISiM). 

Colonel  Josei)h  Armstrong. was  an  early  settler  in  Hamilton  town- 
ship, in  this  county.    In  1755  he  organized  a  company  of  rangers  for 

Jllsforicnl  Sketch  of  PranJdin   Coiintij. 


the  protection  of  tlie  frontier  against  the  incursions  of  the  Indians. 
The  names  of  his  subordinate  officers  are  now  unknown,  but  the 
following  is  the  roll  of  the  men  who  composed  his  company. 


John  Armstrong, 

Thomas  Armstrong, 

James  Barnet, 

John  Barnet, 

Joshua  Barnet, 

Thomas  Barnet,  Sr., 

Thomas  Barnet,  Jr., 

Samuel  Brown, 

Samuel  Brown, 

John  Boyd, 

Alexander  Caldwell, 

Robert  Caldwell, 

James  Dinney, 

William  Dinney, 

Robert  Dixson, 
*\Villiam  Dixson, 

James  Eaton, 

John  Eaton, 

Joshua  Eaton, 
*James  Elder, 

George  Gallery, 

Robert  Groin, 

James  Guthrie, 

John  Hindman, 

Abram  Irwin, 

Christoplier  Irwin, 

John  Irwin, 

Joiin  Jones, 

James  M'Camant,  Sr., 

James  M'Camant,  Jr., 

Charles  M'Camant, 

James  M'Camish, 

John  M'Camish, 

William  INI'Camish, 
He  was  a  member  of  the  C 
He  commanded  a  comi)any  o 
rangers  above  named)  under 

Robert  M'Connell, 

John  M'Cord, 

William  M'Cord, 

Jonathan  M'Kearney, 

John  Machan, 

James  Mitchell, 

John  Mitchell, 

Joshua  Mitchell, 

William  Mitchell, 

Jon.  Moore, 

James  Norrice, 

John  Norrice, 

James  Patterson, 

Joshua  Patterson, 

William  Rankin, 

Jon.  Rippey, 

Barnet  Robertson, 

Francis  Scott, 

James  Scott, 

Patrick  Scott, 

William  Scott, 

David  Shields, 

Matthew  Siiields,  Sr., 

Matthew  Shields,  Jr., 

Robert  Shields,  Sr., 

Robert  Shields,  Jr., 

Jon.  Swan, 

Joshua  Swan, 

William  Swan, 

Charles  Stuart, 

Daniel  Stuart, 

John  Stuart, 

Devard  Williams, 

Jon.  Wilson, 
olonial  Assembly  in  17oG-'57  and  '58. 
f  militia,  (most  likely  the  company  of 
General  Broadhead  at  the  destruction 

*Wm.  Dixson  was  the  grandfather  of  Col.  W.  D.  Dixon,  of  St.  Thomas  town- 
ship, and  James  Elder  was  tlie  grandfather  of  Col.  James  G.  Elder  of  Cham- 

68  Historical  Sketch  of  Franldin  County. 

of  the  Indian  town  of  Kittanning,  on  the  Sth  of  September,  1756. 
Was  paymaster  of  the  Colony  in  the  building  of  the  great  road  from 
Fort  Loudon  to  Pittsburg,  and  in  December,  1776,  raised  a  battalion 
of  troops  in  the  county  of  Cumberland  (the  5th  battalion)  and 
marched  with  them  to  the  defence  of  Philadel])hia.  The  following 
jDersons  commanded  the  companies  of  his  battalion,  viz. :  John  An- 
drew, Samuel  Patton,  John  M'Connell,  William  Thompson,  (after- 
wards a  brigadier  general),  Charles  Maclay,  James  M'Kee,  John 
Martin,  John  Rea,  (afterwards  a  brigadier  general),  John  Murphy, 
George  Matthews  and  John  Boggs.  This  battalion  was  raised  in 
Hamilton,  Letterkenny  and  Lurgan  townships,  and  tradition  says 
that  they  were  the  flower  of  the  valley,  brave,  hardy  and  resolute 
Presbyterians,  nearly  all  members  of  the  old  Rocky  Spring  church. 
Captain  Maclay 's  comjjany  numbered  one  hundred  men,  raised  in 
old  Lurgan  township,  each  man  over  six  feet  in  height.  This  com- 
pany sufTered  severely  in  the  surprise  of  Brigadier  General  John 
Lacy's  command  at  "Crooked  Billet,"  in  Bucks  county,  on  the 
morning  of  the  4th  of  May,  1778.  Captain  Maclay  and  nearly 
one  half  of  his  men  were  killed,  and  many  were  wounded.  General 
Lacy,  in  his  report  of  the  battle,  says  "that  the  wounded  were 
butchered  in  a  manner  the  most  brutal  savages  could  not  equal ; 
even  while  living,  some  were  thrown  into  buckwheat  straw,  and  the 
straw  set  on  fire  and  burnt  up."  And  this  report  is  borne  out  by  the 
testimony  of  persons  residing  in  the  vicinity,  who  saw  theimrtially 
consumed  bodies  in  the  fire. 

Another  of  these  ancient  worthies,  whom  it  would  be  a  gross  in- 
justice not  to  mention  in  this  connection,  was  the  Rev.  John  Steele. 
He  was  called  to  the  charge  of  the  Presbyterian  churches  of  East 
and  West  Conococheague,  now  Greencastle  and  Mercersburg,  about 
the  year  1751  or  1752.  He  came  to  our  county  at  a  time  when  the 
country  was  greatly  disturbed  by  the  incursions  of  the  hostile  Indi- 
ans of  the  west.  Though  a  man  of  peace,  and  engaged  in  teaching 
the  doctrines  of  liis  Divine  Master,  yet  his  heart  burned  within  him 
at  the  sufTerings  inflicted  upon  his  parishioners  and  neighbors,  and 
he  speedily  organized  a  company  of  rangers  for  their  defence,  of 
which  he  was  unanimously  elected  the  captain,  and  was  commis- 
sioned by  the  colonial  government.  After  the  disastrous  defeat  of 
General  Braddock  in  1755,  the  Indians  again  swept  over  the  western 
and  south-western  i>art  of  our  county,  murdering  and  plundering 
the  settlers,  and  Mr.  Steele's  congregations  were  for  a  time  almost 
broken  up  and  dispersed.  Fre«iuent  mention  is  made  of  Mr.  Steele 
and  his  men  in  the  history  of  those  troublous  times.  Rev.  D.  K. 
Richardson,  in  his  Centennial  Sermon  in  relation  to  the  Presbyterian 
church  of  Greencastle,  delivered  August  15th,  1876,  says:  "At  one 
time  he  was  in  charge  of  Fort  Allison,  located  just  west  of  town, 
near  what  afterwards  became  the  site  of  M'Caulcy's  Mill.     The  con- 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  69 

gregation  had  assembled  in  a  barn  standing  on  the  farm  now  owned 
by  Adam  B.  Wingerd,  Esq.  They  brought  their  arms  with  them. 
When  Mr.  Steele  entered  the  rude  pulpit  which  had  been  erected,  he 
hung  his  liat  and  rifle  behind  him.  The  male  members  of  the  con- 
gregation sat  listening  to  the  gospel  message  witli  their  arms  at  their 
side.  While  in  the  midst  of  his  discourse,  some  one  apjDeared  and 
quietly  called  a  member  of  the  congregation  out,  and  told  him  of 
the  murder  of  a  family  of  the  name  of  Walker,  by  the  Indians,  at 
what  is  now  known  as  Rankin's  Mill.  The  awful  story  was  soon 
whispered  from  one  to  another.  As  soon  as  Mr.  Steele  discovered 
what  had  taken  place  he  brought  the  services  to  a  close,  took  down 
his  hat  and  rifle,  and,  at  the  head  of  the  membere  of  his  congrega- 
tion, went  in  pursuit  of  the  murderers." 

His  "meeting-house,"  on  the  West  Conococheague,  was  turned 
into  a  fort,  was  stockaded  for  defence,  and  often  was  the  refuge  of 
the  neighboring  people  when  the  country  was  Invaded  by  the  In- 
dians. It  was  afterwards  burned  by  the  savages  in  one  of  their 

About  the  year  1763  or  1764,  Mr.  Steele  took  charge  of  the  Presby- 
terian congregations  of  Carlisle  and  lower  Pennsborough,  where  he 
spent  the  remainder  of  his  days.  When  the  revolutionary  war 
broke  out  the  people  of  this  valley  responded  to  the  call  of  their 
country  with  zeal  and  unanimity.  Eleven  companies  were  raised  in 
Cumberland  county  in  a  few  days.  Hon.  George  Chambers,  in  his 
tribute  to  the  early  Scotch-Irish  settlers,  says:  "The  company  in 
the  lead  in  July,  1776,  from  Carlisle,  was  that  under  the  command 
of  the  Reverend  Captain  John  Steele,  pastor  of  the  Presbyterian 
congregation  worshipping  in  or  near  Carlisle.  In  the  Indian  wars 
he  had  acquired  military  training  and  experience,  which  were  now 
at  the  service  of  his  country  against  the  army  of  his  late,  but  now 
rejected,  royal  master." 

One  of  the  most  prominent  of  the  military  families  of  our  county 
in  those  early  days  was  the  "Johnstons,"  of  Antrim  township. 
James  Johnston,  senior,  settled  about  two  and  one-half  miles  east  of 
Greencaslle,  near  where  Shady  Grove  now  is,  about  1735.  He  died 
about  1765,  leaving  a  large  estate  and  four  sons  and  several  daughters. 
Colonel  James  Johnston,  the  eldest  son,  was  a  soldier  in  the  revolu- 
tion, and  commanded  a  battalion  from  this  county  at  various  points 
in  New  Jersey.  He  died  about  the  year  1.S14.  Colonel  Thomas  John- 
ston, the  second  son,  was  adjutant  of  the  detachment  of  troops  under 
General  Wayne  which  was  surprised  and  slaughtered  by  the  British 
at  Paoli,  September  20th,  1777.  He  twice  served  as  colonel  in  the 
revolutionary  war.     He  died  about  the  year  1819. 

Dr.  Robert  Johnston,  of  Antrim  township,  the  third  son,  was  ap- 
pointed surgeon  to  Colonel  William  Irvine's  battalion,  from  this 
county,  on  the  16th  January,  1776,  and  served  his  country  in  that 

70  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Count}/. 

capacity  throughout  the  whole  war  of  the  revolution.  He  was 
present,  as  hospital  surgeon  in  the  southern  department,  at  the  sur- 
render of  the  British  army  under  Lord  Cornwallis,  at  Yorktown, 
Virginia,  in  October,  1781,  and  in  1790  was  appointed  collector  of 
excise  for  Franklin  county.  He  was  also  subsequently  appointed 
by  President  Jefferson,  with  whom  he  was  very  familiar.  United 
States  revenue  collector  for  western  Pennsylvania.  His  acquaint- 
ance with  the  leading  officers  and  men  of  the  revolution  was  very 
large,  and  many  of  them  were  wont  to  spend  much  of  their  time  at 
his  hospitable  residence,  about  two  and  a  half  miles  south  of  Green- 
castle.  Tradition  says  that  President  Washington  stopped  there 
and  dined  with  the  family  when  going  westward  to  inspect  the  Ma- 
ryland and  Virginia  troops  called  out  to  aid  in  suppressing  the 
whisky  insurrection  of  1794.  Lieuteuant  General  Winfield  Scott 
was  also,  in  his  youthful  days,  a  visitor  at  "Johnston's,"  as  well  as 
many  others  of  his  compatriots,  and  of  the  literati  of  those  times. 

Robert  Johnston  made  a  visit  to  China  about  the  commencement 
of  the  present  century,  and  brought  back  many  rare  curiosities  from 
that  far  distant  country.     He  died  about  the  year  1808. 

John  Johnston,  the  youngest  son,  at  the  age  of  twenty  years, 
raised  a  troop  of  horse  and  marched  them  to  Lancaster,  but  their 
services  not  being  needed,  they  returned  home.  He  subsequently 
removed  to  Westmoreland  county,  whei-e  he  died,  about  the  year  1825 

Another  of  our  native-born  military  men  of  "ye  olden  time,"  and 
one  whose  patriotism,  zeal  and  bravery  did  honor  to  the  place  of 
his  nativity,  was  Brigadier  General  James  Chambers.  He  was  the 
eldest  son  of  Colonel  Benjamin  Chambers,  th^•  founder  of  Cham- 
bersburg,  and  in  June,  1775,  marched,  as  the  captain  of  a  company 
of  riflemen  raised  in  Chambersburg  and  vicinity,  to  the  siege  of 
Boston.  The  battle  of  Bunker  Hill  was  fought  June  17th,  1775,  and 
Dr.  Egle,  in  his  recent  history  of  Pennsylvania,  says:  "Within  ten 
days  after  the  news  of  the  battle  of  Bunker's  Hill  reached  the  Pro- 
vince of  Pennsylvania,  her  first  rifle  regiment  was  officered  and 
completed,  many  of  the  companies  numbering  one  hundred  men. 
It  was  commanded  by  Colonel  William  Thompson,  of  Cumberland 
county,  whom  Lossing,  by  mistake,  credits  to  Virginia.  The  com- 
panies were  severally  under  the  command  of  Captains  James  Cham- 
bers, Robert  Cluggage,  Michael  Doudel,  William  Hendricks,  John 
Lowden,  James  Ross,  Matthew  Smith  and  George  Nagel.  The  reg- 
iment, upon  its  organization,  at  once  marched  to  the  relief  of  Bos- 
ton, where  they  arrived  about  the  last  of  July.  They  were  the  first 
companies  south  of  the  Hudson  to  arrive  in  Massachusetts,  and 
naturally  excited  much  attention.  They  were  stout  and  hardy 
yoemanry,  the  flower  of  Pennsylvania's  frontiersmen,  and,  accord- 
ing to  Thatcher,  "  remarkable  for  the  accuracy  of  their  aim."  This 
command  became,  in  January,  1776,  th.e  first  regiment  of  the  army 

IFistorlcal  Sl-etoh  of  Franklin  County.  71 

o/  the  United  Coloiiies,  commanded  by  General  George  Washington.''^ 
Two  companies  of  this  battalion,  Captains  Smith  and  Hendricks, 
were  subsequently  ordered  to  accompany  General  Arnold  in  his 
unsuccessful  expedition  to  Quebec.  Their  term  of  service  was  for 
one  year. 

This  regiment  was  enlisted  under  a  resolution  of  Congress,  dated 
June  14th,  1775,  authorizing  the  raising  of  six  companies  of  expert 
riflemen  in  Pennsylvania,  ten  in  Maryland  and  two  in  Virginia,  to 
join  the  army  at  Boston.  Each  company  to  contain  one  captain, 
three  lieutenants,  four  sergeants,  one  corporal,  one  drummer  and 
sixty-eight  privates.  The  commissions  of  the  officers  bear  date  25th 
June,  1775. 

The  comjianies  rendezvouzed  at  Reading,  where  the  regiment  was 
organized  by  the  election  of  Wm.  Thompson,  of  Carlisle,  colonel, 
Edward  Hand,  of  Lancaster,  lieutenant  colonel,  and  Robert  Magaw, 
of  Carlisle,  major.  It  marched  at  once  to  Boston  by  way  of  Easton, 
through  northern  New  Jersey,  crossing  the  Hudson  river  at  New 
Windsor,  a  few  miles  north  of  West  Point,  and  arrived  in  camp  at 
Cambridge,  according  to  the  latest  authorities,  in  the  beginning  of 
August,  1775.  At  this  time  the  regiment  had  three  field  oflRcers, 
nine  captains,  twenty-seven  lieutenants,  one  adjutant,  one  quar- 
termaster, one  surgeon,  one  surgeon's  mate,  twenty-nine  sergeants, 
thirteen  drummers  and  seven  hundred  and  thirteen  rank  and  file  fit 
for  duty. 

Captain  Chambers'  company  was  the  only  one  in  the  regiment, 
so  far  as  I  know,  that  was  raised  within  the  bounds  of  our  present 
county.  I  therefore  was  very  anxious  to  get  a  complete  roll  of  it, 
believing  that  our  people  would  be  pleased  to  have  a  knowledge  of 
the  names  of  the  first  patriot  soldiers  who  left  our  county  to  battle 
for  the  independence  of  the  United  Colonies.  For  a  long  time  I 
searched  in  vain  for  this  roll,  at  Harrisburg,  at  Philadelphia,  and  at 
Washington  city,  and  I  feared  I  would  not  succeed  in  getting  it. 
But  recently  the  rolls  of  the  regiment  were  found  among  the  pai:)ers 
of  Colonel  Hand,  of  Lancaster  county,  who  succeeded  to  the  com- 
mand of  the  regiment  upon  the  capture  of  Colonel  Thompson,  and 
through  the  kindness  of  Hon.  John  B.  Linn,  Deputy  Secretary  of 
the  Commonwealth,  I  am  able  to  give  the  complete  roll  of  Captain 
Chambers'  company.     It  is  as  follows,  viz. : 


James  Chambers,  Captain,  Arthur  Andrews,  Sergeant, 

James  Grier,  1st  Lieut..  Alex.  Crawford,  Sergeant, 

Nathan  M'Connell,  2d  Lieut.,  David  Boyd, 

Thos.  Buchanan,  3d  Lieut.,  John  Brandon, 

David  Hay,  Sergeant,  Johnson  Brooks, 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

James  Black, 
Thomas  Beatty, 
David  Biddle, 
Michael  Benlcer, 
Archibald  Browrr, 
Black  Brown, 
John  Brown, 
Wm.  Barnett, 
Timothy  Campbell, 
Wm.  Camj^bell, 
Benj.  Carson, 
Wm.  Chestney, 
John  I>ermont, 
Joseph  Eaton, 
John  Everly, 
Abijah  FairehikI, 
James  Furmoil, 
John  Fidd, 
Wm.  Gildersleeve, 
Eichard  Henney, 
Peter  Hogan, 
George  Houseman, 
John  Hutchinson, 
Thomas  Hutchinson, 
Charles  Irwin, 
Francis  Jamieson, 
Rob't  Joblier, 
Andrew  Johnston, 
George  Justice, 
Andrew  Kieth, 
Lewis  Kettleng, 

Michael  Kelly, 
Thomas  Kelly, 
Silas  Leonard, 
David  Lukens, 
Thos.  Lochry, 
Patrick  Logan, 
Nicholas  Lowrie, 
John  Lynch, 
John  M^Cosh, 
James  M'Eleve, 
John  M'Donald, 
Michael  M'Gibson, 
Cornelius  M'Giggan, 
Jas.  M'Haftey, 
John  M'Murtrie, 
Patrick  M'Gaw, 
Thomas  Mason, 
Patrick  Neale, 
Wm.  Parker, 
David  Riddle, 
Thomas  Rogers, 
Nicholas  Sawyer, 
Joseph  Scott, 
Jacob  Shute, 
Moses  Skinner, 
Timothy  Stiles, 
Patrick  Sullivan, 
James  Sweeney, 
James  Symns, 
Thomas  Vaughn. 

On  the  2r)th  of  August,  1775,  Captain  Chambers  commanded  a  de- 
taclimentof  tour  hundred  men,  drawn  from  the  Cumberland  county 
companies,  sent  out  to  Prospect  Hill  and  Ploughed  Hill,  near  Bos- 
ton, to  protect  a  force  of  about  two  thousand  men  who  were  erect- 
ing a  redoubt  upon  the  latter  hill.  On  the  7th  of  March,  1776,  he 
was  promoted  to  the  lieutenant  colonelcy  of  his  regiment,  vice  Lieu- 
tenant Colonel  Hand,  appointed  Colonel  in  the  place  of  Colonel 
Thompson,  who  had  been  commissioned  a  Brigadier  General  on  the 
first  of  the  month.  He  was  soon  after  ordered  to  Long  Island,  in  the 
vicinity  of  New  York.  Pie  was  in  the  battle  of  Flatbush,  on  the 
22(1  of  August,  177G,  and  also  in  that  at  King's  Bridge.  In  his  re- 
port of  the  operations  at  Flatbush  he  says  that  "Captain  John  Steele 
acted  with  great  bravery."  On  the  30th  of  August,  1776,  the  Penn- 
sylvania troops  were  selected  as  a  corjjs-dc-reserve  to  cover  the  rear 

Hhforical  Slcctclt  of  Iranldin  Corinfy.  73 

of  the  patriot  army  in  tlieir  retreat  from  Lorg  Island.  That  body 
was  composed  of  Colonel  Hand's  re<i:inient,  of  which  Chambers  was 
Lieutenant  Colonel,  Colonel  Hazens',  Colonel  Shea's  and  Colonel 
Hazlett's  regiments.  On  the  26th  of  September,  1776,  Mr.  Chambers 
wa.s  commissioned  colonel  of  his  regiment,  in  place  of  Colonel  Hand, 
appointed  brigadier  general.  In  June,  1777,  he  was  in  New  Jersey, 
and  was  one  of  the  first  officers  to  enter  New  Brunswick  with  his 
command  and  drive  the  enemy  out.  On  the  11th  of  September, 
1777,  his' command  was  opposed  to  the  Hessians  under  General 
Knyphausen  atChadd's  Ford  and  Brandy  wine,  where  he  was  woun- 
ded in  the  side,  together  with  two  of  his  captains,  Greer  and  Craig, 
and  Lieutenant  Hollidtiy,  also  of  his  regiment,  was  killed.  He  was 
also  in  the  battle  of  Germantown,  October  4th,  1777  ;  and  in  that  of 
Monmouth,  June  28th,  1778  ;  he  led  the  attack  at  the  battle  of  Bergen 
Point,  July  20th,  178(»,  and  his  regiment  was  complimented  for  their 
bravery  by  General  Wayne,  in  general  orders,  on  the  2od  of  the 
same  month.  He  was  at  White  Plains,  West  Point  and  other  points, 
in  active  service,  up  to  the  time  of  his  resignation,  in  1781.  Having 
seen  more  than  six  years  constant  service,  he  needed  rest.  After  his 
retirement  he  was  three  different  times  appointed  to  the  command 
of  a  battalion  in  his  native  county.  In  1794  he  was  appointed  t© 
the  command  of  the  third  brigade  of  the  Pennsylvania  troops  called 
out  to  quell  the  whisky  insurrection,  and  in  1798  was  again  ap- 
pointed to  a  similar  command  in  the  Pennsylvania  troops  called  out 
in  anticipation  of  a  war  with  France. 

He  was  the  second  Justice  of  the  Peace  and  Judge  of  our  county 
courts,  appointed  September  17th,  1784,  and  served  until  the  consti- 
tution of  1790  went  into  force  in  1791.  He  was  also  a  member  of  the 
"Society  of  the  Cincinnati,"  instituted  by  the  officers  of  the  Ameri- 
can army.  He  died  at  Loudon  Forge,  his  place  of  residence,  April 
25th,  1805,  and  was  buried  with  military  honors  in  the  resting 
place  consecrated  by  his  father,  the  cemetery  of  the  Falling  Spring 
church  at  Chambersburg. 

I  have  found  it  extremely  difficult  to  make  up  a  connected,  reliable, 
or  satisfactory  history  of  the  military  organizations  that  originated 
in  our  county  during  the  revolutionary  struggle,  or  of  the  officers 
and  men  connected  with  them.  Their  terms  of  service,  at  first, 
were  generally  very  short,  ranging  from  six  months  to  a  year,  and 
the  changes  in  their  regimental  organizations,  because  of  deaths, 
desertions,  sickness,  promotions  and  expiration  of  service,  were  so 
frequent  that  it  has  been  impossible,  with  my  limited  sources  of  in- 
formation, to  trace  the  history  of  any  particular  company  or  regi- 
ment for  any  great  length  of  time,  in  a  satisfactory  manner.  It 
would  be  foreign  to  my  purpose  to  notice  the  whole  earlj'  military 
operations  of  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania,  and  yet  it  is  necessary 
that  I  shall  briefly  refer  to  some  part  of  them  in  order  to  understand 

74  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

that  which  I  wish  to  elucidate,  to  wit:  the  early  military  history  of 
that  section  of  country  now  forming  Franklin  county. 

The  first  battalion,  or  regiment,  that  went  out  of  Cumberland 
county  was  formed  in  June,  1775,  as  already  stated,  and  was  com- 
manded by  Colonel  William  Thom^json,  of  Carlisle.  Colonel 
Thompson  was  born  in  Ireland,  emigrated  to  America  and  settled 
near  Carlisle,  and  there  followed  his  profession  of  a  surveyor.  Prior 
to  the  revolution  he  served  in  the  war  between  England  and  France, 
and  in  the  Indian  wars.  He  was  a  commissioned  officer  in  the  In- 
dian expedition  that  destroyed  Kittanning  in  1756,  and  was  captain 
of  a  troop  of  light  horse  in  1758.  In  1774  he  commanded  a  company 
of  rangers  in  Westmoreland  county.  He  was  commissioned  colonel 
of  the  first  battalion  of  Pennsylvania  militia  25th  June,  1775,  and 
brigadier  general  March  1st,  1776.  As  has  been  heretofore  stated, 
his  regiment  reached  the  patriot  camp  at  Cambridge,  near  Boston, 
August  18th,  1775.  Thatcher,  in  his  military  journal,  says  of  these 
men:  "Several  companies  of  riflemen,  amounting,  it  is  said,  to 
more  than  fourteen  hundred  men,  have  arrived  here  from  Pennsyl- 
vania and  Maryland,  a  distance  of  from  five  hundred  to  seven  hun- 
dred miles.  They  are  remarkably  stout  and  hardy  men,  many  of 
them  exceeding  six  feet  in  height.  They  are  dressed  in  white 
frocks  or  rifle  shirts,  and  round  hats.  These  men  are  remarkable 
for  the  accuracy  of  their  aim,  striking  a  -mark  with  great  certainty 
at  two  hundred  yards  distance.  At  a  review  a  company  of  them, 
while  on  a  quick  advance,  flred  their  balls  into  objects  of  seven 
inches  diameter,  at  a  distance  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  yards.  They 
are  now  stationed  on  our  out  lines,  and  their  shot  have  frequently 
proved  fatal  to  British  officers  and  soldiers  who  exposed  themselves 
to  view,  even  at  more  than  double  the  distance  of  a  common  mus- 
ket shot."  General  Thompson  was  ordered  to  Canada  in  April,  1776. 
and  was  captured  by  the  British  at  "Three  Rivers"  on  the  4th  of 
July  of  that  year.  He  was  paroled  and  allowed  to  return  to  his 
family  in  1777,  but  was  not  regularly  exchanged  until  the  25th  of 
October,  1780. 

Sir  Henry  Clinton,  the  commander-in-chief  of  the  British  forces, 
then  released  General  Thompson,  Colonel  Magaw  and  Lieutenant 
Laurens,  prisoners  in  his  possession,  in  exchange  for  Major  General 
De  Reidesel,  of  the  Brunswick  troops,  a  prisoner  in  our  possession. 
He  died  on  his  farm  near  Carlisle,  September  3d,  1781,  aged  forty- 
five  years,  and  was  buried  in  the  grave-yard  at  Carlisle. 

Robert  Magaw,  of  Carlisle,  was  major  of  this  battalion,  his  brother 
Wm.  Magaw,  of  Mercersburg,  surgeon,  and  Rev.  Samuel  Blair 

As  everything  connected  with  the  history  of  this  regiment,  the 
first  that  left  the  Cumberland  Valley^  must  undoubtedly  be  of  great 
interest  to  our  peoijle,  I  here  insert  an  article  from  the  pen  of  Hon. 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  75 

John  B.  Linn,  Deputy  Secretary  of  the  Commonwealth,  published 
in  the  ''Philadelphia   Weekly  Times''  of  the  14th  of  April,  1877. 


"The  Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania  has  in  its  temporary  pos- 
session a  very  interesting  relic  of  the  revolution.  Itis  the  standard 
of  the  First  Pennsylvania  Rifle  Battalion,  Colonel  Wm.  Thompson, 
of  Carlisle,  which  was  raised  upon  the  reception  of  the  news 
of  the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill,  and  entered  the  trenches  in  front 
of  Boston  on  the  8th  of  August,  1775.  It  was  in  all  the  skirmishes 
in  front  of  Boston,  and  before  the  British  evacuated  that  city  it  was 
ordered  to  New  York  to  repel  their  landing  there.  Colonel  Thomp- 
son was  promoted  brigadier  on  the  1st  of  March,  1776,  and  Lieuten- 
ant Colonel  Hand,  of  Lancaster,  succeeded  him.  The  term  of  the 
battalion  expired  on  the  30th  of  June,  1776,  but  officers  and  men  in 
large  numbers  re-enlisted  for  three  years  or  during  the  war,  under 
Colonel  Hand,  and  the  battalion  became  the  First  Regiment  of  the 
Continental  line.  It  was  at  Long  Island,  White  Plains,  Trenton 
and  Princeton,  under  Hand.  On  the  1st  of  April,  1777,  Hand  was 
promoted  brigadier,  and  Lieutenant  Colonel  James  Chambers,  of 
Chambersburg,  became  Colonel.  Under  him  the  regiment  fought  at 
Brandywine,  Germantown,  Monmouth  and  in  every  other  battleand 
skirmish  of  the  main  array  until  he  retired  the  service,  January  1st, 

Colonel  Chambers  was  succeeded  by  Colonel  Daniel  Broadhead, 
and  on  the  26th  of  May,  1781,  the  First  regiment  left  York,  Pa.,  with 
five  others,  into  which  the  line  was  consolidated,  under  the  com- 
mand of  General  Wayne,  joined  Lafayette  at  Raccoon  Ford  on  the 
Rappahannock  on  the  10th  of  June;  fought  at  Green  Springs  on 
the  6th  of  July;  opened  the  second  parallel  at  Yorktown,  which 
General  Steuben,  in  his  division  orders  of  21st  of  October,  says  "he 
considers  as  the  most  important  part  of  the  siege."  After  the  sur- 
render the  regiment  went  southward  with  Wayne,  fought  the  last 
battle  of  the  war  at  Sharon,  Georgia,  May  24,  1782,  entered  Savannah 
in  triumph  on  the  11th  of  3\i\y,  Charleston  on  the  14th  of  December, 
1782  ;  was  in  camp  on  James  Island,  South  Carolina,  on  the  11th  of 
May,  1783,  and  only  when  the  news  of  the  cessation  of  hostilities 
reached  that  point  was  embarked  for  Philadelphia.  In  its  services 
it  traversed  every  one  of  the  original  thirteen  States  of  the  Union  ; 
for  while  in  front  of  Boston,  October  30th,  1775,  Captain  Parr  was 
ordered  with  a  detachment  of  this  battalion  up  to  Portsmouth, 
Nevv  Hampshire,  to  defend  that  point.  I  noticed  this  standard  on 
exhibition  at  the  Museum  during  the  Centennial,  but  supposed 
it  "the  l)anner  with  a  strange  device"  of  some  revolutionary  militia 
battalion.     I  identified  it  the  other  day  at  the  rooms  of  the  Histori- 

76  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

cal  Society  from  a  description  contained  in  a  letter  from  Lieutenant 
Colonel  Hand  to  Jasper  Yeates,  in  possession  of  Genei'al  Hand'a 
granddaughter,  Mrs.  S.  B.  Rogers,  of  Lancaster.     It  is  dated  : 

"Prospkct  Hill,  8  March,  1776.— I  am  stationed  at  Cobble  Hill 
with  four  companies  of  our  regiment.  Two  companies,  Cluggage's 
and  Chambers'  were  ordered  to  Dorchester  on  Monday  ;  Ross'  and 
Lowdon's  relieved  them  yesterday.  Every  regiment  is  to  have  a 
standard  and  colors.  Our  standard  is  to  be  a  deep  green  ground,  the 
device  a  tiger  ^^artly  enclosed  by  toils,  aLtempting  the  pass  defended 
by  a  hunter  armed  with  a  spear,  in  white  on  crimson  tield  ;  the 
motto  'Domari  Nolo.'  " 

The  present  owner  of  the  standard,  T  am  told,  is  Thomas  Robin- 
son, Esq.,  grandson  of  Lieutenant  Colonel  Thomas  Robinson.  The 
latter,  it  appears  by  our  records,  entered  the  service  January  5,  1776, 
as  captain  in  Colonel  Wayne's  Fourth  Pennsylvania  (one  year) 
battalion,  served  the  campaign  in  Canada  and  was  promoted  June 
7,  1777,  lieutenant  colonel  of  the  First  Pennsylvania  Continental 
Line.  He  served  until  the  close  of  the  war  and  was  mustered  out 
of  service  in  1783  as  lieutenant  colonel  of  the  Second  Pennsylvania. 
He  became  custodian  of  the  standard,  because  Colonel  Broadhead 
did  not  accompany  the  regiment  South  and  Colonel  Robinson  waa 
in  actual  command  when  the  war  closed. 

Marrisburg,  April  6fh,  1^77.  John  B.  Linn." 

In  the  early  part  of  December,  1775,  the  second  Pennsylvania  bat- 
talion was  formed.  It  was  first  under  the  command  of  Colonel 
John  Bull,  and  subsequently  under  that  of  Colonel  John  Philip 

In  the  latter  part  of  the  year  Congress  called  for  four  more  battal- 
ions, which  were  fully  organized  in  January  and  February,  1776. 
They  were  commanded  as  follows  : 

The  second  by  Colonel  Arthur  St.  Clair, 

The  third  by  Colonel  John  Shee. 

The  fourth  by  Colonel  Anthony  Wayne. 

The  fifth  by  Colonel  Robert  Magaw. 

The  sixth  by  Colonel  William  Irvine. 

With  the  regiments  of  Colonels  St.  Clair,  Shee  and  Wayne,  th» 
people  of  this  valley  had  no  connection.  They  were  raised  in  other 
sections  of  the  State. 

Colonel  Magaw's  regiment  was  made  up  of  companies  from  what 
is  now  Cumberland  county,  and  from  adjoining  counties.  There 
were  none  from  the  territory  now  embraced  in  our  county,  that  I 
have  been  able  to  hear  of.  Colonel  Magaw  and  his  whole  command 
were  captured  by  the  British  at  Fort  Washington,  Long  Island,  on 
the  16th  of  November,  1776,  and  was  paroled,  but  not  exchanged 
until  the  2.5th  of  October,  1780.  He  died  at  Carlisle  January  7th, 

IRstorical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  77 

Colonel  William  Irvine  was  born  at  Fermagh,  Ireland,  on  the 
3d  of  November,  1741.  He  was  educated  at  the  University  of  Dub- 
lin, studied  medicine  and  was  a  surgeon  in  the  British  navy,  in  1754. 
In  1763  he  settled  at  Carlisle  in  the  pursuit  of  his  profession.  He 
was  a  delegate  from  Cumberland  county  in  the  Provincial  Confer- 
ence which  met  at  Philadelphia  on  the  15th  of  July,  1774,  and  recom- 
mended a  general  congress  of  the  Colonies.  On  the  9th  of  January, 
1776,  he  was  appointed  colonel  of  the  sixth  regiment  of  Pennsyl- 
vania troops.  On  the  8th  of  June,  1776,  he  was  captured  at  the  bat- 
tle of  "Three  Rivers,"  Canada.  On  the  3d  of  August,  1776,  he  was 
released  on  parole,  but  was  not  exchanged  until  the  6th  of  May, 
1778.  The  same  year  he  was  appointed  Colonel  of  the  second  Penn- 
sylvania regiment.  May  12th,  1779,  was  appointed  a  brigadier  gen- 
eral and  served  under  General  Wayne  during  that  and  the  following 
year.  In  1781  he  was  stationed  at  Fort  Pitt,  in  command  of  the 
north-western  frontier.  In  1784  he  was  a  member  of  the  Council  of 
Censors.  In  1785  he  was  the  agent  of  the  State  looking  after  her 
public  lands,  and  recommended  the  purchase  of  the  "Triangle,"  thus 
giving  Pennsylvania  an  outlet  upon  Lake  Erie.  In  1786-'88  he  was 
a  member  of  Congress,  and  of  the  State  Constitutional  Convention 
in  1790.  In  1794  (jovernor  Mifflin  appointed  him  and  Chief  Justice 
M'Kean,  commissioners  to  reason  with  the  leaders  of  the  whisky 
insurrection.  He  also  served  in  Congress  from  1793  to  1795;  was 
president  of  the  "Pennsylvania  Society  of  the  Cincinnati,"  and  died 
at  Philadelphia  on  the  29th  of  July,  1804. 

Colonel  Irvine's  regiment  was  composed  of  eight  companies, 
numbering  six  hundred  and  seventy-nine  officers  and  men,  viz.  : 

Company  one.  Captain  Samuel  Hay, 

"  tM'o,  "  Robert  Adams 

"  three,  "  Abraham  Smith, 

"  four,  "  William  Rippey, 

"  five,  "  Jas.  A.  Wilson, 

"  six,  "  David  Grier, 

"  seven,  "  Moses  M'Lean, 

"  eight,  "  Jeremiah  Talbott, 

The  regiment  1  organization  was  as  follows,  viz  : 
Colonel,  Wm.  Irvine,  commissioned  January  9th,  1776. 

Lieut,  Colonel,    Thomas  Hartley,  "  "  "      " 

Major,  James  Dun  lop,  "  "  no. 

Adjutant,  John  Brooks,  "  "  "       " 

Surgeon,  Robert  Johnston,  "  "  "       " 

Surgeon's  Mate,  John  M'Dowell, 
Quartermaster,    James  Calderwood. 
"  Wm.  Nichols. 

"  Robert  Hoops. 

fflcers  and 

92  men 

I.                    u 

93     " 

99     " 

94     " 

86     " 

81     " 

65     " 

69     " 

78  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Count)/. 

But  three  of  these  companies,  viz :  Abraham  Smith's,  Williatn 
Rippey's  and  Jeremiah  Talbott's,  are  claimed  to  have  been  from  that 
section  of  country  now  embraced  in  Franlvlin  county. 

Captain  Abraham  Smith,  it  is  said,  resided  in  Lurgan  township, 
Cumberland  county,  just  north  of  the  present  boundary  line  of  our 
county.  He  owned  a  considerable  tract  of  land  there,  none  of  which 
however,  was  ever  taxed  in  our  county,  according  to  the  assess  books 
in  the  Commissioners'  office.  The  people  of  that  section  of  the 
county  point  with  pride  to  his  military  record,  and  claim  him  as 
having  gone  out  from  among  them.  He  and  his  company  were 
with  Colonel  Irvine's  regiment  throughout  its  varied  service  in  the 
war  of  the  revolution.  Nothing  can  be  determined  from  the  names 
of  the  men  composing  his  company,  as  to  where  they  were  from, 
for  an  examination  of  the  roll  shows  that  the  names  upon  it  are  the 
same  as  those  of  residents  of  other  parts  of  the  county  than  Lurgan 

On  the  5th  of  July,  1777,  an  Abraham  Smith,  of  Cumberland 
county,  was  elected  Colonel  oi  the  8th  battalion  of  the  militia  of  that 
county,  and  it  is  claimed  that  he  was  from  Lurgan  township.  How 
the  fact  was,  I  have  not  been  able  to  determine.  That  there  were 
two  Colonel  Abraham  Smiths  in  Cumberland  county,  is  most  likely, 
one  the  military  man,  the  other  the  civilian.  Former  writers  have 
generally,  though  mistakenly,  I  think,  confounded  Abraham  Smith 
of  Lurgan^  with  Abraham  Smith  of  Antrim.,  and  given  to  the  for- 
mer the  honor  and  credit  of  having  filled  the  offices  undoubtedly 
held  by  the  latter. 

The  following  are  names  of  the  officers  and  men  of  Captain  Abra- 
ham Smith's  company,  in  Colonel  Irvine's  regiment: 


Captain,  Abraham  Smith;  commissioned  January  9th,  1776. 
First  Lieutenant,  Robert  White;  commissioned  January  9th,  1776; 
resigned  February  9th,  1776. 
Second  Lieutenant,  John  Alexander;  promoted  February  10th,  1776. 
Second  Lieutenant,  Andrew  Irvine;  commissioned  Feb.  9th,  1776. 
Ensign,  Samuel  Montgomery ;  promoted  June  1st,  1776. 
Ensign,  Samuel  Kennedy  ;  commissioned  June  1st,  1776. 


John  Beatty,  William  Scott, 

Samuel  Hamilton,  William  Burk. 

Hugh  Foster, 


William  Burk,  Seth  Richey, 

George  Standley,  William  M'Cormick,   - 

John  Moore,  William  Drennon. 

William  Campbell, 

John  Fannon,  Drummer.  William  Cochran,  Fifer. 

Historical  Skefch  of  PranMi?i  County, 



David  Armor, 
John  Brown, 
Patrick  Brown, 
John  Blakeley, 
John  Brannon, 
Philip  Boyle, 
Josiah  Cochran, 
Robert  Craighead, 
Authony  Creevy, 
William  Cochran, 
James  Dunlap, 
Thomas  Drennon, 
William  Downey, 
Hugh  Drennon, 
Daniel  Divinney, 
Pat.  Flemming, 
William  Gwin, 
Alex.  Gordon, 
Robert  Gregg, 
Thomas  Higgins, 
James  Holliday, 
Thomas  Holmes, 
John  Hendricks, 
Benj.  Ishmail, 
Robert  Jarrett, 
Thomas  Johnson, 
Samuel  Love, 
George  Lucas, 
Nicholas  Little, 
James  Lowrey, 
Daniel  M'Kissock, 
John  M'Collam, 
William  M'Cormick, 
Michael  M'Garra, 
Bryan  M'Laughlin, 
John  M'Fetridge, 

Michael  M'Mullin, 
James  M'Kissock, 
Adam  M'Breas, 
John  M'Dowell, 
Samuel  M'Brea, 
Robert  M'llno, 
Alex.  M' Kenny, 
John  M'Kingham, 
John  Montgomery, 
Alex.  Moor, 
Robert  Miller, 
Hugh  Milligan, 
Moses  Powell, 
Nath.  Points, 
John  Rannell, 
Seth  Richey, 
Patrick  Rogers, 
John  Rannell,  Jr., 
Peter  Runey, 
Alex.  Reid, 
Barthol  Roharty, 
Thomas  Smith, 
Patrick  Silvers, 
Thomas  Scott, 
George  Simpson, 
Robert  Swinie, 
John  Stoops. 
Ad.  Sheaver, 
William  Stitt, 
Peter  Sheran, 
Charles  Tipper, 
John  Todd, 
Mich.  White, 
James  White, 
John  Wilson, 
John  Young. 

Ninety-three  officers  and  men. 

In  November,  1777,  this  company  was  under  Captain  Samuel 
Montgomery,  and  numbered  but  forty-three  men — officers  and  pri- 
vates—the men  being  captured,  or  killed,  or  incorporated  into  other 
companies.  I  find  the  names  of  many  of  the  men  in  Captain  John 
Alexander's  company. 

ififOf  HMorical  Sketch  of  Franld'm  County. 


Captain  Rippey  resided  in  Sbippeiisburfi:,  but  the  most  of  the  men 
composing  his  company  were  from  the  adjoining  township  of  Lur- 
gan,  now  in  Franklin  county.  Colonel  Irvine's  regiment,  the  sixth, 
with  the  first  under  Colonel  J.  P.  T>eHaas,  the  second  under  Colonel 
Arthur  St.  Clair,  and  the  fourth  under  Colonel  Anthony  Wayne, 
were  formed  into  a  brigade  in  the  summer  of  1776,  and  sent  to  Can- 
ada under  General  Sullivan.  On  the  21st  of  July,  1776,  many  of 
Sullivan's  command  were  captured  at  the  Isle  Au  Noix,  Among 
them  was  Captain  Ripi>ey,  but  he  was  so  fortunate  as  to  escape. 
Colonel  Irvine  was  captured  at  Three  Rivers,  Canada,  on 
the  8th  of  June,  1776,  when  the  command  of  the  regiment  devolved 
upon  Lieutenant  Colonel  Thos.  Hartley,  who,  after  the  disaster  at  the 
Isle  Au  Noix,  fell  back  to  Crown  Point  and  Tlconderoga,  and  win- 
tered there.  These  battalions  were  enlisted  for  one  year  from  Janu- 
ary 1st,  1776,  and  at  the  expiration  of  tlieir  terms  of  service,  nearly 
all  of  the  men  re-enlisted  in  new  regiments  for  three  years  or  during 
the  war.  In  the  month  of  March,  1777,  Irvine's  regiment  re-en- 
tered the  service  as  the  seventh  regiment  of  the  Pennsylvania  line, 
under  Lieutenant  Colonel  David  Greer,  its  original  commander, 
Colonel  Irvine  then  being  a  prisoner  of  war.  After  the  close  of  the 
war  Captain  Rippey  lived  at  the  Branch  Hotel  in  Shippensburg, 
where  he  died  September  22d,  1819,  aged  seventy-eight  years. 

The  following  are  the  names  of  the  ofHcersand  men  of  his  com- 
pany : 


Captain,  William  Rippey;  commissioned  January  9,  1776. 
First  Lieutenant,  Wm.   Alexander;  commissioned  January  9th, 
1776.     Promoted  to  Captain  June  Ist,  1776. 
First  Lieutenant,  Alexander  Parker ;  commissioned  June  1st,  1776. 
Second  Lieutenant,  John  Brooks. 
Ensign,  Wm,  Lusk. 


.John  Hughes,  John  M'Clelland, 

Robert  Watt,  William  Anderson. 


William  Gibbs,  George  Gordon, 

Jeremiah  M'Kibben,  Nath.  Stevenson, 
.Tames  M'Culloh, 

Daniel  Peterson,  Drummer,  Wm.  Richards,  Fifer. 




T^^e  ^¥/ 

Historical  Sketch  of  FranJdin  County. 



Jacob  Anderson, 
Robert  Barckley, 
Barnerd  Burns. 
Robert  Caskey, 
Henry  Cartwright, 
Robert  Cortney, 
Jacob  Christyardinger, 
Benjamin  Cochran, 
Hugh  Call, 
John  Collins, 
William  Dougherty, 
John  Davison, 
Joseph  Divine, 
Anthony  Dawson, 
Tliomas  Dycke, 
James  Finerty, 
Hugh  Forsyth, 
Hugh  Ferguson, 
Thomas  Falls, 
William  Gorge, 
Henry  Girden, 
Thomas  Gell, 
Jacob  Glouse. 
Nathan  Hemphill, 
Robert  Haslet, 
John  Hendry,  , 

William  Henderson, 
James  Hervey, 
Cumberland  Hamilton, 
Neal  Hardon, 
George  Hewitt, 
Jacob  Justice, 
Robert  Irvine, 
John  Johnston, 
Christopher  Kechler, 
Francis  Kain, 
John  Kelly, 
William  Lowiy, 
Daniel  Lavery, 
David  Linsey, 
Jauies  Lynch, 

Josiah  M'Call, 
John  M' Michael, 
James  M'Comb, 
William  M'Intire, 
John  Moor, 
James  Mull  in, 
Thomas  M'Call, 
Philip  Melon, 
Alexander  M'Nichols, 
James  M'Coy, 
James  M'Con, 
David  M'Clain, 
John  M' Don  ell, 
Daniel  M'Clain, 
John  M'Gaw, 
Charles  Malone, 
George  M'Ferson, 
William  Nicholson, 
John  Ortman, 
John  O'Neal, 
Thomas  Pratt, 
Thomas  Parsons, 
Aaron  Patterson, 
Charles  Rosbrough, 
John  Rosbrough, 
John  Rogers, 
Thomas  Reed, 
Robert  Robeson, 
Basil  Regan, 
John  Stoner, 
Henry  Scott, 
Alexander  Stephenson, 
Nath.  Stephenson, 
James  Smiley, 
W^illiam  Thompson, 
John  Tribele, 
Jacob  Trash, 
John  Van  Kirk, 
William  Winn, 
John  Wright, 
Peter  Younff. 

John  Madden, 

Ninety-nine  officers  and  privates. 
Many  of  these  men,  in  November,  1777,  were  incorporated   in 
Captain  Alexander  Parker's  company. 

82  Historical  Sketch  of  Fran/din  County. 


Thirf  company  was  recruited  in  Chambersburg  and  its  vicinity,  by 
Captain  Talbott.  He  was  a  native  of  Talbott  county,  Maryland, 
and  removed  to  Cumberland  county,  Pennsylvania,  before  the  com- 
mencement of  the  revolutionary  struggle,  and  settled  at  Chambers- 
burg. On  the  25th  of  September,  1777,  Captain  Talbott  was  appointed 
major  of  the  sixth  battalion  of  the  Pennsylvania  troops,  and  served 
in  that  position  until  the  proclamation  of  peace.  In  March  or  April, 
1777,  Major  Talbott  was  assigned  to  the  recruiting  service,  and  such 
was  his  popularity  that  in  a  few  weeks  he  enlisted  sixty  men  in 
Chambersburg  and  its  vicinity,  paying  a  bounty  of  twenty  dollars 
to  each  recruit. 

After  the  close  of  the  war,  upon  the  formation  of  our  county, 
Major  Talbott  was,  at  the  first  election  for  county  officers,  held  Octo- 
ber, 1784,  elected  Sheriff  of  the  county,  and  was  re-elected  in  1785 
and  in  1786.  On  the  3d  December,  1787,  he  was  appointed  Lieuten- 
ant of  the  county,  and  served  until  1790.  Sheriff  Talbott  owned  the 
brewery  on  the  bank  of  the  Conococheague  creek  now  carried  on 
by  Charles  Ludwig.  He  also  owned  two  lots  of  ground  on  West 
Queen  street— one  improved,  the  other  unimproved.  His  dwelling 
house  was  on  the  site  of  that  now  owned  and  occupied  by  Judge 
John  Huber.  It  was  of  stone,  and  part  of  the  western  wall  is  still 
standing,  having  been  used  in  the  erection  of  the  present  dwelling. 
In  addition  to  this  property.  Sheriff  Talbott  owned  a  tract  of  one 
hundred  acres  of  land  in  Hamilton  township,  and  had  one  horse, 
three  cows  a,nd  one  female  negro  servant.  The  tax  lists  for  1786-1788, 
and  1789,  show  that  he  then  resided  in  Chambersburg,  as  he  was 
taxed  there  during  those  years  for  all  the  foregoing  property,  except 
the  one  hundred  acres  of  land.  About  1789  Sheriff  Talbott  became 
pecuniarily  involved,  and  on  the  16th  of  December,  1789,  Sheriff 
John  Johnston,  his  successor,  sold  his  Hamilton  township  farm, 
and  the  17th  of  June,  1790,  sold  his  Chambersburg  property.  He 
died  on  the  19th  of  January,  1791,  and  was  buried  in  the  Presbyte- 
rian grave-yard  at  Chambersburg,  After  his  death  his  widow  and 
children  removed  to  the  vicinity  of  Mercersburg,  but  he  never  re- 
sided there,  nor  at  Greencastle. 

The  following  are  the  rolls  of  his  company  at  three  different 
periods : 


Captain,  Jeremiah  Talbott;  commissioned  January  9th,  1776. 
First  Lieutenant,  John  M'Donald;     "  "  " 

Second  Lieutenant,  Alex.  Brown  ;      "  "  " 

Ensign,  William  Graham;  "  "  " 

Historical  SketcJt  of  Franklin  County. 


John  M'ColIam, 
John  Wilson, 


James  Cnppels, 
Samuel  Mitchell. 


William  Campbell, 

Robert  Hunter, 

John  Milton,  Drummer. 

John  Chain, 
John  Reniston. 
John  Killin,  Fifer. 


Robert  Asten, 

John  Bradley, 

William  Black, 

John  Church, 

George  Coghren, 

Francis  Clark,' 

Robert  Carnahan, 

Charles  Conna, 

John  Campbell, 

Joseph  Chambers, 

John  Dinning, 

William  Evans, 

John  Faulkner, 

Hugh  Fairess, 

James  Gardner, 

Daniel  Gibson, 

William  Heaslett, 

John  Heath erington, 

Duke  PTandlon, 

John  Higgens, 

Kern  Kelley, 

Stephen  Lyon, 

Jacob  Lewis, 

Hugh  Lilley, 

John  Marten, 

Robert  Mollon, 

Benj.  Morisou, 

James  M'Farbm, 
Commissioned  and  non-commissioned  offlcers  and  privates,  69. 
In  January,  177B,  Captain  Talbott's  company  numbered  sixty-nine 
officers  and  men.  By  April,  1777,  it  was  so  much  reduced  that  it 
required  sixty  men  to  bring  it  up  to  the  regulation  standard.  The 
following  are  the  names  of  the  men  then  added  to  the  company, 
viz.  : 

Charles  M'Roun, 
Archibald  M' Donald, 
Matthew  M'Connell, 
Thomas  M'Creary, 
Lawrence  M'Creary, 
Charles  M'Mullen, 
Thomas  Mitchell, 
Charles  Marry, 
Patrick  Marray, 
Able  Morgan, 
Archibald  Nickel, 
Andrew  Pinkerton, 
Samuel  Power, 
John  Pollock, 
James  Quarre, 
William  Shaw, 
Mike  Sesalo, 
John  Shooniaker, 
James  Sloan, 
John  Totton, 
John  Thompson, 
Hugh  Thompson, 
William  White, 
Jolin  White, 
John  Welch, 
Robert  Watson, 
Isaac  Wiley. 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

John  M'Cullum, 
John  Foster, 
John  Wilson, 
Robert  Hunter, 
William  Gibbs, 
Thomas  Whitely, 
Hugh  Thomson, 
William  Foster, 
Phelix  O'Neal, 
John  Crowl, 
John  Fulerton, 
Patt.  Boyle, 
Thomas  iSherry, 
John  Cavenaugh, 
Robert  Burns, 
Andrew  M'Gahey, 
William  M'Calley, 
Isaac  Shackey 
Christopher  Row, 
Francis  O'Harrah, 
Thomas  Dunn, 
Daniel  M'Cartey, 
Barney  M'Gillegan, 
John  Fergison, 
Michael  Black, 
John  Brown, 
Gilbert  Berryhill, 
Hugh  Casserty, 
Charles  Conner, 
George  Corohan, 
Edward  Hart, 

John  Shoemaker, 
James  Garlant, 
James  Loe, 
Jacob  Weaver, 
Conrad  Carcass, 
Patrick  Murrey, 
John  Kellenough, 
John  Johnson, 
Charles  Kelly, 
John  M'Kinley, 
Michael  Sitsler, 
John  Smith, 
Peter  Smith, 
Josejoh  West, 
Patrick  Guinn, 
Patrick  M'Cullum, 
Michael  Dan  fee, 
William  Campbell, 
John  Feaghander, 
John  Robinson, 
Peter  M'Kinley, 
John  Smith,  (tanner) 
Thomas  Aston, 
William  M'Donald, 
Patrick  Doyle, 
James  Ralls, 
Henry  Vaughan, 
John  Milton, 
Michael  Brown, 
William  Antrican. 

The  following  is  the  company's  roll  as  it  stood  ISTovember  30th, 

Jeremiah  Talbott,  Captain, 
Andrew  Irvine,  Lieutenant, 
Joseph  Torrence,       " 
John  M'CuIlam,  Ensign, 
William  Gibbs,  Sergeant, 

Robert  Hunter,  Sergeant, 
Thomas  Whiteley,     " 
Hugh  Thompson,       " 
John  Smith,  Corporal. 


Jacob  Weaver, 
Francis  O'Hara, 
Charles  Conner, 
William  Foster, 
Daniel  M'Carty, 

Patrick  Marry, 
Felix  O'Neal, 
Charles  Kelley, 
James  Rawls. 
George  Coghran, 

Hlslortcal  SJcefch  of  Franklin  County.  85 

Jos.  West,  James  Lee, 

Hugh  Cassady,  John  Johnson, 

John  M'Kinly,  Andrew  M'Grahy, 

Michael  Pitzler,  Edward  Hart, 

Patt.  Boyle,  John  Carray. 

Nine  offieei*s  and  twenty  men;  total,  twenty-nine. 

In  the  early  part  of  1776  three  new  battalions  were  organized, 
commanded  respectively  by  Colonels  Samuel  Miles,  Samuel  J.  Atlee 
and  Daniel  Broadhead,  and  they  were  marched  to  Long  Island 
with  the  battalions  of  Colonels  Shea,  Magaw  and  Cadwallader. 

By  the  16th  of  August,  1776,  thirteen  companies  of  men,  fully 
officered  and  equipi3ed,  had  left  Cumberland  county  for  the  seat  of 
war,  and  six  other  companies  were  preparing  to  go.  Of  these  the 
companies  of  James  M'Connell,  William  Huston,  Robert  Culbert- 
son  and  Conrad  Schneider  were  from  the  territory  now  Franklin 
county.  I  have  not  been  able  to  find  their  company  rolls,  nor  any 
record  of  their  actions  during  the  war. 

On  the  16th  of  November,  1776,  Fort  Washington  was  caijturedby 
the  British,  and  over  twenty-three  hundred  Pennsylvania  troops, 
commanded  by  Colonels  Magaw,  Cadwallader,  Atlee,  Swope,  Watts, 
and  Montgomery  were  taken  prisoners.  Among  them  was  John 
Crawford,  of  our  county,  a  brother  of  Edward  Crawford,  Esq.,  our 
first  Prothonotary.  On  the  19th  of  April,  1775,  Mr.  Crawford  was 
commissioned  by  John  Morton,  Esq.,  Speaker  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Assembly,  a  second  lieutenant  in  the  fifth  battalion  of  associators  of 
Cumberland  county,  and  after  his  capture  was  held  as  a  prisoner  of 
war  at  Flatlauds,  Long  Island,  until  some  time  in  tlie  year  1780. 

In  the  latter  part  of  the  year  1776,  or  the  beginning  of  the  year 
1777,  the  first  battalion  of  Cumberland  county  militia  was  com- 
manded by  Colonel  James  Dunlap.  The  lieutenant  colonel  was 
Robert  Culbertson  of  our  county.  This  battalion  had  in  it  the  com- 
panies of  Noah  Abraham,  of  Path  Valley,  Patrick  Jack,  of  Hamil- 
ton, and  Charles  Maclay,  of  Lurgan.  I  have  not  been  able  to  find 
the  rolls  of  the  companies  of  Captains  Jack  and  Maclay;  but  Cap- 
tain Abraham's  company,  which  was  from  all  parts  of  Path  Valley, 
was  made  up  as  follows,  viz. : 

Captain,  Noah  Abraham. 

First  Lieutenant,  Archibald  Elliott. 

Second  Lieutenant,  Samuel  Walker. 


1st.  James  M'Connaughy,  3d.  Robert  M'Connell, 

2d.  Joseph  Noble,  4th.  Thomas  Clark. 


HistcrHoal  Sketch  of  Franklin  Couniif. 


Robert  Alexander, 
James  Alexander, 
David  Armstrong, 
John  Adams, 
William  Adams, 
James  Allen, 
John  Brown, 
James  Bogs, 
Nathaniel  Bryan, 
Allen  Brown, 
William  Buchanan, 
John  Bell, 
Daniel  Colbert, 
William  Carty, 
Jolin  Ganady, 
James  Carmady, 
Samuel  Campbell, 
Patrick  Davidson, 
Andrew  Douglas,  Sr., 
Patrick  Douglierty, 
Henry  Delmer, 
Alex.  Douglas,  (weaver), 
George  Dixson, 
Abram  Elder, 
Francis  Elliott, 
William  Elliott, 
David  Elder, 
Samuel  Elder, 
George  Farmer, 
John  Garven, 
Charles  Gibson, 
James  Harvey, 
James  Howe, 
Andrew  Hemphill, 
William  Harvey, 

Henderson  Harvey, 
Alex.  Hopper, 
Adam  Humburg, 
John  Johnson, 
Josepli  Kilgore, 
Alex.  Long, 
William  M'Lellan, 
William  M'Ibbins, 
John  M'Lellan, 
John  Means, 
Natlian  M'Colley, 
James  Montgomery, 
Alexander  Meor, 
Samuel  M'Cauley, 
James  M' Lei  Ian, 
Hugh  M'Curdy, 
Alexander  M'C'>nnelI, 
James  Mitchell, 
John  M'Lellan,  Jr., 
Samuel  Mears, 
James  Mackey, 
Robert  M'Guire, 
Henry  M'Gee, 
John  Mackey, 
John  Montgomery, 
James  Nealy, 
David  Neal, 
James  Park, 
Henry  Varner, 
William  Wright, 
Robert  Walker, 
Samuel  Watson, 
William  Woodrow, 
Samuel  Woodrow. 

The  second  battalion,  commanded  by  Colonel  John  Davis,  had  in 
it  the  company  of  Captain  Charles  Leeper,  of  Lurgan  township. 

The  fourth  battalion,  commanded  by  Colonel  Samuel  Lyon,  had 
in  it  the  company  of  Captain  James  M'Connel,  of  Letterltenny. 

The  sixth  battalion  was  officered  as  follows,  viz.  :  Samuel  Cul- 
bertson,  Colonel;  John  Work,  Lieutenant  Coloiu'I  ;  James  M'Cam- 
mont,  Major;  John  Wilson,  Adjutant;  Samuel  Finley,  Quarter- 
master ;  and  Richard  Brownson,  Surgeon. 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County,  87 

Company  No.  2,  of  this  battali'  had  the  following  offloers:  Cap- 
tain, Patrick  Jack  ;  First  Lieutenant,  William  Reynolds ;  Second 
Lieutenant,  James  M'Lene;  Ensign,  Francis  Gardner.  This  com- 
pany was  from  Hamilton  township. 

Company  No.  3,  the  following :  Captain,  Samuel  Patton  ;  First 
Lieutenant,  John  Eaton  ;  Second  Lieutenant,  David  Shields;  En- 
sign, William  Ramsay.  This  company,  I  believe,  was  from  Letter- 
kenny  township. 

Company  No.  4,  the  following:  Captain,  James  Patton  ;  Fii-st 
Lieutenant.  Thomas  M'Dowell ;  Second  Lieutenant,  John  Welsh; 
Ensign,  John  Dickey.  This  company  was  most  likely  from  Peters 

Company  No.  5,  the  following  :  Captain,  Joseph  Culbertson  ;  First 
Lieutenant,  John  Barr;  Second  Lieutenant,  William  Cessna;  En- 
sign, Hugh  Allison.     This  company  was  from  Lurgan  township. 

Company  No.  6,  the  following:  Captain,  William  Huston  ;  First 
Lieutenant,  William  Elliott;  Second  Lieutenant,  James  M'Far- 
land  ;  Ensign,  Robert  Kyle.  This  company  is  believed  to  have 
been  from  Montgomery,  Peters  and  Hamilton  townships.  It  was  to 
this  company  that  the  Rev.  Dr.  John  King,  of  Mercersburg,  made  a 
patriotic  address  as  they  were  about  to  leave  their  homes  for  the 

Company  No.  7,  the  following:  Captain,  Robert  M'Coy ;  First 
Lieutenant,  James  Irwin  ;  Second  Lieutenant,  Samuel  Dunwoody  ; 
Ensign,  Walter  M'Kinney.  This  company  was  from  Peters  town- 

Company  No.  8,  the  following:  Captain,  John  M'Connell;  First 
Lieutenant  Joseph  Stevenson ;  Second  Lieutenant,  George  Steven- 
son ;  Ensign,  James  Caldwell.  This  company  was  from  Letterken- 
ny  and  Lurgan  townships. 

The  eighth  battalion,  commanded  by  Colonel  Abraliam  Smith,  of 
our  county,  had  for  Lieutenant  Colonel,  James  Johnston;  Major, 
John  Johnston;  Adjutant,  Tiiomas  Johnston;  and  Quartermaster, 
Terrance  Campbell,  the  last  four  of  whom  were  of  this  county. 

Four  of  the  companies  of  this  battalion  were  from  our  county, 
certainly,  and  perhaps  more.  The  company  officers  were  as  follows, 
viz. : 

Company  No.  1,  Waynesboro'— Captain,  Samuel  Royer;  First 
Lieutenant,  Jacob  Foreman  ;  Second  Lieutenant,  John  Riddles- 
berger;  Ensign,  Peter  Shaver. 

Company  No.  2,  Lurgan  township— Captain,  John  Jack;  First 
Lieutenant,  James  Brotherton  ;  Second  Lieutenant,  Daniel  M'Lene; 
Ensign,  James  Drummond. 

Company  No.  3,  Antrim  township— Captain,  James  Poe;  First 
Lieutenant,  Jos.  Patterson;  Second  Lieutenant,  Jacob  Stotler;  En- 
sign, James  Dickson. 

88  Historical  STcetch  of  Franklin  Count}/. 

Company  No.  8,  Lurgan  township— Captain,  Jolin  Rea;  First 
Lieutenant,  Albert  Torrence  ;  Second  Lieutenaot,  Alex.  Thomson; 
Ensign,  Hugh  Wiley. 

No  rolls  can  be  found  of  these  several  battalions,  nor  can  I  tell 
where  their  services  were  rendered.  I  have  seen  returns  of  them  as 
late  as  May,  1778,  but  cannot  say  when  their  services  ceased. 

In  the  year  1779,  because  of  some  troubles  with  the  Indians,  some 
troops  were  sent  from  our  county  westward.  They  were  mustered 
into  service  on  the  22d  of  June  of  that  year,  at  Ligonier,  by  Colonel 
John  Thomson,  D.  M.  M.  G.  of  P.  M.  The  following  is  the  roll  of 
the  company  from  Path  valley  : 

Captain,  Noah  Abraham. 

First  Lieutenant,  Nathaniel  Stevenson. 

Second  Lieutenant,  Adam  Harman. 

Joseph  Ferguson, 
Campbell  Lefever, 


James  Hamilton, 
John  Roatch. 


Daniel  Colbert, 
Neal  Dougherty, 
Fred'k  Dougherty, 
Patrick  Dougherty, 
Thomas  Koox, 
Daniel  Lavrey, 
William  Love, 
Redmond  M'Donough, 
Matthias  Maiers, 

John  Maghan, 
John  Millisen, 
James  Megraw, 
Isaac  Miner, 
James  Russell, 
John  Robison, 
James  Ray, 
William  Walker. 

The  following 
Letterkenny ; 

are  the  officers  and  men   of   the  company  from 

Captain,  Samuel  Patton. 

First  Lieutenant,  Ezekiel  Sample. 

John  Kincald, 


William  Speare. 


John  Bran, 
Thomas  Crotley, 
Richard  Cooper, 
George  Hunter, 
Samuel  Howard, 
John  Hart, 
William  Lowry, 
George  Lamb, 
John  Lytle, 

Henry  Marshal, 
John  Matthias  weaver, 
liorans  M' Ready, 
John  Parker, 
William  Patterson, 
Ab'm  Rosenberry, 
William  Sharpe, 
John  Welsh, 
Henry  Williamson. 

Historical  Sketch  of  Pranklin  County.  89 


In  the  year  1794  President  Washington  called  for  five  thousand 
one  hundred  and  ninety-six  men  from  Pennsylvania,  as  her  share 
of  the  army  called  out  to  suppress  the  Whisky  Insurrection,  then  in 
existence  in  the  south-western  part  of  our  State.  The  quota  of  our 
county  was  two  hundred  and  eighty-one  men,  who  were  gotten  to- 
gether with  considerable  difficulty,  because  the  mass  of  the  people 
of  this  valley  sympathized  to  a  greater  or  less  degree  with  their  fel- 
low citizens  who  were  resisting  the  collection  of  the  excise  taxes. 

Our  quota  was,  however,  furnished  after  some  delay  ;  but  I  cannot 
tell  into  how  many  companies  these  men  were  divided,  nor  by  whom 
they  were  commanded.  Having  been  in  the  service  of  the  United 
States,  they  were  doubtless  jmid  by  the  general  government,  and 
their  pay  rolls  should  be  in  the  War  Department  at  Washington 
city,  but  I  could  not  find  them  there,  nor  any  evidence  that  they 
ever  had  been  there.  Neither  could  I  find  them  at  Harrisburg, 
though  a  careful  search  was  made  for  them.  Large  numbers  of 
papers  in  the  War  Department  at  Washington  city  were  destroyed 
by  fires  about  the  years  1798  and  1801,  as  I  am  informed,  and  it  is 
believed  that  those  relating  to  the  army  services  in  the  Whisky  In- 
surrection were  among  them. 

Brigadier  General  James  Chambers,  of  our  county,  commanded  the 
third  brigade  of  the  Pennsylvania  troops  in  the  W^hisky  Insurrec- 
tion. It  was  composed  of  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  sixty- 
two  men,  five  hundred  and  sixty-eight  of  whom  were  from  Lancas- 
ter county,  five  hundred  and  fifty  from  York,  three  hundred  and 
sixty-three  from  Cumberland,  and  two  hundred  and  eighty-one  from 
Franklin  county.  The  troops  marched  to  Pittsburg,  were  in  service 
about  one  month,  marched  back  again  and  were  discharged,  with- 
out having  fired  a  shot  or  lost  a  man. 

THE   WAR   OF   1812-'14. 

The  war  with  England  for  the  establishment  of  the  right  of  the 
vessels  belonging  to  the  people  of  the  United  States  to  navigate  the 
waters  of  the  world  without  molestation  from  any  foreign  power, 
was  declared  by  Congress  on  the  12th  of  June,  1812.  Before  that 
time  the  British  government  had  claimed  authority  to  search  all 
merchant  vessels  found  upon  the  high  seas,  to  ascertain  what  kinds 
of  goods,  wares  and  merchandize  they  carried  ;  and  to  seize  and 
impress  all  such  seamen  found  upon  them  as  were  claimed  to  be 
natives  of  the  British  Empire,  or  at  some  previous  period  owed  alle- 
giance to  the  British  government. 

This  claim  the  government  of  the  United  States  resisted,  as  un- 
founded under  the  laws  of  nature  and  of  nations,  and  the  English 
government  jjersisting  in  exercising  the  right,  notwithstanding  the 

90  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Counti/. 

remonstrances  of  the  United  States  authorities,  Congress  declared 
war,  and  called  upon  the  people  of  the  country  to  rally  to  the  defence 
of  "  free  trade  and  sailor's  rights." 

The  hardy  yoenianry  of  this  valley  responded  with  alacrity  to  the 
call  of  the  constituted  authorities  of  the  nation.  Like  their  patriot 
sires  of  the  days  of  1776,  they  were  ready  and  eager  for  the  contest, 
and  during  the  years  1812,  1813  and  1814,  thirteen  companies  of  men 
were  organized  within  our  county  and  went  into  service. 

Even  before  the  formal  declaration  of  war  was  proclaimed  by  the 
President,  "the  Franklin  County  Light  Dragoons,"  forty  one  offi- 
cers and  men,  under  Caj^tain  Matthew  Patton  ;  the  "  Mercersburg 
Eifles,"  seventy-two  officers  and  men,  under  Captain  James  M'Dow- 
ell ;  the  "  Concoi-d  Light  Infantry,  thirty-two  officers  and  men,  un- 
der Captain  Michael  Harper;  the  "  Chambersburg  Union  Volun- 
teers," fifty-one  officers  and  men,  under  Captain  Jeremiah  Snider, 
and  the  "Antrim  Greens,"  (riflemen),  sixty  officers  and  men,  under 
Captain  Andrew  Oaks,  through  Major  William  M'Clellan,  the 
Brigadelnspectorot  this  county,  tendered  their  services  to  Governor 
Simon  Snyder,  as  part  of  any  quota  of  troops  that  might  be  called 
for  from  Pennsylvania. 

Three  several  detachments  of  troops  left  our  county  during  the 
war  of  1812-'14,  at  three  different  periods.  The  first  left  about  the 
5th  of  September,  1812,  and  was  composed  of  the  "Union  Volun- 
teers," of  Chambersburg,  under  Cajitain  Jeremiah  Snider;  the 
"Franklin  Riflemen,"  of  Chambersburg,  under  Captain  Henry 
Reges;  the  "Concord  Light  Infantry,"  under  Captain  Michael 
Harper;  the  "Mercersburg  Rifles,"  under  Captain  Patrick  Hays, 
and  the  "Antrim  Greens,"  under  Captain  Andrew  Oaks — total,  two 
hundred  and  sixty-four  officers  and  men.  The  quota  of  our  county 
was  five  hundred  and  seven  officers  and  men,  and  the  deficiency, 
two  hundred  and  forty,  was  made  up  by  a  draft  from  the  militia. 
The  whole  detachment  was  under  the  command  of  Major  William 
M'Clelland,  the  Brigade  Inspector  of  the  county,  and  marched  to 
the  north-western  frontier  by  way  of  Bedford,  Pittsburg  and  Mead- 
ville,  which  latter  place  was  reached  about  the  20th  or  2oth  of  Sep- 
tember, 1812.  There  the  assembled  troops  were  organized  into  four 
regiments,  two  of  riflemen  and  two  of  Infantry.  Of  the  first  regi- 
ment of  riflemen  Jared  Irwin  was  elected  colonel,  and  of  the  second 
regiment  William  Piper  was  elected  colonel.  Of  the  first  regiment 
of  infantry  Jeremiah  Snider  was  elected  colonel,  and  of  the  second 
regiment  John  Purviauce  was  elected  colonel.  These  four  regiments 
were  formed  into  a  brigade  under  the  command  of  Brigadier  Gen- 
eral Adamson  Tannahill.  Dr.  Samuel  D.  Culbertson,  of  Chambers- 
burg, was  appointed  Surgeon-in-Chief  of  the  brigade,  and  Dr.  George 
Denig,  Assistant  Surgeon. 
Upon  the  election  of  Captain  Jeremiah  Snider  to  the  colonelcy  of 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  91 

the  first  regiment,   his  lieutenant,   John  M'Clintoek  was  elected 
captain  of  his  company,  and  George  K.  Harper  was  promoted  to 
the  position  of  lieutenant,  vacated  by  Captain  M'Clintoek. 
The  Roster  of  the  first  regiment  after  its  formation  was  as  follows  : 

Colonel,  Jeremiah  Snider.  Quartermaster,  Bernard  WolfT. 

First  Major,  James  Warner.  Sergeant  Major,  Andrew  Lindsay. 

Second  Major,  John  Scott.  Forage  Master,  Hugh  GreenQeld. 

Surgeon,  Samuel  D.  Culbertson.  Wagon  Master,  Stephen  Rigler. 
Adjutant,  Owen  Aston. 

The  companies  of  Captains  M'Clintoek,  Reges  and  Hari^er  were 
in  Colonel  Snider's  regiment,  and  those  of  Captains  Oaks  and  Hays 
in  Colonel  Jared  Irwin's  regiment.  After  the  organization  of  the 
brigade  it  marched  to  Buffalo,  about  the  middle  of  October,  1812, 
and  arrived  there  in  November.  It  remained  at  Buffalo,  in  winter 
quarters,  until  some  time  in  the  month  of  January,  1813,  when  the 
men  were  discharged. 

The  following  are  the  rolls  of  Captains  Jeremiah  Snider's  and 
Henry  Reges'  companies,  as  they  were  when  they  left  Chambers- 
burg,  September'5th,  1812. 


Captain  Jeremiah  Snider. 
Lieutenant,  John  M'Clintoek. 
Ensign,  Owen  Aston. 


First,  John  Stevenson,  Third,  John  Colhoun, 

Second,  Alex.  Allison,  Fourth,  Andrew  Colhoun. 


First,  Robert  Haslett,  Third,  H.  Ruthrauflf, 

Second,  William  Tillard,  Fourth,  John  Reed. 


Wiliam  Donaldson,  Henry  Bickney. 


Timothy  Allen,  John  Cummings, 

John  Andrews,  Robert  Foot, 

Joseph  Barnett,  George  Faber, 

Samuel  Beatty,  Isaac  Grier, 

David  Ely  the,  Peter  Glossbrenner, 

A.  L.  Crain,  Hugh  Greenfield, 

Andrew  Clunk,  George  Heist, 

Daniel  Clouser,  Horace  Hill, 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

John  Hunter, 
Thomas  Harvey, 
Daniel  Hood, 
John  Hutchinson, 
Andrew  Lindsay, 
Spencer  M'Kinney, 
James  Murray, 
Alex.  M'Connell, 
Elisha  Nabb, 
Jacob  Phillipy, 

John  Plummer, 
Stephen  Rij^ler, 
William  Shannon, 
George  Simpson, 
Moses  H.  Swan, 
William  Taylor, 
Joshua  Wilson, 
James  Wilson, 
David  Wilson, 
Bernard  Wolff. 


Captain,  Henry  Reges. 
First  Lieutenant,  Jeremiah  Senseny. 
Second  Lieutenant,  John  Musser. 
First  Sergeant,  Peter  Fleck. 


John  Boyle, 
John  Baughman, 
Robert  Cunningham, 
John  Cook, 
Edward  Crawford, 
Arthur  Dobbin, 
John  Denig, 
John  Essig, 
Isaac  Erwin, 
John  Favorite, 
John  Gelwicks, 
William  Grice, 
Joseph  Good, 
John  Gil  more, 
Philip  Grim, 
Christian  John, 
George  W.  Lester, 
Josiah  Lemon, 
Isaiah  Lamer, 
Robert  M'Murray, 
John  Mumma, 

Hugh  Mann  on, 
Hugh  M'Connell, 
Hugh  M'Anulty, 
John  Martin, 
Benjamin  Matthews, 
James  M'Connell, 
William  Pollack, 
Richard  Runnion, 
John  Radebaugh, 
John  Robinson, 
John  Reilly, 
Jacob  Snyder, 
Joseph  Stall, 
Henry  Smith, 
Thompson  Schools, 
Joseph  Severns, 
Daniel  Sailer, 
John  Withney, 
James  Wise, 
George  Wilson, 
George  Zimmerman. 


Captain,  Andrew  Oaks. 
Lieutenant,  Thomas  Wilson. 
Ensign,  George  Zeigler. 

Hlslorical  Sketch  X)f  Franldin  County. 


First,  Peter  Cramer, 
Second,  Jacob  Gudtner, 

Third,  Jacob  Fletter, 
Fourth,  James  P«nueU 


First,  William  Dungan,  Third,  Jacob  Garresene, 

Second,  George  Sharer,  Fourth,  Thomas  Brady. 

Fifer,  Henry  Sites.  Drummer,  Jacob  Poper. 


Henry  Blendlinger, 
Joseph  Byerly, 
George  Bettes, 
William  Bolton, 
Samuel  Bender, 
William  Carroll, 
Patrick  Dungan, 
Evan  Evans, 
William  Foster, 
Thomas  Fletcher, 
John  Gaff, 
William  Gordon, 
John  Garner, 
Richard  Keller, 
Samuel  Martin, 

James  M'Curdy, 
Samuel  M'Laughlin, 
William  Ovelman, 
Thomas  Plummer, 
John  Snyder, 
William  Scully, 
John  Sreader, 
George  Stuff, 
Samuel  Smith, 
George  Shaffer, 
George  Uller, 
Christian  Wilhelm, 
Samuel  Weidner, 
Daniel  Weidner. 


Captain,  Patrick  Hays. 
Lieutenant,  John  Small. 
Ensign,  Samuel  Elder. 


First,  James  M'Quown, 
Second,  Jacob  Small, 

Third,  Jacob  Williams, 
Fourth,  George  Spangler. 


First,  Joseph  Herington,  Third,  Dauiel  Leer, 

Second,  John  Donothen, 
Fifer,  John  Mull. 

Fourth,  Jacob  Cain. 
Drummer,  Jacob  Wise. 

James  Bennet, 
Isaac  Brubaker, 
Samuel  Craig, 
Josei^h  Cunningham, 
John  Crouch, 

John  Cla])saddle, 
Henry  Cline, 
William  Cooj^er, 
Samuel  Campbell, 
Alex,  Dunlap, 

94  Historical  Slietch  of  FranTdin  Countif^ 

Frederick  Divelbiss,  Robert  M'Quown, 

David  Deitricl?,  Robert  M'Farland, 

John  I>unlap,  William  M'Quowu, 

James  Elder,  John  Mowry, 

Peter  Gaster,  James  M'Dowell, 

Jacob  Groscope,  Charles  M'Pike, 

John  Harris,  Campbell  Montgomery, 

Jacob  Hodskins,  William  M'Curdy, 

Jonas  Hissong,  Samuel  Martin, 

William  Hart,  Charles  Pettet, 

John  Hallin,  Henry  Suffcoal, 

John  Hastier,  William  SufFcoal, 

John  Heart,  W^illiam  Stewart, 

James  Halland,  Peter  Teach, 

Abraham  Hodskins,  Henry  Weaver, 

Peter  Kyler,  Daniel  Welker, 

John  King,  James  Walker. 


Captain,  Michael  Harper. 
Lieutenant,  William  M'Kinzie. 
Ensign,  John  Campbell. 


First,  William  Irwin,  Third,  John  Widney, 

Second,  James  M'Kiuzie,  Fourth,  Hugh  Barrack. 


First,  Jeremiah  Baker,  Third,  Samuel  Campbell, 

Second,  Francis  M'Cullough,  Fourth,  James  Ginnevin. 


John  Cannon,  George  Irwin, 

Joseph  Dever,  James  Linn, 

Barnabas  Donnelly,  Samuel  Phillips, 

David  Evans,  Isaac  Scooly, 

Barnabas  Fegan,  William  Smith, 

Jer.  Hockenberry,  Richard  Scott, 

James  Hockenberry,  James  Taylor, 

.  Peter  Hockenberry,  Peter  Timmons. 

In  the  early  part  of  the  year  1814,  the  General  Government  hav- 
ing made  a  call  upon  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  for  more  troops, 
Governor  Simon  Snyder,  about  the  beginning  of  February  of  that 
year,  ordered  a  draft  for  1000  men  from  the  counties  of  York,  Adams, 
Franklin  and  Cumberland — Cumberland  county  to  raise  500  men, 
and  the  other  counties  the  balance.     The  quota  of  Franklin  county 

Wsi07'lcal  Stench  of  Fronld'm  Coxmiy.  95 

was  ordered  to  assemble  at  Loudon  on  the  1st  of  March,  1814. 
What  was  its  exact  number  I  have  not  been  able  to  ascertain. 

At  that  time  Captain  Samuel  Dunn,  of  Path  Valley  had  a  small 
volunteer  company  under  his  command,  numbering  about  forty 
men.  These,  I  am  informed,  volunteered  to  go  as  part  of  the  quota 
of  the  county,  ai)d  were  accepted.  Drafts  were  then  made  to  furnish 
the  balance  of  the  quota,  and  oue  full  company  of  drafted  men, 
under  the  command  of  Cai^tain  Samuel  Gordon,  of  Waynesburg, 
and  one  partial  company,  under  the  command  of  Captain  Jacob 
Stake,  of  Lurgan  township,  were  organized  and  assembled  at  Loudon 
in  pursuance  of  the  orders  of  the  Governor.  There  the  command 
of  the  detachment  was  assumed  by  Major  William  M'Lellan, 
brigade  Inspector  of  the  county,  who  conducted  it  to  Erie.  It  moved 
from  Loudon  on  the4th  of  March,  and  was  twenty-eight  days  in  reach- 
ing Erie.  According  to  Major  M'Clelland's  report  on  file  in  the 
auditor  general's  ofifice  at  Harrisburg,  it  was  composed  of  one  major, 
three  captains,  five  lieutenants,  two  ensigns  and  two  hundred  and 
twenty-one  privates. 

Dr.  Wm.  C.  Lane,  in  a  note,  says:  "Captain  Jacob  Stake  lived  along 
the  foot  of  the  mountain,  between  Roxbuiy  and  Strasburg.  He 
went  as  captain  of  a  company  of  drafted  men,  as  far  as  Erie,  at 
which  place  his  company  was  merged  into  those  of  Captains  Dunn 
and  Gordon,  as  the  commissions  of  those  oflicers  anti-dated  his 
commission,  and  there  were  not  men  enough  in  their  companies  to 
fill  them  uji  to  the  required  complement." 

Upon  the  arrival  of  these  troops  at  Erie,  and  their  organization 
into  companies,  they  were  put  into  the  fifth  legiment  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania troops,  commanded  by  Colonel  James  Fenton.  Of  that 
regiment,  James  Wood,  of  Greencastle,  was  major,  and  Thomas 
Poe,  of  Antrim  township,  adjutant,  the  whole  army  being  under 
the  command  of  Major  General  Jacob  Brown. 

Adjutant  Poe  is  reputed  to  have  been  a  gallant  officer,  oue  to 
whom  fear  was  unknown.  On  one  occasion  he  quelled  a  mutiny 
among  the  men  in  camp,  unaided  by  any  other  person.  The 
mutineers  afterwards  declared  that  they  saw  death  in  his  eyes  when 
he  gave  them  the  command  to  "return  to  quarters."  He  fell  mor- 
tally woundeil  at  the  battle  of  Chippewa,  July  Gth,  1814,  and  died 
shortly  afterwards. 

The  following  is  a  cojiy  of  the  roll  of  the  company  of  Cai^tain 
Dunn,  on  file  in  the  War  Department  at  Washington  City. 

Captain,  Samuel  Dunn,  March  1st,  1814. 
First  Lieutenant,  James  M'Connell. 
Second  Lieutenant,  Robert  Foot. 
Third  Lieutenant,  John  Favorite. 
Ensign,  William  Gedde.-s. 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Courdx/. 


First,  John  Snively, 
Second,  Samuel  Baker, 

Third,  James  M'Henry, 
Fourth,  John  M.  Shannon, 


First,  Thompson  Schools, 
Second,  William  Nevill, 

Third,  John  Witherow. 
DrumuTrer,  John  Boggs, 

Ijevi  Black, 
John  Brandt, 
Jesse  Beams, 
George  Bryan, 
Frederick  Boreaugh^ 
Anthony  Bates, 
John  Barclaj^ 
John  Brewster, 
Hugh  Baker, 
John  Beaty, 
William  Buchanan, 
Andrew  Barclay , 
James  Connor, 
Samuel  Creamer, 
John  Cunningham, 
James  Compton, 
Barnabas  Clark, 
Thomas  Cummings, 
Benjamin  Davis, 
Samuel  Davenport, 
John  Doyle, 
James  Elliott, 
Robert  Elder, 
Joseph  Fingerty, 
Abraham  Flagle, 
Jacob  Frush, 
Jere  Gift, 
Hugh  Henderson, 
Nehemiah  Harvey, 
Edward  Heil, 
Henry  Halby, 
Thomas  Hays, 
*  Robert  Hunter, 
John  Humbert, 
Henry  Hess, 

Robert  Johnston, 
Enoch  Johns, 
John  Krotzer, 
James  Keever, 
Slichael  Kester, 
James  Kirk  wood, 
Benjamin  Long, 
David  Lightuer, 
Tobias  Long, 
Noah  Macky, 
John  M' Conn  ell, 
Robert  M'Connell, 
James  Morehead, 
John  M'Dowell, 
fAdam  Myers, 
George  Macomb, 
John  Miller, 
William  M'Clure, 
Samuel  Mateer, 
William  Moore, 
John  Marshal, 
James  M'Kim, 
Absalom  M' II wee, 
John  Murray, 
Joseph  Noble, 
John  Noble, 
John  Over, 
Joseph  Phipps, 
Thomas  Pen  well, 
George  Plucher, 
Mathias  Panther, 
William  Reed, 
Charles  Runion, 
William  Ramsay, 
Philip  Roan, 

»Afterward8  Colonel  of  the  50th  Regiment.       fStill  Living. 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  97 

Jacob  Stevick,  David  Trindle, 

Peter  Shell,  William  Woods, 

Samuel  Swope,  Richard  Wright, 

John  Shell,  John  Walker, 

John  Smith,  George  Wrist, 

John  Swanger,  William  Williams, 

Jacob  Staley,  William  Westcott, 

William  Sheets,  John  Young, 

John  Stewart,  Robert  Young, 

Barney  Shipton,  John  Young, 

John  Stake,  *Jacob  Zettle. 

"This  company,"  says  Dr.  Lane,  "was originally  armed  with  rifles. 
These  were  exchanged  at  Erie  for  regulation  muskets.  The  com- 
pany was  at  the  battles  of  Chippewa  and  Lundy's  Lane,  and 
guarded  British  prisoners  from  the  frontier  to  Greenbush,  now 
Albany,  New  York.  These  prisoners  numbered  more  than  220  pri- 
vates and  22  officers— among  the  latter  General  Royal.  Dunn  lost 
men  in  both  of  the  battles  named,  was  in  service  with  his  company 
for  about  seven  months,  and  was  mustered  out  at  Albany,  New 

The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  roll  of  Captain  Gordon's  company, 
also  on  file  in  the  War  Department  at  Washington  city. 


Captain,  Samuel  Gordon. 
First  Lieutenant,  William  Dick. 
Second  Lieutenant,  William  Patton. 
Third  Lieutenant,  James  Burnes. 
Ensign,  William  ISIiller. 


First,  Hugh  Davison,  Third,  James  Scott, 

Second,  Charles  Miller,  Fourth,  Josiah  Gordon. 


First,  Joseph  Arthur,  Third,  John  Podman, 

Second,  James  Hall,  Fourth,  Philip  Mason. 

Drummer,  Joseph  Shilling.  Fifer,  William  Burgiss. 

Thomas  Allen, 
William  Alsip, 
Martin  Beard, 
Henry  Baugher, 


Benjamin  Bump, 
George  Burr, 
Frederick  Beverson, 
John  Baker, 

•Still  Living. 

ITisforical  Sketch  of  F)^anklm  County. 

Michael  Borer, 
Jacob  Baker, 
Peter  Baker, 
Michael  Bear, 
Adam  Brown, 
Conrad  Croft, 
John  Coon, 
John  Craig, 
Richard  Cahil, 
William  Clem, 
John  Carver, 
William  Clark, 
Richard  Donahoe, 
William  Divelbiss, 
John  Dowman, 
Edward  Detrick, 
George  Davis, 
8amuel  Dean, 
Jacob  Decmer, 
John  Davis, 
Adam  Duncan, 
Jacob  Eby, 
George  Ensrainger, 
William  Edwards, 
Nathaniel  Fips, 
Joseph  Flora, 
John  Fisher, 
Michael  Fritz, 
Henry  Geiger, 
George  Glaze, 
Moses  Getrich, 
John  Greenly, 
John  Graham, 
John  Huber, 
Joseph  Hoffman, 
William  Hardin, 
George  Harmonj', 
James  Hardy, 
John  Hawk, 
Peter  Harger, 
John  Irwin, 
David  Johnston, 
John  Jeflery, 
Nathaniel  King, 
Jacob  Keefer, 
William  Kline, 

William  King, 
Peter  Keefer, 
Matthew  King, 
James  Logan, 
Benjamin  Lewis, 
Jacob  Liepert, 
John  M'Colley, 
John  M'Connell, 
Alexander  M'Mullen, 
Peter  Myers, 
WiHiam  Miller, 
John  M'Neal, 
John  M'Clay, 
Philip  Myers, 
William  MahafTy, 
Murdock  Mitchell, 
John  M 'Curdy, 
Robert  M'Clellnnd, 
Daniel  Mentzer, 
G.  M.  Miller, 
George  Miller, 
George  NefT, 
Joseph  Neal, 
Nathan  Phipps, 
Abraham  Piaeeare, 
William  Pearslake, 
Thomas  Poe, 
Erasmus  Quarters, 
Andrew  Robertson, 
William  Reeseman, 
John  Ritter, 
Adam  Rankin, 
Adam  Ream, 
Christopher  Sites, 
Frederick  Stumbaugh 
Jacob  Staufer, 
Nicholas  Smith, 
Jacob  Smith, 
Henry  Satin, 
Joseph  Tice, 
James  Thompson, 
Henry  Unger, 
William  Wolf, 
William  Whitman, 
Henry  Weaver. 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  99 

On  the  24th  of  August,  1814,  the  battle  of  Bladensburg  was  fought, 
and  the  Americans,  under  General  Winder,  were  defeated  by  the  Brit- 
ish, under  Major  General  Ross.  The  same  day  the  enemy  entered 
Washington  city  and  burned  the  Capitol  and  other  public  buildings. 
When  the  news  of  these  events  reached  our  quiet  town  the  people 
were  preatly  aroused,  and,  report  says,  they  at  once  despatched  a 
messenger  to  the  National  authorities  at  Washington  city  to  learn 
if  more  troops  were  desired,  and  whether  volunteers  would  be 
received.  The  government  gladly  accepted  the  proffered  aid,  and 
directed  that  all  the  troops  raised  should  march  at  once  for  Balti- 
more, as  it  was  feared  that  the  invaders  would  next  make  an  attack 
upon  that  city. 

The  messenger  arrived  here  at  midnight,  and  found  a  large 
number  of  the  citizens  anxiously  awaiting  his  coming.  The  bells 
were  rung,  the  town  aroused,  and  the  drum  and  fife  called  the  people 
to  arms.  lo  a  few  days  seven  companies  were  fully  organized  and 
equipped  and  on  the  march  to  Baltimore.  One  of  these  was  a  troop 
of  cavalry  from  IMercersburg,  under  Captain  Matthew  Patton,  which 
marched  to  Baltimore,  but  was  not  accepted,  as  cavalry  were  not 
then  needed.  Upon  learning  that  they  would  not  be  received  as 
cavalry,  many  of  the  members  of  this  company  disposed  of  their 
horses  and  joined  the  infantry. 

The  following  are  the  rolls  of  the  companies  of  Captains  John 
Findlay  and  Samuel  D.  Culbertson,  of  Chambersburg;  Thomas 
Bard,  of  Mercersburg ;  Andrew  Robison,  of  Greencastle ;  John 
Flanagan,  of  Waynesburg,  and  William  Alexander,  of  Fannetts- 
burg,  as  they  remain  on  file  in  the  War  Department  at  Washington 
city : 


Captain,  John  Findlay, 

First  Lieutenant,  John  Snider. 

Second  Lieutenant,  Greenberry  Murphy. 

Ensign,  John  Hershberger. 


First,  Joseph  Severns,  Fourth,  Jeremiah  Senseny, 

Second,  Andrew  Rea,  Fifth,  Jacob  Fedder. 

Third,  Henry  Smith, 


First,  John  Robison,  Third,  Jacob  Heck, 

Second,  George  W.  Lester,  Fourth,  Jacob  Bickley. 


Jacob  Abrahams,  James  Buchanan, 

John  Berlin,  John  Brindle, 

Peter  Bonebrake,  William  Bratten, 

John  Baxter,  Benjamin  Blythe, 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

John  Baughman, 
John  Bucher, 
Jacob  Bittinger, 
Abraham  Burkholder, 

Frederick  Best, 

Daniel  Grouse, 

Joseph  Campbell, 

James  Carberry, 

Conrad  Clouse, 

Joseph  Cope, 

John  Clugston, 

M'Farlin  Camniel, 

Conrad  Draher, 

Daniel  Dechert, 

■William  Dugan, 

James  Dixon, 

John  Eaton, 

Simon  Eaker, 

Benjamin  Firnwalt, 

Henry  Fry, 

Thomas  Fletcher, 

Henry  Ganter, 

Jaceb  George, 
John  Gillespy, 
Jacob  Glosser, 
John  Gelwicks, 
Michael  Helman, 
Thomas  Hall, 
William  Harman, 
James  Huston, 
Daniel  Helman, 
Isaac  Irvin, 
Thomas  Jones, 
William  Kinneard, 
David  Keller, 
Thomas  Kaisey, 
Jacob  Laufman, 
John  Lucas, 
Reuben  Monroe, 
Robert  M'Afee, 
Daniel  M'AUister, 

William  M'Kesson, 
William  M'Kean, 
William  Mills, 
Samuel  M'Elroy, 
Soyer  M'Faggen, 
John  Milone, 
David  Mentzer, 
Jacob  M'Ferren, 
Cammel  Montgomery, 
David  Murama, 
Ludwick  Nitterhouse, 
Samuel  Nogel, 
John  Nitterhouse, 
Jacob  NefF, 
John  Nixon, 
John  Porter, 
Edward  Ruth, 
Jacob  Reichert, 

John  Radebaugh, 

Elijah  Sargeant, 

Charles  Stuard, 

Samuel  Shillito, 

Daniel  Sharp, 

William  Sipes, 

Jacob  Spitel, 

Ross  Sharp, 

Joseph  Suttey, 

John  Tritle, 

John  Todd, 

Joseph  Wilson, 

Benjamin  Wiser, 

James  Walker, 

Jacob  Wolfkill, 

Josiah  Wallace, 

David  White, 
Matthew  Wright, 

James  Westbay, 
Hugh  Woods, 
William  White, 
George  Young, 
George  Zimmerman. 


Captain,  Samuel  D.  Culbertson. 
First  Lieutenant,  John  M'Clintock. 
Second  Lieutenant,  George  K.  Harper. 
Eusign,  John  Stevenson. 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 



First,  Andrew  Calhoun, 
Second,  John  Calhoun, 

First,  Hugh  Greenfield, 
Second,  James  Wilson, 

John  Arntt, 
Henry  Burchett, 
John  Besore, 
Samuel  Brand, 
Matthew  Besore, 
George  Beaver, 
James  Crawford, 
Holmes  Crawford, 
Augustus  Capron, 
William  Cook,    . 
James  Campbell, 
Edward  Crawford, 
Edward  Capron, 
Peter  Crayton, 
Jolin  Devine, 
William  Denny, 
Joseph  Duffield, 
John  Deuig, 
John  Dougherty, 
Joseph  Erven, 
Benjamin  Fahnestock, 
William  Ferry, 
Isaac  Grier, 
Jacob  Grove, 
Henry  Greenawalt, 
William  Grove, 
Paul  Hoeflich, 
John  Holmes, 
Wm.  Heyser, 
Joseph  Housem, 
John  Hutchinson, 
George  Harris, 
Herman  Helfmire, 
John  Hinkle, 
Michael  S.  Johns, 
William  Jamison, 
George  Jasonsky, 
John  Kindline, 
Jacob  Kelker, 

Third,  Stephen  Rigler, 
Fourth,  Alex.  Allison, 



Third,  Samuel  Beatty, 
Fourth,  John  Andrew. 

Andrew  Lindsay, 
William  M.  M'Dowell, 
John  M' Bride, 
Patrick  Murray, 
John  M'Cormick, 
George  B.  M' Knight, 
Thomas  G,  M'Culloh, 
Henry  Merklein, 
John  Nunemacher, 
William  Nochtwine, 
George  Oyster, 
John  O'Neal, 
Samuel  Porter, 
William  Reynolds, 
James  D.  Riddle, 
Philip  Reges, 
John  Reed, 
Samuel  Ruthrauflf; 
Willam  Richey, 
Adam  Roemer, 
George  Simpson, 
William  Schoeplin, 
John  Snider, 
Samuel  Shillito, 
William  Shane, 
Daniel  Stevenson, 
Jacob  Smith, 
David  Tritle, 
Robert  Thompson, 
Abraham  Voress, 
Bernard  WolflT, 
Jacob  Widefelt, 
John  Weaver, 
John  Whitmore, 
John  B.  Watts, 
James  Warden, 
Joseph  Wallace, 
George  Willison. 


HMorical  Sketch  of  FranTdin  Couniif, 


Captain,  Thomas  Bard. 
First  Lieutenant,  James  M'Dowell. 
Second  Lieutenant,  Joiin  Jolinston, 
Ensign,  Josei^li  Bowers. 


First,  A.  T.  Dean,  Third,  Thomas  Smith, 

Second,  G.  DufHeld,  Fourth,  G,  Spangler. 


First,  William  Smith,  Third,    William  M'Dowell 

Second,  Thomas  Grubb,  Fourth,  Thomas  Johnston 

Fifer,  John  Mull. 


John  Abbott, 
John  Brown, 
Archibald  Bard, 
Robert  Carson, 
John  Coxe, 
John  Campbell, 
Samuel  Craig, 
John  Cox,  Jr., 
John  Donnyhon, 
Joseph  Dick, 
Joseph  Dunlap, 
Peter  Elliott, 
Jeremiah  Evans, 
John  Furley, 
Leonard  GafF, 
John  Glaze, 
Joseph  Garvin, 
James  Garver, 
William  Glass, 
Henry  Garner, 
William  Hart, 
Joseph  Harrington, 
James  Hamilton, 
James  Harrison, 
Frederick  Henchy, 
John  Harrer, 
William  Houston, 
Samuel  Johnson, 
John  King, 
John  Liddy, 
James  M'Dowell, 
John  M'Clelland, 

Thomas  C.  M'Dowell, 
William  M'Dowell,  Sr., 
George  M'Ferren, 
James  Montgomery, 
James  M'Neal, 
Augustus  M'Neal, 
Samuel  Markle, 
John  M'Curdy, 
Robert  M'Coy, 
John  M'Culloh. 
John  Maxwell, 
William  M'Kinstry, 
Matthew  Patton, 
Charles  Pike, 
David  Robston, 
William  Stewart, 
Thomas  Speer, 
James  Sheilds, 
David  Smith, 
George  Stevens, 
John  Sybert, 
Thomas  Squire, 
Conrad  Stinger, 
Samuel  Witherow, 
Thomas  Williamson, 
William  Wilson, 
John  Werlby, 
John  Witherow, 
James  Walker, 
William  Rankin, 
Thomas  Waddle, 
Christopher  Wise. 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 


Captain,  Andrew  Robison. 
First  Lieutenant,  John  Brotherton. 
Second  Lieutenant,  James  Mitchell, 
Ensign,  Jacob  Besore. 



First,  James  Walker, 
Second,  Andrew  Snively, 

Third,  Thomas  Wilson, 
Fourth,  Archibald  Fleming. 


First,  John  Randall,  Third,  Geoi-ge  vSackett, 

Second,  George  Bellows,  Fourth,  Alex.  Aikeu. 

Paymaster,  William  Carson. 


William  Armstrong,  Jr., 
John  Allison, 
William  Bratten, 
Robert  Bruce, 
John  Billings, 
Henry  Beatty, 
Samuel  Bradley, 
William  H.  Brotherton, 
James  Brotherton, 
Robert  Brotherton, 
Frederick  Baird, 
John  Boggs, 
Benjamin  Core, 
Walter  B.  Clark, 
William  Clark, 
George  Clark, 
Frederick  Carpenter, 
William  Coffroth, 
James  Camion, 
Jesse  Deman, 
John  Dennis, 
James  Davison, 
William  T.  Dugan, 
Samuel  Foreman, 
George  Flora, 
David  Fullerton, 
John  Garner, 
Robert  Guinea, 
Hugh  Guinea, 
Edward  Gordon, 

William  Gallagher, 
John  Gatr, 
Frederick  Gearhart, 
Peter  Gallagher, 
William  Harger, 
John  Henneberger, 
Joseph  Hughes, 
William  Irwin, 
James  Johnston, 
Jonathan  Keyser, 
Matthew  Kennedy 
William  Krepps, 
George  Kuy, 
John  M'Cuue, 
Adam  M'Callister, 
James  M'Gaw, 
James  M'Cord, 
William  M'Graw, 
William  H.  Miller, 
William  Moreland, 
John  M'Connell, 
Samuel  M'Cutchen, 
John  Miller, 
Archibald  M'Lane, 
Abraham  M'Cutchen, 
John  M'Coy, 
John  B.  M'Lanahan, 
John  M'Clellan, 
Samuel  Nigh, 
Robert  Owen, 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Count)/. 

James  Poe, 

John  Park, 

Jacob  Poper, 

J.  Piper, 

John  Reed, 

Roger  Rice, 

A.  B.  Rankin, 

John  Rowe,  Sr., 

John  Rogers, 

John  Shira, 

Charles  Stewart, 

Adam  Sayler, 

John  Shearer, 

Samuel  Statler,  (of  Emanuel), 

George  Schreder, 

Henry  Sites, 
George  Speekman, 
John  Snyder, 
Robert  Smith, 
John  Shaup, 
George  Uller, 
William  Vanderaw, 
Thomas  Welsh, 
James  Wilson, 
George  Wallack, 
Christian  Wilhelm, 
Christian  Wise, 
John  Weaver, 
Thomas  Walker, 
Alexander  Young. 


Captain,  John  Flanagan, 
Lieutenant,  William  Bivins. 
Ensign,  Daniel  M'Farlin. 


First,  Robert  Gordon,  Third,  William  Downey, 

Second,  George  Cochran,  Fourth,  George  Foreman. 


Samuel  Allison, 
John  Bowman, 
John  Bormest, 
Christian  Bechtel, 
David  Beaver, 
William  Barnet, 
Hugh  Blair, 
William  Call, 
James  Duncan, 
Joseph  Fulton, 
Jacob  Fry, 
Loudon  Fullerton, 
James  Fullerton, 
James  Getteys, 
George  Gettier, 
Samuel  Green, 
Peter  Haulman, 
Daniel  Haulman, 
James  Harshman, 
David  HefFner, 
Daniel  Hartman, 

James  Hay  den, 
George  Koontz, 
Daniel  Logan, 
John  Logan, 
William  Moouey, 
Joseph  Misner, 
James  M'Cray, 
William  M'Dowell, 
John  Oellig, 

Maximillian  Obermeyer, 
George  Price, 
Robert  Ray, 
Abraham  Roberson, 
Adam  Stonebraker, 
John  ShefHer, 
John  Stoner, 
David  Springer, 
Alex.  Stewart, 
George  Weagley, 
David  Weaver. 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  105 


Captain,  William  Alexander. 
Lieutenant,  Francis  M'Connell. 
Ensign,  James  Barkley. 


First,  John  M'Clay,  Third,  Peter  Foreman, 

Second,  Richard   Childerson,  Fourth,  William  Young. 


John  Sterrett. 


James  Alexander,  James  M'Connell, 

Thomas  Childerstone,  Robert  M'Kleai-y, 

Edward  Dunn,  Hugh  Maxwell, 

John  Elder,  Robert  M'Millon, 

Noah  Elder,  John  M' Allen, 

William  Finnerty,  John  M'Kee, 

Andrew  Foreman,  James  M'Kibben, 

Thomas  Geddis,  Joseph  M'Kelvey, 

Thomas  Harry,  John  Neal, 

John  Harry,  Peter  Piper, 

John  Hill,  John  Patterson, 

George  Houston,  John  Ryan, 

Samuel  Hockenberry,  Wiliam  Shutter, 

James  Irwin,  Arthur  Shields, 

James  Jones,  John  Vanlear, 

David  Kyle,  David  Witherow, 

Robert  Lewis,  James  Wallace, 

John  Little,  Peter  Wilt. 

Upon  the  arrival  of  these  troops  at  Baltimore  they  were  organized 
into  a  regiment  under  the  command  of  John  Findley,  of  this  county. 
The  following  is  the  roster  of  the  regimental  officers:  Colonel,  John 
Findley;  Major,  David  Fullerton;  Surgeon,  Dr.  John  M'Clelland; 
First  Mate,  Dr.  John  Boggs;  Second  Mate,  Dr.  Jesse  M'Gaw;  Adju- 
tant, James  M'Dowell;  Quartermaster,  Thomas  G.  M'Culloh;  Ser- 
geant Major,  Andrew  Lindsay;  Quartermaster  Sergeant,  William 
Carson;  Paymaster  General,  George  Clark,  Esq. 

Upon  the  election  of  Captain  Findley  as  colonel  of  the  regiment, 
Lieutenant  William  Young  was  elected  captain  of  the  company  in 
his  stead.  These  troops  marched  on  the  2oth  of  August,  1814,  and 
were  in  service  until  the  23d  of  September  following,  when  they 
were  discharged. 

106  HiMorical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Count]/. 


The  annexation  of  Texas  to  tlie  United  States  was  the  primary- 
cause  of  this  war.  This  was  consummated  on  the  4th  of  July,  1S45, 
by  the  action  of  the  Legislature  of  Texas,  giving  approval  to  the 
bill  passed  by  the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  for  the  union  of 
the  two  rejDublics.  The  Mexican  authorities  became  very  indignant 
and  withdrew  their  minister  from  Washington,  with  threats  of  war. 
The  United  States  government  felt  itself  bound  to  sustain  the  inde- 
pendence and  territorial  claims  of  Texas-  and  Mexico  refusing  the 
overtures  of  our  government  for  a  peaceable  settlement  of  the  boun- 
dary lines  between  the  two  countries.  General  Taylor,  early  in  1846, 
was  ordered  to  advance  to  the  Rio  Grande,  the  boundary  claimed 
by  Texas,  and  occupy  the  disputed  territory.  The  Mexicans,  under 
General  Ampudia,  on  the  8th  of  May,  1846,  were  defeated  by  him 
at  Palo  Alto;  and  on  the  next  day  were  a  second  time  defeated  at 
Resaca  de  la  Palma,  with  a  loss  of  near  1,000  men.  On  the  11th  of 
May,  1840,  Congress  declared  that  war  existed  by  the  act  of  Mexico. 
The  news  of  the  commencement  of  hostilities  occasioned  the 
greatest  excitement  throughout  this  country.  Ten  millions  of 
dollars  were  voted  by  Congress  to  carry  on  the  war,  and  the  Presi- 
dent was  authorized  to  accept  the  services  of  fifty  thousand  volun- 
teers. Within  a  few  weeks  over  two  hundred  thousand  men  volun- 
teered for  the  war.  In  the  spring  of  1847  Captain  Martin  M.  Moore, 
of  Washington  citj',  received  authority  to  recruit  a  company  in 
Pennsylvania,  for  the  Mexican  war.  He  opened  a  recruiting  station 
at  Chambersburg,  and  very  soon  enlisted  a  large  company,  paying 
a  bounty  of  twelve  dollars  per  man,  with  the  right  to  each  recruit  to 
receive,  when  discharged,  one  hundred  and  sixty  acres  of  land,  or 
a  treasury  scrip,  or  certificate,  for  one  hundred  dollars,  bearing  six 
per  cent,  interest.  This  company  left  Ciiambersburg  on  the  17th  of 
March,  1847,  numbering  one  hundred  and  twenty-two  men,  rank 
and  file.     The  officers  were  : 

Captain,  Martin  M.  Moore. 

First  Lieutenant,  Charles  T.  Campbell. 

Second  Lieutenant,  Horace  Haldeman. 

Third  Lieutenant, Mead. 

This  company  marched  to  Pittsburg  by  way  of  Bedford,  where  it 
received  some  additional  recruits.  It  was  called  company  B,  elev- 
enth regiment  U.  S.  infantry.  It  reached  Brasos  Santiago,  about 
the  17th  of  April,  1847,  and  was  for  a  considerable  time  in  garrison 
at  Tampico,  Mexico,  where  a  number  of  the  men  died  of  yellow 
fever.  From  Tampico  the  company  passed  to  Vera  Cruz,  and  accom- 
panied our  army  to  the  city  of  Mexico.  Peace  M'as  secured  by  the 
treaty  of  Gaudaloupe  Hidalgo,  February  2d,  1848,  though  not  formally 
proclaimed  until  the  4tli  of  July  following. 

Captain  Moore  was  disiuissed  from  the  service  at  Tampico,  and 



Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  107 

thereafter  the  company  was  commanded  by  Lieutenant  Charles  T. 
Campbell.  At  the  time  of  the  signing  of  the  treaty  of  peace  this 
company  was  in  the  interior  of  Mexico,  seventy-five  miles  above 
the  city  of  Mexico.  On  the  route  home  they  met  a  number  of  men 
going  out  to  join  the  company.  On  the  return  of  the  company  to 
New  York,  about  the  27th  of  July,  1848,  it  had  but  about  twenty- 
four  men  in  its  ranks.  I  tried  to  get  a  copy  of  the  roll  of  the  com- 
pany, but  the  authorities  at  Washington  city  refused  to  give  it  for 
any  purpose. 

Captain  Whipple  and  Lieutenant  Hanson  also  recruited  a  number 
of  men  for  this  war  in  our  county.  The  whole  number  recruited 
could  not  have  been  less  than  two  hundred. 


The  contribution  of  our  county  to  the  armies  that  fought  for  the 
preservation  of  the  Union  in  the  late  war  of  the  rebellion,  was  quite 
large,  and  very  creditable  to  the  patriotism  of  our  i^eople.  A  full 
and  complete  record  of  these  gallant  troops  is  to  be  found  in  "Bates' 
History  of  the  Pennsylvania  Volunteers,"  published  by  authority 
of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  and  it  would  therefore  be  useless  to 
encumber  the  pages  of  this  sketch  with  a  statement  of  their  names 
and  the  officers  who  commanded  them.  Besides,  such  lists,  even  if 
published,  would  by  no  means  show  who  went  out  from  our  county 
in  defence  of  their  country  in  the  hour  of  her  need  and  peril;  for 
many  of  them  joined  companies  outside  of  the  county,  and  their 
names  and  locations  are  only  distinguishable  by  those  who  knew 
them.  I  shall,  therefore,  merely  give  the  names  of  the  companies 
and  regiments,  with  their  commanders. 

THREE    months'    MEN— ISGl. 

In  April,  1861,  the  second  regiment  of  the  three  months'  men  was 
organized  at  Camp  Curtin,  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Fred- 
erick S.  Stumbaugh,  of  Chambersburg.  In  it  were  the  following 
companies  from  our  county,  viz.  : 

Company  A,  Captain  Peter  B.  Housum,  77  officers  and  men. 

B,  "  John  Doebler,  73 

C,  "  James  G.  Elder,       73 

This  regiment  was  in  service  from  the  21st  of  April,  1861,  until 
the  26th  of  July,  1861. 


35th   REGIMENT— 6th   RESERVES. 

On  the  22d  of  June,  1861,  this  regiment  was  organized  at  Camp 
Curtin,  under  the  command  of  Colonel  W.  Wallace  Ricketts,  of 
Columbia  county.     The  only  company  in  it  from  our  county,  was— 

JOS  Historical  Sketch  of  FranJdm  County. 

ComiDany  D,  Captain  William  D.  Dixon,  103  officers  and  men. 

On  the  12th  of  September,  1863,  Captain  Dixon  was  promoted  to 
the  lieutenant  colonelcy  of  the  regiment,  M-hich  was  mustered  out 
of  service,  June  14th,  1864. 

41  ST    REGIMENT— 12th    RESERVES. 

This  regiment  was  organized  at  Camp  Cuitin,  under  the  command 
of  Colonel  John  H.  Taggart,  of  Philadelphia,  primarily  for  the 
three  months'  service,  but  not  being  accepted,  were  mustered  into 
the  State  service  for  three  years  from  the  date  of  their  enlistment. 
On  the  10th  of  August,  1861,  it  was  mustered  into  the  United  States 
service.     The  only  company  in  it  from  our  county  was: 

Company  K,  Captain  John  S.  Eyster,  93  officers  and  men. 

The  regiment  was  mustered  out  of  service  June  11th,  1864. 

43d  regiment — 1st  artillery. 

This  legiment  was  organized  at  Camp  Curtin,  under  the  command 
of  Colonel  Charles  T.  Campbell,  in  May,  1861.  Company  B,  Cap- 
tain Hezekiah  Easton,  was  from  our  county.  It  had  in  it,  during 
its  term  of  service,  three  hundred  and  twenty-three  officers  and  men. 
On  the  27th  of  June,  1862,  Captain  Easton  was  killed  at  the  battle 
of  Gaines'  Mill,  and  on  the  25th  of  July,  1805,  after  four  years  and 
four  months  service,  the  battery  was  mustered  out  at  Harrisburg. 

77th  regiment. 

This  regiment  was  organized  in  October,  1861,  by  the  election  of 
Frederick  S.  Stumbaugh  colonel  and  Peter  B.  Housum  lieutenant 
colonel,  both  of  whom  were  from  our  county.  The  following  com- 
pany was  from  our  county,  viz.  : 

Company  A,  Captain  Samuel  R.  M'Kesson,  219  officers  and  men. 

Parts  of  companies  D,  G,  and  H,  were  also  from  our  county.  On 
the  16th  of  January,  1866,  the  regiment  was  mustered  out  of  the  ser- 
vice at  Philadelphia. 

87th   regiment. 

This  regiment  was  originally  organized  in  September,  1861,  under 
Colonel  George  Hay.  In  September,  1864,  it  was  reorganized.  In 
March,  1865,  company  K,  Captain  D.  B.  Greenawalt,  of  our  county, 
eighty-seven  officers  and  men,  was  assigned  to  it.  The  regiment 
was  mustered  out  of  the  service  June  29th,  1865. 

103d  regiment. 

This  regiment  was  organized  on  the  24th  of  February,  1862,  under 
Colonel  Theodore  F.  Lehman,  and  was  reorganized  and  filled  up  in 

Historical  S'kefeh  of  FrcmJcUn  Counbj.  109 

March,  1865,  when  company  A,  Captain  Elias  K.  Lehman,  eighty- 
eight  officers  and  men,  from  our  county,  became  connected  witli  it. 
The  war  having  closed,  tlie  regiment  was  mustered  out  of  service  on 
the  25th  of  June,  1865. 

107th    regiment. 

This  regiment  was  organized  at  Harrisburg  on  the  5th  of  March, 
1862,  by  the  election  of  Thomas  A.  Zeigle,  of  York  county,  colonel, 
and  Robert  W.  M'Allen,  of  Franklin  county,  lieutenant  colonel. 
One  company,  viz  :  Company  K,  Captain  A.  Jackson  Brand,  was 
from  our  county,  and  had  in  it  during  its  term  of  service  one  hun- 
dred and  sixty-nine  officers  and  men.  There  were  also  a  number 
of  Franklin  county  men  in  the  other  companies.  The  regiment  was 
must<?red  out  of  the  service  July  13th,  1865. 

108th   regiment— 11th   CAVAIiRY. 

Colonels,  Josiah  Harlen  and  Samuel  P.  Spear. 

Lieutenant  Colonel,  George  vStetzel. 

Major,  John  S.  Nimmon. 

A  large  number  of  the  men  of  thisregiment  were  from  our  county, 

especially  those  in  company  D,  Captains  R.  B.  Ward  and  John  S. 

Nimmon.     The  regiment  was  organized  October  5th,  1861,  and  was 

mustered  out  of  service  July  13th,  1865. 

112th  regiment— 2d  artillery. 

Colonel,  Charles  Augeroth,  Sr. 
Lieutenant  Colonel,  B.  F.  Winger. 

A  large  number  of  the  men  composing  this  regiment  were  recruited 
in  our  county.  It  was  organized  in  January,  1862,  and  was  mustered 
out  of  service  at  City  Point,  Virginia,  on  the  29th  of  January,  1866. 


126th  regiment— 1862. 

This  regiment  was  recruited  in  about  three  weeks  time,  and  ren- 
dezvoused at  Camp  Curtin,  Harrisburg,  between  the  6th  and  10th  of 
August,  18G2,  when  a  regimental  organization  was  effected,  with  the 
following  field  officers,  viz:  James  G.  Elder,  colonel;  D.  Watson 
Rowe,  lieutenant  colonel ;  and  James  C.  Austin,  major.  Many  of 
the  officers  and  men  had  served  in  the  second  regiment,  for  three 
months'  service.  The  following  companies  were  from  our  countj', 
viz. : 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County, 

102  oriSeers  and  men. 

Company  A,  Captain,  John  Doebler, 
About  one-half  of 
Company  B,  Captain,  James  C.  Austin,  48 

"  C,        "  Robert  S.  Brownson,    99 

D,  "  John  H.  Reed,  101 

E,  "  William  H.  Walker,  99 
G,  "  George  L.  Miles,  98 
H,        "          John  H.  Walker,  94 

"  K,        "  D.  Watson  Rowe,        101 

The  regiment  was  mustered  out  of  the  service  at  Harrisburg,  on 
the  20th  of  May,  1863. 

158th  regiment. 

This  regiment  was  from  Cumberland,  Franklin  and  Fulton  coun- 
ties, and  was  organized  at  Charabersburg  in  the  early  part  of  No- 
vember, 1862,  with  David  B.  M'Kibben,  of  the  regular  army,  as 
colonel ;  Elias  S.  Troxell,  of  our  county,  as  lieutenant  colonel ;  and 

Martin  C.  Hale,  of  Cumberland  county, 
companies  were  from  our  county,  viz.  : 
Company  B,  Captain, 





,s  major.     The  following 

108  otHcers  and  men. 

Elias  K.  Lehman, 
Archibald  R.  Rhea, 
Elias  S.  Troxell,  104 

Michael  W.  Trair,        102 
William  E.  M'Dowell,  102 
The  regiment  was  mustered  out  of  service  at  Chambersburg,  Au- 
gust 12th,  1863. 


161st  regiment— 16th  cavalry. 
Colonel,  John  Irvin  Gregg. 
Was  organized  18th  November,  1862.     Company  H,  of  this  regi- 
ment, under  command  of  Captain  W.  H.  Sullenberger,  was  from 
this  county,  and  had  in  it  two  hundred  and  three  officers  and  men. 
It  was  mustered  out  of  service  at  Richmond,  Va.,  August  7th,  1865. 

162d  regiment— 17th  cavalry. 
This  regiment  was  organized  18th  October,  1862,  under  Josiah  H. 
Kellogg  as  colonel.     Company  G,  Captain  Luther  B.  Kurtz,  one 
hundred  and  forty-seven  officers  and  men,  was  from  our  county.     It 
was  mustered  out  of  service  August  16th,  1865. 

165th  regiment. 
Colonel,  Charles  H.  Buehler. 
This  regiment  was  organized  6th  December,  1802,  at  Gettysburg. 
Company  A,  Captain  Charles  A.  Funk,  one  hundred  and  one  offi- 
cers and  men,  was  from  our  county.     It  was  nmstered  out  of  service 
at  Gettysburg,  2Sth  July,  1863. 

Hisivrical  S/ieich  of  Franklin  County.  Ill 


182d  regiment— 21st  cavalry. 

Colonel,  William  H.  Boyd. 
This  regiment  was  organized  at   Chambersbiirg,  about  August, 
1863,  for  six  months'  service.    The  following  companies  were  raised 
in  our  county,  viz.  : 
Company  D,  Captain  Josiah  C.  Hullinger,  105  officers  and  men, 
H,        "        Samuel  Walker,  92 

T,        "        Christian  R.  Pisle,      100 
K,        "        Robert  J.  Boyd,  83        "        *'        " 

"  L,        "        George  L,.  Miles,  102        "        "        " 

In  February,  1864,  the  regiment  was  reorganized  for  a  three  years' 
service,  under  the  former  field  and  staff  officers,  and  with  the  fol- 
lowing company  officers  from  our  county,  viz.  : 
Company  D,  Captain,  Josiah  C.  Hullinger,         68  officers  and  men. 

"        E,  "        Wm.  H.  Boyd,  .Ir,,     in  part  from  our  county. 

Company  K,  Captain  Henry  C.  Phenicie,  1S9  officers  and  men. 

"        L,         "        John  H.  Harmony,  133        "        "        " 

The  regiment  was  mustered  out  of  service  at  Appomattox  Court 
House,  on  the  8th  of  July,  1865. 



Colonel  F.  Asbury  Awl. 
Part  of  company  K,  Captain  Alexander  C.  Landis,  of  this  regi- 
ment, was  from  our  county. 

205th    regiment. 

Colonel,  Joseph  A.  Mathews. 
Part  of  company  G,  Captain  Erasmus  D.  Wilts,  of  this  regiment, 
was  from  our  county. 

207th  regiment. 

Colonel,  Robert  C.  Cox. 
This  regiment  was  organized  at  Camp  Curtin,  September  8th,  1864. 
About  one-half  of  Company  F,  Captain  Martin  G.  Hale,  was  from 
this  county.     The  regiment  was  mustered  out  May  13th,  1865. 

209th   REGI3IENT. 

This  regiment  was  organized  at  Camp  Curtin  on  the  16th  of  Sep- 
tember,  1864,   with  Tobias  B.  Kauffman  as  colonel ;  George  W. 

112  Historioal  Sketch  of  Franklin  Count}/. 

Frederick,  lieutenant  colonel ;  and  John  L.  Ritchey,  of  our  county, 
as  major.  It  had  in  it  from  our  county  the  company  of  Captairi 
John  L.  Ritchey,  ninety-two  ofHcers  and  men.  The  regiment  was 
mustered  out  of  service  on  the  31st  of  May,  1865,  near  Alexandria, 

210th  regiment. 

Tliis  regiment  was  organized  at  Camp  Curtin  on  the  2-ith  of  Sep- 
tember, 1864,  witli  William  Sergeant  as  colonel.  A  large  part  of 
company  D,  of  this  regiment.  Captain  H.  W.  M'Knight.  was  from 
our  county,  and  there  were  also  many  men  from  this  county  in  the 
other  companies  or  the  regiment.  The  regiment  was  mustered  out 
of  the  service  May  30th,  1865. 


Captain,  Charles  F.  Muehler. 
Captain,  Alanson  J.  Stevens. 
A  large  part  of  this  battery  was  recruited  in  our  county  for  the 
seventy-seventh  regiment  by  Captain  Peter  B.  Housum,  and  on  his 
promotion  to  the  lieutenant  colonelcy  of  the  seventy-seventh, 
the  men  were  transferred  to  the  company  of  Captain  Muehler,  and 
mustered  into  service  November  6th,  1861.  Captain  Stevens  was 
killed  at  the  battle  of  Murfreesboro,and  Captain  Samuel  M.  M'Dow- 
ell  succeeded  to  the  command.  It  was  mustered  out  of  service  Oc- 
tober 12th, 1865. 



Captain  John  Jeflfries;  ninety-four  officers  and  men.  Organized 
September  5th,  1862.     Discharged  September  27th,  1862. 

Captain  John  W.  Douglas;  eighty-five  otficers  and  men.  Organ- 
ized September  1st,  1862.     Discharged  September  16th,  1862. 

Captain  Jaujes  H.  Montgomery  ;  eighty-nine  officers  and  men. 
Organized  September  8th,  1862.     Discharged  September  20th,  1862. 

Captain  George  W.  Eyster ;  sixty-two  officers  and  men.  Organ- 
ized September  12th,  1862.     Discharged  October  1st,  1862. 

Captain  John  Denny  Walker;  sixty-tive  officers  and  men.  Or- 
ganized Sei)tember  11th,  1862.     Discharged  September  27th,  1862. 

Captain  K.  Shannon  Taylor;  seventy -seven  officers  and  men. 
Organized  September  9th,  1862.     Discharged  September  25th,  1862. 

Captain  David  Houser;  seventy-seven  officers  and  men.  Organ- 
ized September  15th,  1862.     Discharged  October  1st,  1862. 

Captain  Thomas  L.  Fletcher;  eighty-four  officers  and  men.  Or- 
ganized September  l-4th,  1862.     Discharged  October  1st,  1862. 

5  Hr  5^^ 


'  Historical  Sketch  of  Franldin  County.  113 

Captain  Cliarles  W.  Eyster ;  one  hundred  and  eighteen  officers 
and  men.  Organized  September  14th,  1862.  Discharged  October 
loth,  1862. 

Captain  David  Vance;  eighty-eight  officers  and  men.  Organized 
September  ISth,  1862.     Discharged  October  11th,  1862. 

Captain  Andrew  M.  Crisvvell ;  fifty-two  officers  and  men.  Or- 
ganized September  loth,  1862.     Discharged  October  1st,  1862. 

Captain  Cliristian  C.  Foltz;  forty-seven  officers  and  men.  Or- 
ganized September  11th,  1862.     Discharged  September  25th,  1862. 

Total  aggregate  of  officers  and  men,  four  thousand  nine  hundred. 


Franklin  county  is  exceedingly  rich  in  iron  ores — far  more  so,  in- 
deed, than  most  people  here  or  elsewhere  imagine — and  the  manufac- 
ture of  iron  was  commenced  both  on  the  eastern  and  ou  the  western 
side  of  the  county  very  many  years  ago.  As  early  as  178:->,  as  before 
stated,  William,  Benjamin  and  George  Chambers  erected  the  Mount 
Pleasant  furnace,  in  Path  valley,  and  by  industry,  perseverance  and 
good  judgment,  made  the  business  not  only  remunerative  to  them- 
selves, but  highly  advantageous  to  the  people  of  the  surrounding 
districts.  Everything  necessary  to  the  economical  production  of 
iron,  save  coal,  abounds  in  close  proximity  to  our  ore  bede, ;  and  I 
have  heard  a  gentleman  who  has  long  been  engaged  in  the  manu- 
facture of  iron,  and  who  has  visited  and  carefully  inspected  tlie 
great  iron  producing  regions  of  the  country,  and  who  is  qualified 
by  his  experience  to  judge,  declare  that  nowhere,  in  the  whole 
range  of  his  observation,  does  he  know  of  any  section  of  country 
that  is  richer  in  its  iron  ore  deposits,  or  that  offers  greater  induce- 
ments to  the  investment  of  capital  in  the  iron  business,  tlian  the 
county  of  Franklin.  In  his  opinion,  long  before  another  genera- 
tion shall  have  passed  aw-ay,  there  will  be  dozens  of  furnaces  and 
forges  in  our  county,  where  now  only  one  or  two  are  to  be  found; 
that  millions  of  dollars  will  be  invested  as  soon  as  the  trade  of  the 
country  returns  to  its  normal  condition,  where  only  thousands  are 
now  invested ;  and  that  long  before  the  second  centennial  of  our 
national  existence  shall  have  arrived,  the  development  of  the  vast 
ore  beds  along  the  eastern  and  western  borders  of  our  valley  will 
most  inevitably  make  ours  one  of  the  very  largest  iron  producing 
counties  of  the  Commonwealth.  The  iron  made  at  our  iron  works, 
particularly  that  made  at  Stevens'  old  Caledonia  works,  and  at 
Hughes'  old  works,  now  the  Mont  Alto  works,  has  always  main- 
tained an  excellent  reputation,  and  commanded  ready  sales,  at  re- 
munerative prices,  because  of  its  peculiar  excellencies  ;  and  there  is 
no  reason  why  that  reputation  shall  not  be  maintained  in  the  future. 

"Hughes'  Furnace,"  now  the  property  of  the  Mont  Alto  company, 
was  built  by  Daniel  and  Samuel  Hughes,  in  1808.     It  was  cold  blast, 

114  Historical  Sketch  of  Franldia  Count}/. 

and  was  what  was  known  as  a  quarter  stack.  The  water  wheel  used 
was  30  feet  in  diameter  and  three  feet  breast.  The  product  was  from 
eighteen  to  twenty  tons  of  pig  iron  per  week.  The  iron  was  hauled 
by  wagons  to  the  Potomac  river  at  Williamsport,  Maryland,  and 
thence  taken  by  boats  to  market.  1815  a  foundry  was  built,  and  the 
entire  product  of  the  works  was  made  into  hollow  ware  and  stoves 
and  hauled  by  wagons  to  Baltimore.  In  1S32  Mr.  Hughes  built  a 
rolling  mill  on  the  West  Antietam  creek.  The  wheel  was  thirty- 
six  feet  diameter  and  sixteen  feet  bieast.  In  1835  a  nail  works  was 
also  built  near  the  rolling  mill.  In  186-i  the  Mont  Alto  Iron  compa- 
ny purchased  the  works  and  seventeen  thousand  acres  of  land.  They 
enlarged  the  furnace,  changed  from  water  to  steam  power,  and  in- 
troduced new  machinery.  In  1866  they  abandoned  the  old  forges 
and  rolling  mill,  and  built  a  steam  bloom  forge  near  the  furnace,  the 
second  largest  of  the  kind  in  the  state.  The  product  of  the  furnace 
is  now  one  hundred  tons  per  week,  the  largest  known  of  any  fur- 
nace of  the  same  size,  and  using  the  same  percentage  of  iron  ores. 
In  1867  charcoal  kilns  were  introduced,  the  first  successful  ones  in 
Pennsylvania.  In  prosperous  times  the  company  employ  five  hun- 
dred men,  seventy-five  horses  and  mules,  and  run  fifteen  steam 

The  Mont  Alto  Railroad  company,  between  April  and  October, 
1872,  with  home  labor  entirely,  built  a  railroad  from  the  Cumberland 
Valley  railroad,  near  Scotland,  to  the  works  of  the  Mout  Alto  Iron 
company,  twelve  and  thirty  one-hundredths  miles  long,  at  a  cost  of 
two  hundred  and  thirty-six  thousand  six  hundred  dollars,  which  is 
regularly  run  twice  a  day,  for  the  carrying  of  passengers  and  freight, 
and  which  has  been  of  great  convenience  to  the  traveliui^  public 
and  to  the  iron  company.  They  have  also  within  the  past  three 
years  opened  up  the  gap,  in  the  mouth  of  which  their  works  stand, 
and  laid  out  at  great  expense  a  beautiful  summer  resort,  under  the 
name  of  "Mont  Alto  Park."  Every  convenience  has  been  provided 
for  pic-nics  and  parties  of  pleasure  seekers ;  and  those  who  have 
once  enjoyed  the  cool  sliades  and  delights  of  the  place  will  not  fail 
to  return  to  them  again. 

"Richmond  Furnace,"  formerly  "Mount  Pleasant,"  is  the  oldest 
iron  works  in  the  county,  having  been  established  in  1783.  It  was 
purchased  from  Daniel  V.  Ahl,  by  a  company  styled  "The  South- 
ern Pennsylvania  Iron  and  Railroad  company,"  who  built  a  new 
anthracite  furnace  about  the  year  1871,  and  constructed  a  railroad 
from  the  Cumberland  Valley  railroad,  near  Marion,  to  their  works, 
nineteen  miles  in  length,  with  a  branch  road  to  Mercersburg,  over 
two  miles  long,  the  whole  improvement  costing,  including  the  in- 
dividual subscription,  over  seven  hundred  thousand  dollars.  The 
original  company  became  embarrassed,  and  their  works,  franchises, 
&c.,  were  sold  out,  and  a  new  company  organized  in  the  year  1873, 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Coimfy.  115 

under  the  name  of  "Southern  Pennsylvania  Railway  and  Mining 
company,"  of  which  Thomas  B.  Kennedy,  Esq.,  is  president.  The 
furnace  is  not  now  in  operation.  When  run  to  its  full  capacity,  it 
emjDloys  about  two  hundred  men.  and  turns  out  about  fifty  tons  of 
iron  per  week. 

The  "Franklin  Furnace,"  situated  near  St.  Thomas,  in  vSt.  Thomas 
township,  was  built  in  the  year  1828,  by  P.  &  G.  Housum.  It  is 
now  owned  and  carried  on  by  Messrs.  Hunter  &  Springer,  and  when 
In  full  blast,  has  a  capacity  of  from  forty  to  fifty  tons  of  cold  blast 
charcoal  iron  per  week,  and  employs  about  seventy-five  hands. 

"CaiTick  Furnace"  is  situated  in  Metal  township,  Path  Valley, 
about  four  miles  south  of  Fannettsburg.  It  was  built  by  General 
Samuel  Dunn,  in  the  year  1828.  It  is  now  carried  on  by  R.  M. 
Shalter,  and  manufactures  about  tliirty  tons  of  iron  per  week. 

We  have  also  in  the  railroads  now  in  operation,  and  in  those  pro- 
jected and  destined  to  be  made  at  no  very  distant  day,  every  facility 
for  the  easy,  cheap,  and  speedy  transportation  of  our  iron  products, 
north,  south,  east  and  west;  and  it  only  requires  that  our  country 
shall  get  over  its  present  monetary  depression,  and  trade  and  busi- 
ness once  more  have  resumed  their  natural  activities,  to  show  that 
these  opinions  and  predictions  of  my  friend  are  true  (in  fact)  and 
not  merely  the  unwarranted  conclusions  of  an  incomi^etent  judge. 

Though  chiefly  an  agricultural  section  of  the  Commonwealth,  our 
county  has  steadily,  if  not  rapidly,  progressed  in  everything  that 
pertains  to  the  happiness  and  prosperity  of  her  people.  The  lands 
within  our  borders  have  been  largely  cleared  ;  thoroughly  cultivated; 
and  improved  in  the  most  substantial  manner  ;  and  have  corres- 
pondingly enhanced  in  value,  and  now  no  people  in  any  of  the  nu- 
merous counties  of  this  great  Commonwealth  are  better  housed  and 
provided  for  in  every  respect ;  live  better  or  more  comfortably  than 
do  our  people,  and  none,  either  agricultural,  commercial,  or  me- 
chanical, have  suffered  less,  or  lost  less,  from  the  great  financial 
storms  that  have  recently  swept  over  the  land,  and  left  desolation, 
ruin  and  woe  in  their  tracks,  than  have  the  people  of  this  county. 


When  our  county  was  first  settled  the  Scotch-Irish  element  was, 
as  before  stated,  largely  in  the  preponderance.  Fully  nine-tenths  of 
our  citizens  then  were  of  that  nationality,  interspersed  with  a  few 
Scotch  and  English,  and  Germans.  The  former  then  filled  all  our 
offices  of  honor,  of  trust,  and  of  profit.  They  were  our  law-makers, 
and  our  leaders  in  times  of  peace,  and  in  the  perils  and  dangers  of 
war  ;  and  to  their  credit  be  it  said,  that  they  discharged  their  duties 
nobly,  and  honorably,  and  well.  They  have  died  off,  and  their  de- 
scendants, in  very  many  instances,  have  abandoned  the  avocations 

J 16  Historical  Sketch  of  IrankUn  County. 

which  their  forefathers  delighted  in  of  tilHng  the  soil,  and  making' 
the  waste  places  to  blossom  as  the  rose,  and  have  betaken  them- 
selves to  the  pursuit  of  wealth  and  happiness  in  other  channels, 
such  as  merchandize,  medicine,  divinity  and  law.  The  plodding, 
pains-taking,  economical,  law-abiding  and  ste^^dy-going  Germans 
have  taken  their  places,  and  now,  thousands  of  acres,  and  hundreds 
of  farms,  that  fifty  years  ago  were  the  i^ossessions  of  the  descend- 
ants of  those  who  were  their  first  owners,  under  titles  from  the  pro- 
prietaries or  the  colonial  authorities,  know  them  no  more.  Their 
veiy  names  are  almost  forgotten  in  the  land  for  which  they  did  so 
much,  and  suffered  so  many  privations  ;  and  if  remembered  at  all, 
it  is  becuise  of  some  deed  of  daring  or  act  of  bravery,  that  has  gone 
upon  the  pages  of  history,  and  will  serve  to  keep  them  in  grateful 
remembrance  long  after  all  personal  recollections  of  them  shall  have 
passed  away  in  the  regions  in  which  they  lived,  and  acted,  and 

OUR  "men  of  mafik"  in  politics. 

In  this  free  country  we  are  all  sovereigns  by  birth,  and  the  highest 
office  in  the  gift  of  the  people  is  open  to  the  humblest  son  of  the 
land.  Each  and  every  native  born  citizen  has  an  equal  right  to  as- 
pire tliereto,  and  to  all  the  other  high  places  of  honor  and  profit  under 
the  government.  And  the  very  fact  that  a  man  has  thus  been 
trusted  and  honored,  and  elevated  by  the  people,  has  ever  been  con- 
sidered as  honoring  the  district  of  country  in  which  he  was  born. 
Viewed  in  this  light  Franklin  county  is  entitled  to  a  full  share  of 
the  honors  attaching  to  the  great  men  of  the  nation. 

James  Buchanan,  the  fifteenth  President  of  the  United  States,  was 
born  in  our  county,  on  the  23d  day  of  April,  1791.  His  birth  place 
was  a  wild  and  romantic  spot  in  the  gorge  of  the  Cove,  or  North 
mountain,  about  four  miles  west  of  Mercer^burg.  Previous  to  his 
elevation  to  the  Presidency  he  had  served  ten  years  in  the  House  of 
Representatives  of  the  United  States ;  and  ten  years  in  the  Senate 
of  the  United  States  ;  liad  been  Minister  to  Russia  ;  Secretarj^  of 
State  for  the  United  States,  and  Minister  to  England. 

William  Findlay,  the  fourth  Governor  of  Pennsylvania,  was  born 
at  Mercersburg,  in  our  county,  on  llie  20th  of  June,  1768.  In  1797 
he  was  elected  to  the  House  of  Representatives  of  Pennsylvania 
from  this  county ;  and  re-elected  in  1804-'05-'06  and  '07.  On  the 
13th  of  January,  1807,  he  was  elected  State  Treasurer  by  the  Legis- 
lature, whereupon  he  resigned  his  seat  in  the  House  ;  and  from  tliat 
date  until  the  2d  of  December,  1817,  a  period  of  nearly  eleven  years, 
he  was  annually  re-elected  State  Treasurer,  in  several  instances  by  a 
unanimous  vote.  In  1817  Mr.  Findlay  was  elected  Governor  by  the 
Republicans,  and  resigned  the  Treasurer's  oflfice  on  the  2d  of  Decem- 
ber of  that  year.     He  filled  the  gubernatorial  chair  for  three  years. 

Hisforical  Sketch  of  Franklin   Coimbj.  117 

was  re-nominated  in  1S20,  and  beaten  by  Joseph  Heister.  At  tlie 
session  of  the  Legislature  in  1821-'22,  he  was  elected  to  the  United 
States  Senate  for  tlie  full  term  of  six  years,  and  after  the  expiration 
of  his  Senatorial  service  he  was  appointed  by  President  Jackson, 
Treasurer  of  the  United  States  Mint  at  Philadelphia,  which  position 
lie  held  until  the  Hccession  of  General  Harrison  to  the  Presidency, 
when  lie  resigned. 

During  his  term  as  United  States  Senator  his  brother.  Colonel 
J(jhn  P^indlay,  was  the  representative  of  this  congressional  district, 
in  the  lower  house,  for  the  years  1819  to  1827,  and  his  brother.  Gen- 
eral James  Find  ay,  represented  the  Cincinnati  district  of  Ohio, 
from  1825  to  1833,  thus  presenting  the  unusual  spectacle  of  three 
bri'thers  sitting  in  the  Congress  of  tlie  United  States  -it  one  time, 
a  spectacle  only  once  paralleled  in  the  history  of  the  government, 
namely,  by  the  Washburn  brothers,  within  the  last  few  years. 

Robert  M'Clelland  was  born  in  Greencastle,  in  this  county,  on  the 
1st  of  August,  1807.  In  1831  he  was  admitted  to  practice  the  law  in 
our  courts,  but  removed  to  Pittsburg,  and  from  thence,  in  1833,  to 
Monroe,  in  the  then  territory  of  Michigan.  In  1838  he  was  elected 
to  the  State  Legislature  of  his  adopted  State,  and  was  elected  Speaker 
of  the  House  of  Representatives  in  1843.  In  the  same  year  he  was 
elected  a  member  of  Congress,  and  was  re-elected  in  1845  and  1847. 
In  1850  he  was  a  member  of  the  Constitutional  Convention  of  Mich- 
igan. In  1851  he  was  elected  Governor  of  the  State,  and  was  subse- 
quently re-elected.  In  1853  he  was  appointed  by  President  Pierce 
Secretary  of  the  Interior,  which  position  he  retained  during  the 
administration  of  President  Pierce. 

William  Maclay,  a  native  of  our  county,  was  a  member  of  th?; 
Senate  of  the  United  States  from  this  State,  for  the  years  1789  to 

Samuel  Maclay,  also  a  native  of  our  county,  was  a  Representa- 
tive in  the  lower  House  of  Congress  from  1795  to  1797,  and  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Senate  of  the  United  States,  from  this  State,  from  1803  to 
1808,  when  he  resigned. 

John  Maclay,  also  a  native  of  our  county,  was  a  magistrate  in 
colonial  times,  and  was  a  member  of  the  Carpenter's  Hall  Confer- 
ence, at  Philadelphia,  from  Cumberland  county,  in  June,  1776.  He 
was  also  a  member  of  the  Legislature  from  this  county  for  the  years 
1791-'92,  and  1793-'94.     He  died  in  Lurgan  township. 

These  gentlemen  were  brothers,  born  in  Lurgan  townshin,  in  our 
county,  and  received  their  education  at  a  classical  school  tauyl-t  by 
Rev.  John  Blair,  pastor  of  the  three  "Spring"  churches,  whicn 
was  probably  the  first  school  of  that  character  in  the  Cumberland 
Valley.  AVilliam  removed  to  Harrisburg  and  married  a  daughter 
of  John  Harris,  and  died  there  in  1804.     Samuel  Maclav  removed 

IIS  Historical  Sketch  of  FranTdm  Couniif. 

to  Mifflin  county  at  the  close  of  tlie  revolution,  and  filled  a  number 
of  imijortant  local  offices  there  prior  to  his  election  to  Congress. 

Stephen  Adams,  also  a  native  of  our  county,  removed,  at  an  early- 
age,  to  the  State  of  Mississippi,  where  he  was  subsequently  elected 
to  tlie  House  of  Representatives  of  the  United  States,  and  also  to- 
the  Senate  of  the  United  States. 

The  following  gentlemen  natives  of  our  county,  served  in  the 
House  of  Representatives  of  the  United  States,  and  in  the  other- 
positions  indicated,  viz.:  James  M'Lene,  served  in  Congress  irr 
1779-'8(),  was  a  member  of  the  Provincial  Conference  of  Pennsyl- 
vania held  at  Cari^enter's  Hall,  Philadelphia,  on  the  25th  of  June, 
1776  ;  was  a  member  of  the  convention  that  formed  the  constitutior* 
of  1776,  for  the  Slate  of  Pennsylvania;  a  member  of  tl>e  Supreme 
Executive  Council  of  Pennsylvania,  from  Cumberland  county,  from 
November  9th,  1778.  to  December  28th,  1779  ;  was  elected  to  and 
served  in  the  Council  of  Censors,  from  October,  178S,  to  October, 
1784 ;  was  elected  in  October,  1784,  a  member  of  the  Supreme  Exec- 
utive Council  from  this  county,  and  served  for  three  years  ;  and  was 
also  a  representative  from  this  county,  in  the  convention  of  1789, 
which  formed  the  State  Constitution  of  1790;  he  was  also  a  member 
of  the  House  of  Representatives  of  Pennsylvania  from  this  county 
in  the  sessions  of  1787-'88-1788-'89-1790-'91,  and  1793-'94.  He  died 
March  13th,  1806,  and  was  buried  at  the  Brown's  mill  graveyard. 

John  Rea,  a  native  of  this  county,  represented  the  Franklin  and 
Bedford  district  in  Congress  from  1803  to  1811,  being  the  8th,  9th, 
loth,  and  11th  Congresses.  He  was  also  in  the  13th  Congress,  in 
the  years  1813  and  1815.  He  was  also  the  first  Coroner  of  the  county, 
elected  in  October,  1784,  and  served  in  the  House  of  Representatives 
of  Pennsylvania,  for  the  years  178-5-' 86-1 789-' 90-1 792-' 93-1 796-' 97- 
l797-'98  and  1800-1801 ;  and  was  in  the  Senate  of  Pennsylvania  from 
1823  to  1824,  when  he  resigned,  and  James  Dunlop  was  elected  in  his 

William  Maclay,  also  a  native  of  our  county,  represented  the 
Franklin,  Adams  and  Cumberland  district  in  Congress  for  two  terms, 
from  1815  to  1819.  He  had  jjreviously  represented  tliis  county  iu 
the  House  of  Representatives  of  Pennsylvania,  for  the  years  1808 
and  1809.     He  died  in  1825. 

David  Fullerton  was  elected  to  Congress  from  this  district  in  1819, 
and  tooli  his  seat  at  the  opening  of  the  first  session  of  the  sixteenth 
Congress,  December  6th,  1819.  He  resigned  in  the  summer  of  1820. 
He  afterwards  represented  this  county  in  the  State  Senate  from  1827 
to  1839. 

Tliomas  G.  M'CuUoh  succeeded  him,  and  filled  out  his  term  in 
Congress.  Mr.  M'CuUoh  also  representetl  our  county  in  the  House 
of  Representatives  of  the  State  in  the  sessions  of  1831-'32-lS32-'33 
and  1834-'35. 

Historical  Sletch  of  FrcmMn  Coroifi/.  119 

John  Findlay,  of  our  county,  represented  tliis  district  in  Congres-s 
from  1821  to  1827. 

James  Findlay,  his  brother,  also  of  our  county,  Avas  in  Congress 
from  the  Cincinuati  district  of  Ohio,  from  1825  to  1833. 

Hon.  Alexander  Thom]>son,  who  was  a  native  of  this  county^ 
represented  the  Bedford  district  in  Congress  in  1824-'26,  He  was 
subsequently  our  President  Judge  from  1827  to  1842. 

John  Thompson,  also  born  in  our  county,  was  a  member  of  Con- 
gress from  Ohio  from  1825  to  1827,  and  from  1829  to  1837. 

Thomas  Hartley  Crawford,  a  native  of  Chambersburg,  wf^s  in 
Congress  from  this  district  from  1828  to  1832.  He  also  represented 
the  county  in  the  lower  branch  of  the  Legislature  in  1833-'84.  Was 
Commissioner  of  Indian  AfFaii-s  and  Judge  of  the  Criminal  Court 
of  the  District  of  Columbia  for  many  years. 

George  Chambers,  also  a  native  of  our  town,  was  a  representative 
of  this  district  in  Congress  from  1832  to  1836.  Was  a  delegate  to  the 
convention  that  framed  the  constitution  of  188.8,  and  a  Justice  of  the 
.Supreme  Court  of  Pennsylvania  by  appointment  from  Governor 
Johnston  from  April  12th  to  December,  1851. 

James  X.  M'Lanahan,  was  born  in  Antrim  township,  in  this  coun- 
ty, in  1809.  He  served  in  the  Senate  of  Pennsylvania  from  this  dis- 
trict in  1842-'48  and  '44,  and  represented  the  district  in  Congress  from 
1848  to  1852, 

David  F.  Robinson,  also  a  native  of  Antrim  township,  rejiresented 
our  district  in  Congress  for  the  years  1854  and  1856. 

Wilson  Eeilly,  a  native  of  Quincy  (formerly  Washington)  town- 
ship, in  this  county,  represented  this  district  in  Congress  in  the 
years  1857  and  1858. 

Hon.  John  A.  Ahl,  who  a  few  years  since  represented  the  Cum- 
berland district  in  Congress,  was  born  at  Strasburg,  in  our  county. 
His  father  was  a  physician,  resident  there  many  years  ago,  and 
engaged  in  the  practice  of  his  profession. 

Hon.  Wm.  S.  Stenger,  our  present  representative  in  Congress,  was 
born  at  Loudon,  in  this  county,  on  the  13th  day  of  February,  A.  D. 
1840.  He  was  three  times  elected  District  Attorney  of  our  county, 
and  held  and  discharged  the  duties  of  the  office  from  1863  to  1872. 

Hon.  William  A.  Piper,  a  member  of  the  present  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives of  the  United  States  from  the  State  of  California,  was 
born  in  Amberson's  Valley,  Fannett  township,  in  our  county,  in  the 
year  1825. 

Hon.  Alexander  Campbell,  a  member  of  the  present  House  of 
Representatives  of  the  United  States,  from  the  State  of  Illinois,  was 
also  born  at  Concord,  Fannett  township,  in  our  county,  on  the4lh  of 
October,  1814. 

1'20  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Coanfi/. 

There  are  no  doubt  others  who  were  born  in  our  county  who  from 
other  States  and  Territories  held  places  in  the  National  govern- 
ment, but  I  have  not  liad  the  time  nor  the  opportunity  to  look  up 
their  records.  These  names  have  been  obtained  through  a  cursory 
examination  of  some  of  tlie  journals  of  Congress,  and  from  other 

Besides  these,  our  county  has  furnished  Speakers  to  both  branches 
of  our  State  Legislature  in  the  persons  of  Hon.  Thomas  Carson,  in 
the  Senate,  and  Hon.  Frederick  Smith,  and  Hon.  John  Rowe,  in 
the  House.  The  latter  also  held  from  5th  May,  1857,  to  1st  May, 
1860,  the  important  and  responsible  position  of  Surveyor  General 
of  our  Commonwealth. 

Messrs.  James  M'Lene  and  Abraham  Smith,  who  represented  our 
county  in  the  Supreme  Executive  Council  of  the  State  from  1784  to 
1790,  were  both  natives  of  the  county  and  residents  in  Antrim  town- 
ship. The  latter,  if  I  am  correctly  Informed,  was  a  brother  of  Wil- 
liam Smith,  the  founder  of  Mercersburg.  He  was  Lieutenant  of 
Cumberland  county  lor  the  years  1780-'81  and  '82,  and  I  am  satisfied 
that  he  was  a  member  of  the  House  of  Representatives  from  our 
county  in  the  sessions  of  1784-'85-'85-'86  and  'S6-'87.  He  was  then, 
and  continued  to  be  until  April,  1803,  the  owner  of  a  tract  of  near 
three  hundred  and  fifty  acres  of  land  in  Antrim  township,  which  in 
1803,  he  sold  to  Jacob  Snively,  of  that  township,  wlien  he  removed 
to  Mercersburg,  where  he  died.  An  examination  of  the  assess 
books  of  the  county  from  1786  to  1794  shows  also  that  he  was 
taxed  in  Antrim  township  for  three  hundred  and  thirty  acres  of 
land,  and  horses  and  other  cattle,  all  these  years,  and  that  he  was  the 
only  man  of  his  name  assessed  in  the  county.  He  was  appointed 
Lieutenant  of  Franklin  county  on  the  7th  of  April,  1785;  was 
elected  to  and  served  in  the  Supreme  Executive  Council  from  1787 
to  1790;  was  a  member  of  the  State  convention  that  formed  the 
State  constitution  of  1790,  and  represented  the  Senatorial  district, 
composed  of  Franklin  and  Bedford  counties,  in  our  State,  for  the 
years  1790  to  1794.  In  his  deed  to  Jacob  Snively  he  is  styled  Colonel 
Abraham  Smith,  a  title  most  probably  attached  to  his  former  posi- 
tions as  Lieutenant  oi  the  County,  as  it  is  not  claimed  that  he  did 
any  military  service,  and  a  comparison  of  his  signature  to  that  deed 
with  the  signature  of  Abraham  Smith,  Lieutenant  of  Cumberland 
county  in  1781,  shows  that  they  were  written  by  one  and  the  same 

From  1790  to  1876,  covering  a  period  of  eighty-six  years,  twenty- 
four  persons  have  represented  our  county  in  the  State  Senate.  Of 
these  just  one  half  (12j,  viz.  :  Abraham  Smith,  Thomas  Johnston, 
James  Poe,  Archibald  Rankin,  Robert  Smith,  John  Rhea,  James 
Dunlap,  David  Fullerton,  James  X.  M'Lauahan,  Thomas  Carson, 
George  W.  Brewer  and  Calvin  M.  Duncan  were  natives  of  our  coun- 

Historical  Sketch  of  PfanJclin  County.  121 

ty;  and  two  others — A.  K.  M'CIure  and  Chambers  M'Kibben— were 
residents  of  the  county  at  the  times  of  their  election. 

It  is  worthy',  also,  of  a  passing  notice,  that  the  twogentlemen  who 
have  tilled  the  position  of  Clerk  of  the  House  of  Representatives  of 
the  United  States  for  terms  longer  than  any  others,  should  have 
been  natives  of  adjoining  counties,  Franklin  and  Adams,  in  our 
State.  Matthew  St.  Clair  Clark  was  born  at  Greencastle,  in  our 
county,  was  admitted  at  our  bar  in  1811,  and  practiced  the  law  here 
for  several  years;  was  elected  Clerk  of  the  House  of  Rei)resentatives 
December  3d,  1822,  and  served  until  December  2d,  1833,  and  was 
elected  again  May  31st,  1841,  and  served  until  December  6th,  1843, 
making  a  total  service  of  twelve  years,  six  months  and  six  days,  the 
longest  period  the  office  has  ever  been  held  by  one  person.  He  was 
a  whole-souled,  genial  fellow,  an  intimate  associate  of  Clay,  Web- 
ster, Calhoun,  and  all  the  great  men  who  sat  in  Congress  daring  his 
period  of  service. 

Edward  M'Pherson  is  a  native  of  Adams  county,  and  after  serving 
this  district  for  two  terms  in  Congress,  filled  the  office  of  Clerk  of 
the  House  of  Representatives  for  six  consecutive  Congresses— or 
from  1863  to  1875— being  twelve  years.  Mr.  M'Pherson's  was  there- 
fore the  longest  continuous  service ;  Mr.  Clark's  the  longest  actual 

Why  may  not  we,  as  Pennsylvanians,  and  as  citizens  of  Franklin 
county,  justly  feel  proud  when  we  look  over  this  roll  of  "  men  of 
mark,"  and  rightfully  claim  a  portion  of  the  honor  that  their  deeds 
has  reflected  upon  their  country  ? 

OUR    "  LOST   ARTS." 

In  the  earlier  years  of  our  county's  existence  there  were  quite  a 
number  of  trades  and  occupations  carried  on  in  various  parts  of  the 
county  that  have  long  since  been  wholly  abandoned,  or  are  now 
very  feebly  continued.  This  result  is  owing  mainly  to  the  improve- 
ments made  in  the  last  one  hundred  years  in  machinery,  whereby 
the  great  majority  of  the  articles  that  were  formerly  made  by  hand 
are  now  turned  out  with  the  aid  of  machinery  much  more  rapidly, 
more  perfect,  and  greatly  cheaper  than  they  could  be  made  at  the 
present  day  in  the  old  way. 

In  the  year  1787  a  man  named  Mulholland  commenced  the 

manufacture  of  potash  at  Strasburg,  which  he  continued  till  his 
death,  in  1S08. 

In  the  year  1789  Patrick  Campbell  and  ^Morrow  engaged  in 

the  same  business  at  Chambprsburg,  and  continued  it  until  1797, 
when  the  firm  was  changed  to  Patrick  &  Terance  Campbell.     They 
had  their  manufactory  in  the  stone  house  near  the  west  end  of  the 
Wolfstown  bridge. 

122  Historical  Sketch  of  Frcwklin  Covnty. 

From  about  1800  or  1805  to  182-5,  William  Driieks  and  Anthony 
Van  Pool  manufactured  iron  shovels  and  pans,  in  Greencastle,  did 
a  large  business,  and  made  considerable  money. 

The  manufacture  of  mill-stones  was  established  in  Chambersburg 
about  the  year  1792,  by  James  Falkner,  Jr.,  and  was  extensively 
conducted  for  many  years.  The  stones  were  brought  here  in  the 
rough,  upon  wagons,  were  then  shnped  up  and  put  together,  and 
lar;i2e  numbers  sold  in  the  county,  and  to  other  points  further  west, 
to  those  having  need  for  them. 

In  1820  George  Walker  and  George  Roupe  carried  on  a  "  burr 
mill-stone  manufactory  "  on  the  Baltimore  turnpike,  about  two 
miles  east  of  Chambersbui'g. 

Andrew  Cleary  also  manufactured  mill-stones  in  Chambersburg 
as  late  as  1829,  he  being  the  last  person  who  carried  on  the  business 
in  the  county.  His  shop  was  on  West  Market  street  None  of  these 
avocations  are  now  carried  on  in  our  county  that  I  know  of. 

In  the  latter  part  of  the  last  century  and  in  the  earlier  years  of 
this  century  there  were  quite  a  number  of  oil  mills  in  various  sec- 
tions of  the  county,  where  oil  was  regularly  manufactured  from  flax 
seed,  much  of  which  wasannually  raised  by  the  farming  community. 
There  may  yet  be  some  places  in  the  county  where  this  business 
is  carried  on,  but  I  do  not  know  their  locality  if  such  there  be. 

Flax  mills  were  also  quite  numerous  in  those  early  days,  where 
the  hemp  raised  by  the  farmers  was  broken  and  prepared  for  use. 
For  one  oil  or  hemp  mill  that  can  now  be  found  grinding  or  pound- 
ing away,  there  were  ten  then. 

In  the  last  century  there  were  few,  if  any,  cut  nails  used.  Almost 
all  nails  were  then  made  by  hand,  upon  the  anvil,  out  of  the  iron 
bar.  Every  blacksmith  did  more  or  less  of  such  work,  and  was 
looked  to  by  his  neighbors  to  supply  them  with  ail  the  nails  they 
needed  for  fencing,  shingling,  house  building,  &c.  Early  in  the  cen- 
tury Hugh  and  Michael  Gi-eeii field  established  a  large  nail  factory  at 
Chambersburg,  where  they  made  all  kinds  of  nails  by  hand.  Their 
shop  stood  on  the  lot  on  which  the  Foundry  of  T.  B.  Wood  &  Co. 
now  stands.  In  the  year  1S19  they  declined  the  business,  and  handed 
over  the  shop  to  John  R.  Greenheld  &  Co.,  who  continued  it  until 
about  1820. 

From  1808  to  1810  or  1812,  there  was  a  nail  factory  carried  on  by 
the  County  Commissioners  in  the  Jail,  the  prisoners  being  the  work- 
men. Large  sums  of  money  were  annually  paid  to  Col.  Samuel 
Hughes,  l)y  the  county,  for  iron  to  be  manufactured  into  nails  in  the 
county  nail  shops. 

In  the  year  1814  Messrs.  Brown  &  Watson  established  their  "Con- 
ococlieague  Rolling  Mill  and  Nail  Factory."  They  made  rolled 
iron,  cut  nails,  In-ads,  si)rigs,  «.tc.,  and  were,  I  think,  the  first  manu- 
facturers of  cut  luiils  in  our  county. 

Ilintorical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Cnuiifij.  123 

In  the  year  1821  Christian  Etter  comuienced  the  nuuiufacture  of 
cut  nails  in  Chambersburg.  His  manufactory  was  located  "on  tlie 
north  side  of  the  Falling  Spring,  opposite  the  English  Presbyterian 

Thomas  Johns  commenced  the  manufacture  of  augers  of  all  sizes 
at  Chambersburg,  at  a  very  early  day.  They  were  made  by  hand, 
out  of  flat  bars  of  iron,  were  twisted  in  the  common  vise,  the  edges 
filed  down  and  burnished  upon  a'large  emery  wheel,  and  the  inner 
surface  of  the  twist  was  i:)ainted  black.  It  required  considerable 
skill  and  experience  to  make  a  perfect  article. 

William  I^'erry  also  subsequently  followed  the  same  business  ex- 
tensively for  many  years  He  had  his  manufactory  at  his  dwelling 
on  West  Market  street. 

Philip  Sholl,  at  a  very  early  period,  carried  on  at  Chambersburg, 
the  manufacture  of  cards  for  fulling  mills,  and  for  all  other  purposes. 

George  Faber,  also,  at  a  later  jjeriod,  followed  the  same  business 
quite  extensively.  For  many  years  he  had  his  "card  factory"  on 
the  lot  where  the  Gillan  property  now  stands,  on  West  Market 
street,  opposite  Miller's  Hotel.  Mr.  Faber  gave  employment  to 
many  females  at  "setting"  or  sticking  cards.  That  work  was  then 
all  done  by  hand,  and  it  is  said  that  many  even  of  the  better  class 
of  our  females  did  not  disdain  to  take  work  from  Mr.  Faber,  and 
thus  earn  an  honest  penny.  In  after  years  he  invented  an  ingenious 
machine  for  sticking  his  cards,  and  did  away  with  female  labor.  He 
removed  to  Pittsburg  about  the  year  1824. 

Glove  making  was  also  carried  on  at  this  point  for  many  j-ears  by 
a  man  named Rians,  and  others. 

About  the  year  1794,  Anthony  Snider  commenced  the  manufac- 
ture of  scythes  and  sickles  where  the  upper  brewery  of  David  Wash- 
abaugh  formerly  stood,  on  West  Kiug  street. 

John  and  Thomas  Johns,  about  the  year  1812,  commenced  the 
manufacture  of  sickles  and  scythes  in  Chambersburg,  and  carried 
on  the  business  largely  and  successfully  for  a  long  time,  down  to 
near  1820.  Their  factory  was  in  "Kerrstown,"  on  South  Main  street, 
on  the  lot  south  of  Heart's  pottery. 

In  the  year  1820  a  man  named  Jacob  Smith  commenced  the  man- 
ufacture of  tacks  of  all  sizes  at  Chambersburg.  Each  tack  was  made 
by  hand,  as  no  machinery  for  their  manufacture  had  then  been  in- 
vented, or  if  invented  had  not  been  introduced  here. 

The  manufacture  of  hats,  which  were  then  all  made  of  wool  and 
furs  of  various  fineness,  was  early  commenced  at  various  points  in 
our  county.  John  M'Clintock  carried  on  in  Waynesboro  in  1810; 
John  liowe,  Jacob  Krepps  and  John  Weitzel  about  the  same  time  at 
Greencastle;  Jolm  M'Murdy  and  Thomas  Carson  at  Mereersburg; 
and  Jacob  Deckert  and  others  at  Chambersburg.  In  the  year  1815, 
Mr.  M'Clintock  removed  from  Waynesboro  to  Chambersburg,  and 

124  Historical  Sketch  of  Frcmldin  County. 

for  many  years  these  gentlemen  and  others  at  other  points  In  the 
county  carried  on  the  trade  quite  extensively.  Now  there  Is  not  a 
wool  or  fur  hat  made  In  the  county.  The  seething  "kettle"  no 
longer  sends  up  its  steam  clouds  towards  Heaven,  its  "planks"  are 
riven  and  dry,  the  twanyj  of  the  "bow"  no  longer  is  heard  o'er  the 
"hurl,"  and  the  song  of  the  jolly  "jour"  at  the  midnight  hour 
disturbs  not  the  repose  of  the  guardians  of  the  night.  For 
thirty  years  past,  since  the  introductiou  of  silk  and  machinery,  the 
shiny  "stove  pipe"  has  supplanted  the  easy  wool  and  felt  of  our 
fathers'  time,  and  the  business  has  been  wholly  abandoned,  except 
here  and  there,  where  large  factories  exist. 

Copper-smithing,  too,  is  a  calling  almost  wholly  abandoned  in  our 
county.  In  former  years  it  was  laigely  and  profitably  carried  on 
here  by  Jacob  Heyser  and  others.  Mr.  Heyser  came  liere  from  Ha- 
gerstown  in  the  spring  of  1794 ;  at  the  same  time  William  Baily,  Jr., 
was  carrying  on  the  business  in  the  shop  occupied  by  his  father  for 
a  number  of  years  previously.  Now  copper  stills  and  kettles  and 
other  articles  are  kept  for  sale  by  all  our  tinners  and  stove  dealers, 
but  they  are  generally  obtained  from  abroad,  from  those  who  make 
them  with  the  aid  of  the  latest  and  most  approved  machinery. 

Wagon  making  and  whip  making  were,  for  many  years,  carried 
on  most  extensively  at  Loudon,  in  our  county,  after  the  completion 
of  the  turnpike  to  Pittsburg,  and  the  fame  of  Loudon's  manufac- 
tures had  spread  far  and  wide  over  both  the  east  and  the  west.  Now 
there  is  not  one  wagon  or  one  wiiip  made  at  Loudon,  where  fifty 
years  ago  there  were  one  hundred  made. 

The  old  fumily  "spinning  wheel,"  and  the  "domestic  loom,"  by 
the  aid  of  which  our  ancestors,  one  hundred  years  ago,  were  used 
to  manufacture  their  yarn  and  thread,  and  weave  the  "linsey  wool- 
sey"  worn  by  their  wives  and  daughters,  and  the  corn-colored  cloth 
worn  by  themselves,  are  now  almost  forgotten.  They  are  "centen- 
nial curiosities''  in  the  present  day,  and  few  of  our  young  people 
know  even  what  these  machines  look  like,  and  fewer  know  how  to 
use  them. 


I  have  been  very  desirous  of  ascertaining,  if  possible,  when  the 
various  townships  in  our  county  were  organized  and  out  of  what 
territory  they  were  severally  created.  The  territory  now  embraced 
inP^aiiklin  county  was  first  in  Chester  county  until  ]May  10th,  1729, 
when  Lancaster  countj'  was  foimed;  then  in  Lancaster  county 
until  January  29ih,  1750,  when  Cumberland  county  was  formed; 
and  then  in  Cumberland  county  until  September  9th,  1784,  when  the 
act  creating  our  county  was  passed. 

The  first  authenticated  action  1  have  been  able  to  find,  looking  to 
the  bringing  of  this  valley  under  the  ojieration  of  the  laws  of  the 












•■   m- 

Historical  Sketch  of  FranJdin  Counttj.  12-') 

State,  was  the  order  of  the  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions  of  Lancaster 
county,  made  at  November  sessions,  1735,  as  before  stated,  dividing 
the  valley  into  two  townships— the  easternmost  to  be  called  Penns- 
borough  and  the  western  Hopewell.  This  was  done  before  the  ex- 
tinguishment of  the  Indian  title  to  the  land,  which  was  effected  by 
tiie  treaty  \vith  the  Five  Nations,  at  Philadelphia,  October  11th, 
1736.  The  government  and  the  Indians  had  been  upon  good  terms 
for  years  before,  and  both  parties  encouraged  settlers  to  come  hither, 
the  agents  of  the  Proprietaries  giving  them  special  licenses  to  take 
up  lands  as  early  as  1734. 

The  division  line  between  Pennsborough  and  Hopewell  townships, 
as  has  already  been  stated,  crossed  the  valley  at  the  "Big  Spring," 
about  where  Newvilie  now  is,  and  all  the  land  from  Newville  to  the 
Maryland  line  was  thereafter  in  Hoiwwell  township,  Lancaster 
county,  until  May  sessions,  1741,  when  "upon  the  application  of  the 
inhabitants  of  the  township,  presented  by  Richard  O'Cain,  Esq., 
the  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions  of  Lancaster  county  erected  the  town- 
ship of  Antrim  by  dividing  the  township  of  Hofiewell  by  a  line 
substantially  the  same  as  that  now  dividing  Franklin  and  (yumber- 
land  counties,  as  has  been  hereinbefore  shown.  The  territory  thus 
formed  into  the  new  township  of  Antrim,  was  identical  with  that 
now  embraced  in  our  county,  with  the  exception  of  the  Little  Cove, 
or  Warren  township,  and  the  townships  of  Fannett  and  Metal. 

I  have  personally  examined  the  records  of  Cumberland  county 
with  great  care,  and  I  have  had  the  records  of  Lancaster  county 
examined  in  like  manner,  by  a  gentleman  of  the  Bar  resident  tnere  ; 
but  we  have  been  unable  to  obtain  any  satisfactory  information  as 
to  the  time  when,  or  the  territory  o^/.^'  of  ?/;/?ic^  the  townships  of  Lur- 
gan,  Peters,  GJuilford  and  Hamilton  were  formed.  I  incline  to  the 
belief  that  Ijurgan  was  created  by  order,  of  the  Court  of  Lancaster 
county,  but  no  record  thereof  can  be  found.  And  if  the  other  three 
townships  were  created  by  the  action  of  the  courts  of  Cumberland 
county,  they  must  have  been  organized  immediately  after  that 
county  was  erected,  though  no  record  of  their  formation  has  as  yet 
been  found.  I  therefore  give  but  the  earliest  dates  at  which  I  have 
been  able  to  find  mention  of  them. 

ANTRIM— 1741. 

Antrim  township  was  undoubtedly  named  after  the  count3'  of 
Antrim,  Ireland,  from  whence  many  of  the  early  settlers  of  this 
valley  came  Out  of  its  original  territory  all  our  townships,  except 
Warrt-n,  Metal  and  Fannett,  have  been  made,  and  still  it  is  the  larg- 
est and  wealthiest  township  in  the  county.  In  the  year  1734  Joseph 
Crunkleton  obtained  his  license,  and  in  the  year  1735  he,  Jacob 
Snively,   James  Johnston   and  James  Roddy   made    settlements. 

126  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

Mr.  Crunkleton  settled  upon  the  lands  now  owned  by  Benjamin 
Snively  and  David  Eshlenian,  about  two  mileseast  of  where  Green- 
castle  now  stands.  Mr.  Snively  upon  the  farm  so  long  the  residence 
of  Andrew  Snively,  d^-e'd.  Mr.  Johnston  on  the  lauds  now  owned 
hy  Christian  Stover  and  Henry  Whitmore,  and  Mr.  Roddy  on  the 
farm  now  owned  by  Andrew  G.  M'Lanahan,  Esq.,  situated  upon 
the  Conoeocheague  creek.  They  were  among  the  first,  if  not  the 
very  first  settlers  in  the  township,  and  had  many  Indians  for  their 
neighbors  when  they  first  located. 

The  settlement  early  took  the  name  of  "  The  Conococheague  Set- 
tlement," and  being  fed  from  the  older  counties  and  the  Old  Worhl, 
was  of  rapid  growth.  A  Presbyterian  church  was  organized  as  early 
as  1737  or  1738,  under  the  name  of  "  The  East  Conococheague  Pres- 
byterian Church."  Their  first  church  edifice,  known  as  the  "  lied 
Church,"  was  erected  at  "Moss  Spring,"  three-fourths  of  a  mile  east 
of  Greencastle,  and  there  they  worshi(>ped  until  the  erection  of  the 
present  church  in  Greencastle,  in  the  year  1830. 

In  the  year  1772,  or  ten  years  before  Greencastle  M'as  laid  out,  John 
Crunkleton  laid  out  a  town  on  the  road  leading  from  the  Conoco- 
cheague Settlement  (now  Greencastle)  towards  where  Waynesboro 
now  is,  about  two  miles  east  of  Greencastle,  and  named  the  town 
Crunkleton.  Lots  were  sold  subject  to  an  annual  quit  rent ;  three 
houses  were  built,  one  of  which  was  kept  as  a  tavern  by  George  Clark, 
and  in  another  a  store  was  kept  by  John  Lawrence.  James  Clark, 
one  of  the  former  Canal  Commissioners  of  our  State,  passed  his 
youth  there.  The  town  never  got  beyond  its  three  houses;  two  of 
these  have  been  removed,  the  street  and  the  town  plot  merged  into 
the  farm  of  Benjamin  Snively,  Esq.  Its  very  name  is  almost  for- 
gotten, and  strangers  pass  over  its  site  without  seeing  any  evidences 
that  there  a  town  once  existed. 

LURGAN— 1743. 

I  cannot  tell  certainly  from  what  this  township  took  its  name. 
Most  likely  it  was  called  after  the  town  of  Lurgan,  in  the  county  of 
Armagh,  province  of  Ulster,  Ireland,  eighteen  miles  south-west  of 
the  city  of  Belfast,  the  birth-place  of  James  Logan,  the  secretary  or 
William  Penn,  and  President  of  the  Supreme  Executive  Council  in 

It  originally  extended  across  the  eastern  end  of  our  county, 
from  the  top  of  the  South  mountain  to  the  top  of  the  Kittatinny 
mountain,  and  embraced  all  the  territory  now  within  the  townships 
of  Lurgan,  Letterkenny,  Green  and  Southampton.  The  earliest 
date  at  which  I  could  find  mention  of  it  among  the  records  of  Cum- 
berland county  is  in  1751,  but  an  original  deed  for  certain  lands  in 
Green   townsiiip  has  been  shown  me,  dated  December  1,  1753,  in 

.-  >*..^  ip/^^'"-"^ 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Covvtij.  127 

which  it  is  set  forth  that  the  tiJarran^  for  the  land  therein  mentioned 
had  been  issued  in  1743,  and  that  it  was  then  in  Lurgan  township, 
Lancaster  county.  Whether  it  ever  extended  eastward  further  than 
tlie  present  boundary  of  Cumberland  county,  I  cannot  say.  Being 
the  most  eastern  portion  of  our  county,  it  was  early  settled.  The 
original  settlers  were  chiefly  Scotch-Irish,  though  some  Germans 
were  also  found  in  the  township  at  a  very  early  period.  The  "Mid- 
dle Spring  Presbyterian  Church"  was  organized  about  the  year  1740. 
Their  church  edifice  stands  but  a  short  distance  east  of  the  county 
line  in  Cumberland  county. 

A  Scotch-Irishman  of  the  name  of  Thomas  Pomeroy  was  one  of 
the  earliest  settlers  in  this  township.  One  of  his  early  ancestors 
was  a  French  Huguenot,  and,  at  the  time  of  the  massacre  of  Saint 
Bartholomew's  day,  in  lo72,  he  was  engaged  in  teaching  a  classical 
school  ill  Paris.  He  escaped  from  the  city  on  that  terrible  night, 
and  with  some  other  Huguenots  crossed  over  to  Ireland,  where  he 
settled.  Nearly  one  hundred  and  fifty  years  afterwards  Thomas 
Pomeroy,  before  mentioned,  one  of  his  descendants,  left  Ireland, 
the  place  of  his  birth,  and  removed  to  Liverpool,  England,  where 
he  engaged  in  commercial  pursuits.  From  thence  he  emigrated  to 
America  early  in  the  eighfeenth  century,  and  located  in  Lurgan 
township,  about  two  miles  east  of  where  the  town  of  Roxbury  now 
stands,  on  a  small  stream,  which  rises  in  the  neighboring  mountains 
and  is  now  known  as  Rebuck's  run.  He  was  the  great-great-grand- 
father of  John  M.  Pomeroy,  Esq.,  of  our  town.  There  he  raised  a 
large  family,  and  died  about  the  beginning  of  the  revolutionary 
war.  His  son  Thomas,  the  areat-grandfatherof  John  M.,  was  there 
born  in  the  year  1733,  and  settled  near  the  ancestral  home,  living 
haj)pily,  and  prosperously  with  his  increasing  family.  On  the 
morning  of  the  21st  of  July,  1763,  Thomas  Pomeroy  left  his  home 
for  the  purpose  of  hunting  deer.  Returning  after  a  short  absence 
he  found  his  wife  and  two  childi'en  dead,  having  been  tomahawked 
and  scalped  hy  a  small  party  of  lurking  savages,  who  were  doubt- 
less concealed  nearby  when  he  went  away.  A  Mrs.  Johnson,  an 
inmate  of  the  house,  had  an  arm  broken,  her  skull  fractui'ed,  and 
the  scalp  torn  off  her  head.  She  was  left  for  dead,  but  showing 
signs  of  life,  was  removed  to  Shippensburg,  where  she  received  medi- 
cal aid.  The  bodies  of  these  victims  of  fiendish  cruelty  were  buried 
a  short  distance  from  the  place  of  their  murder,  in  a  spot  of  ground 
on  which  the  barn  belonging  to  the  late  John  A.  Rebuck  was  sub- 
sequently erected. 

PETERS— 1751. 

This  township  was  evidently  named  after  Richard  Peters,  who 
figured  so  conspicuously  in  Colonial  times  in  this  State  as  the  Sec- 
retary of  the  Colonial  Governors  Thomas,  Palmer,  Hamilton,  Mor- 

128  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Count}/, 

ris  and  Denny,  from  1743  to  1762.  It  appears  first  in  the  records  of 
Cumberland  county  in  the  year  1751,  and  was  most  likely  created  by 
the  courts  of  that  county  after  its  organization  in  1750.  It  then  em- 
braced all  the  territory  in  the  present  townships  of  Peters  auc! 
Montgomery,  and  also  all  that  part  of  the  present  township  of  St. 
Thomas  west  of  Campbell's  run.  Its  earliest  settlers  were  also 
chiefly  Scotch-Irish,  as  is  evidenced  by  their  names,  viz.  :  the 
Campbells,  Wilsons,  M'Clellands,  M'Dowells,  Welshs.  Smiths, 
M'Kinneys,  &c.,  &c.,  Avho  were  found  in  the  township  as  early  as 
1730.  A  Presbyterian  church  was  organized  in  the  year  1738,  under 
the  name  of  "The  Upper  West  Conococheague  Church,"  embrac- 
ing all  the  territory  now  occupied  by  the  congregations  of  Welsh 
Run,  Loudon  and  St.  Thomas.  The  church  edifice  stood  about  two 
miles  north-east  of  where  the  town  of  Mercersburg  now  stands,  and 
was  generally  known  as  the  "W^hite  Church."  "Fort  Loudon,"  so 
well  known  in  "ye  olden  time,"  was  in  this  township,  and  was  built 
by  Colonel  John  Armstrong  in  the  year  1756.  It  was  one  of  a 
chain  of  forts  built  by  the  colonial  government  after  the  defeat  of 
General  Braddock,  to  keep  the  Indians  out  of  this  valley. 

GUILFOKD — 1 751 . 

This  township  also  appears  on  the  records  of  Cumberland  county 
for  the  first  time  in  the  year  1751,  and  was  most  likely  created  by 
the  court  of  that  county.  Its  earliest  settlers  were  mostly  Irish,  or 
Scotch-Irish,  though  there  were  some  English  among  them.  I 
know  not  from  whence  it  derived  its  name.  There  is  a  town  called 
Ouildford,  or  Gilford  in  the  county  of  Sui-ry,  England,  and  it  is 
stated  in  history  that  some  of  the  English  non-conformists  of  that 
region,  when  persecuted  for  their  religious  opinions,  passed  over 
to  the  Scots,  in  the  province  of  Ulster,  Ireland,  and  from  thence  re- 
moved to  America.  It  may  be  that  some  of  them,  or  their  descend- 
ants were  among  the  early  settlers  in  this  township,  and  that 
through  them  it  got  its  name.  On  the  records  of  Cumberland  coun- 
ty, and  in  the  early  records  of  our  county,  the  name  is  spelled  Oil- 
ford,  or  Gillford.  I  have  not  found  that  the  boundaries  of  the 
township  were  ever  different  from  what  they  now  are.  The  town 
of  Chambersburg  as  originally  laid  out,  was  wholly  within  this 
township.  The  Presbyterian  "Congregation  of  the  Falling  Spring" 
was  organized  here  about  the  year  1735. 

HAMILTON— 1752. 

This  township  was  undoubtedly  named  after  James  Hamilton, 
who  was  the  Governor  of  the  colony  from  1748  to  1754,  the  very 
period  within  which  it  must  have  been  created,  and  also  from  1754 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  129- 

to  1768,  and  from  May  to  October,  1771.  Its  name  first  appears  on 
the  records  of  Cumberland  county  in  1752,  and  most  likely  it  was 
organized  by  the  order  of  the  court  of  that  county,  about  that  time, 
or  in  the  previous  year,  though  no  record  thereof  has  been  found. 
It  oiiginally  embraced  nearly  all  of  the  present  township  of  St. 
Thomas  which  lies  east  of  Campbell's  run.  Its  first  settlers  were 
mostly  Scotch-Irish,  who  made  their  settlements  at  about  the  same 
time  that  settlements  were  made  in  the  surrounding  districts. 

FANNETT — 1761. 

This  township  originally  embraced  the  territory  now  within 
the  township  of  Metal.  Path  Valley,  in  which  the  greater  part  of 
the  township  lies,  was  in  old  times  called  the  "TuscaroraPath,"  and 
the  Indian  title  to  the  territory  between  the  Kittochtinny  moun- 
tains on  the  east,  and  the  Tuscarora  mountain  on  the  west,  was  only 
extinguished  by  the  treaty  made  with  the  Six  Nations,  at  Easton, 
on  the  23d  of  October,  1758.  Long  before  that  period,  however,  set- 
tlers had  crowded  into  Path,  Horse  and  Amberson's  Valleys,  at- 
tracted by  the  beauty  of  the  lands  within  them.  These  intrusions 
are  said  to  have  commenced  as  early  as  1744,  but  were  in  violation 
of  the  agreement  between  the  Colonial  authorities  and  the  Indians, 
and  the  latter  made  complaint  to  the  government,  and  threatened 
to  redress  their  grievances  themselves  if  the  intruders  were  not 
promptly  removed.  The  government  called  upon  the  magistrates 
of  Cumberland  county  to  redress  the  wrongs  of  the  Indians  by  ex- 
pelling the  settlers.  Accordingly,  in  May,  1750,  Richard  Peters,  the 
Secretary  of  the  Governor,  attended  by  Benjamin  Chambers,  Wil- 
liam Maxwell,  William  Allison,  John  Finley  and  others,  magis- 
trates of  the  countj'  of  Cumberland,  went  over  to  Path  Valley, 
where  they  found  many  settlements.  They  had  Abraham  Slack, 
James  Blair,  Moses  Moore,  Arthur  Duulap,  Alex.  M'Cartie,  David 
Lewis,  Adam  M'Cartie,  Felix  Doyle,  Andrew  Dunlap,  Robert  Wil- 
son, Jacob  Pyatt,  Wm.  Ramage,  Reynold  Alexander,  Samuel  Pat- 
terson, John  Armstrong,  John  Potts  and  others  brought  before  them, 
who  were  all  convicted,  and  put  under  bond  to  remove  at  once  out 
of  the  valley  with  all  their  families,  servants  and  effects,  and  to  ap- 
pear at  court  at  Carlisle  and  answer  such  charges  as  might  be  made 
against  them.  Their  houses,  cabins,  and  other  improvements  were 
then  all  burned  to  the  ground,  by  order  of  the  magistrates.  After 
the  purchase  of  the  land  from  the  Indians  some  of  these  men  re- 
turned and  located  lands  in  the  valley,  and  their  descendants  are 
there  yet. 

The  first  mention  that  I  have  found  of  the  name  of  this  township 
(Fannett)  in  the  records  of  Cumberland  county  is  in  the  year  1761.  It 
was  undoubtedly  organized  by  the  order  of  the  Court  of  Quarter  Ses- 

130  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

sions  of  that  county,  most  probably  in  that  or  the  preceding  year. 
Its  original  shape  was  that  of  a  long,  narrow  point ;  and  it  is  said 
that  it  was  named  by  its  early  settlers,  who  were  mostly  Scotch- 
Irish,  after  "Fannett  Point,"  a  promontory  and  light  house  in  the 
county  of  Donegal,  Province  of  Ulster,  Ireland. 

Richard  and  John  Coulter  took  up  a  large  body  of  land  in  the  upper 
end  of  the  township,  near  Concord,  in  the  year  17o6,  and  Francis 
Amberson  settled  in  the  valley  now  called  after  him,  "Ambersou's 
Valley,"  in  the  year  1763.  Soon  afterwards  Barnabas  Clark,  after 
whom  "Clark's  Knob"  is  named,  John  Ward,  Cromwell  M'Vitty 
and  others  also  settled  in  the  latter  named  valley,  and  their  de- 
scendants are  now  among  its  most  prominent  citizens.  There  are 
two  post  offices,  one  large  steam  tannery,  two  churches,  (one  union 
and  one  protestant  Methodist),  one  general  store,  three  blacksmith 
shops,  one  cabinet-maker  shop,  three  carpenter  shops,  one  wheel- 
wright shop,  and  four  good  school  houses  in  this  little  valley. 


This  township  was  formed  out  of  the  southern  part  of  Lurgan 
township,  by  order  of  the  court  of  Cumberland  county,  about  the 
year  1760  or  1761,  and  then  included  the  territory  now  in  Greene 
township.  The  first  mention  that  I  find  of  it  in  the  records  of  the 
Court  of  Quarter  Sessions  of  that  county  was  at  March  term,  1762. 
What  it  took  its  name  from  I  cannot  say.  Some  affirm  that  there  is 
a  town,  or  district,  of  the  same  name  in  Ireland,  and  that  the  early 
settlers  being  mostly  Scotch-Irish,  the  township  was  called  after  it. 
But  I  have  not  been  able  to  find  that  there  is  any  such  place  in  the 
"Green  Isle,"  and  therefore  cannot  say  that  this  statement  is  either 
true  or  false.  Settlements  and  improvements  were  made  in  that 
region  of  the  county  shortly  after  the  year  1730,  though  the  office 
rights  issued  and  surveys  made  do  not  date  back  earlier  than  1736, 
the  year  the  Indian  title  was  extinguished. 

John  B.  Kaufman,  Esq.,  our  fate  county  surveyor,  who  is  a  native 
of  the  township,  and  fully  acquainted  with  the  facts  connected  with 
its  early  settlement,  says:  "Several  surveys  were  made  and  war- 
rants issued  in  1736,  1744  and  1746,  but  they  were  not  very  numer- 
ous until  1750,  though  we  find  abundant  evidences  prior  to  this 
latter  date  that  settlements  had  been  made  j^ears  before.  When  the 
French  and  Indian  war  became  serious  in  1755,  and  the  settlers  were 
burnt  out,  or  massacred,  and  could  not  remain  in  safety,  many  of 
them  abandoned  their  improvements  and  removed  eastward  into  the 
older  settlements.  Emigration  was  checked  and  almost  totally 
ceased  until  about  the  year  1760  or  1762.  Then  there  was  a  large 
influx   of  settlers,  and    by  the  time  the  revolution   broke  out  the 

Historiccd  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  131 

farming  lands  both  in  this  valley  and  in  Horse  valley  were  largely 
taken  up.  I  cannot  find  either  warrants  or  surveys  in  Letterkenny 
township  prior  to  1762." 

"From  this  date  the  office  rights  multiply  rapidly,  especially  after 
the  cheaper  rates  of  £5  sterling  per  hundred  acres  were  inaugurated 
under  the  apiDlication  system.  This  s^  stem  went  into  effect  in  1766. 
All  that  was  necessary,  as  long  as  this  law  was  in  force,  was  for  the 
settler  to  make  apiDlication  to  the  Land  Office  for  so  many  acres, 
bounded  by  certain  lands.  An  order  of  survey  was  then  issued, 
and  the  applicant,  for  a  small  fee  for  his  application  and  order  of 
survey,  could  take  up  a  tract  not  exceeding  four  hundred  acres, 
without  paying  for  the  land  a  farthing,  excej^t  the  fees  above 
named,  and  the  expenses  of  surveying.  It  was  expected  that  the 
land  would  be  paid  for  after  the  return  of  the  survey,  and  a  patent 
then  be  taken  out.  This,  however,  was  frequently  not  done,  and  the 
purchase  money  of  many  tracts  has  not  yet  been  paid  to  the  Com- 
monwealth. The  land  then  cost  twenty-two  and  two-tenths  cents 
per  acre  ;  hence  it  is  not  wonderful  that  as  soon  as  the  Indian  trou- 
bles ceased  the  lands  in  Letterkenny  were  rapidly  occupied.  As 
this  township  is  mostly  slate  land,  now  considered  by  many  as  in- 
ferior to  the  limestone  and  freestone,  or  pine  lands  of  Green,  South- 
ampton, Guilford,  Antrim,  &c.,  it  may  seem  sti'ange  that  the  first 
settlers  selected  the  slate  lands,  which  were  often  quite  hilly,  in 
preference  to  the  others.  But  when  it  is  remembered  that  the  slate 
lands  were  heavily  timbered,  and  had  abundant  springs  and  mead- 
ows, and  were  smoother  and  easily  cultivated  ;  and  the  limestone 
lands  were  nearly  all  quite  destitute  of  timber,  were  often  poorly 
watered,  were  broken  by  ridges  of  rock,  and  were  in  other  respects 
uninviting  and  barren,  the  reasons  for  their  preference  are  easily 

"Some  settlers  who  had  taken  out  warrants  at  an  early  day  at  £15 
10s.  per  one  hundred  acres,  and  paid  a  part  of  the  purchase  money, 
afterwards,  when  the  rates  were  reduced,  abandoned  the  old  warrants 
and  took  out  new  ones  and  obtained  patents  on  them.  But  as  the 
Scotch-Irish  of  those  days  were  actual  settlers,  and  not  speculators, 
whenever  they  went  to  the  trouble  to  obtain  evidence  of  title  they 
generally  lived  on  their  lands  and  retained  them." 

"After  the  battle  of  Trenton  some  of  the  Hessians  captured  there 
found  their  way  to  this  vicinity,  and  settling  here,  became  useful 
and  industrious  citizens,  and  their  descendants  are  amongst  the  most 
worthy  and  respectable  of  our  people." 

"  So  much  has  been  said  in  praise  of  the  Scotch-Irish  j^ioneer  that 
I  will  not  spoil  a  subject  so  well  handled  and  oft  repeated  by  en- 
larging upon  it.  And  concerning  the  'Dutchman,'  who  has  taken 
his  place,  in  a  great  measure,  he  has  done  his  part  so  quietly  that 
there  is  not  much  to  say  about  him.     When  the  Germans  first  made 

132  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

their  appearance  the  old  pioneer  did  not  always  look  upon  them 
with  much  favor,  and  it  is  said  that  one  of  them  who  did  not  like 
'Hans,'  wondered,  reverently,  of  course,  'what  God  Almighty 
meant  in  making  the  Dutchman  and  letting  him  have  the  best  of 
the  land  besides.'  " 

"But  the  Scotch-Irishman,  sturdy  and  strong,  upright  and  fear- 
less, if  not  a  very  successful  farmer,  still  performed  a  mission  that 
cannot  be  easily  overestimated,  and  as  a  descendant  of  a  Swiss  Gei'- 
man,  I  can  and  do  cheerfully  give  my  meed  of  praise  to  the  early 
settlers  of  the  Cumberland  Valley." 

Major  James  M'Calmont,  so  famous  in  early  times  as  an  Indian 
fighter,  was  born  near  Strasburg,  in  this  township.  Because  of  the 
massacre  of  certain  of  his  neighbors  and  acquaintances,  he  became 
the  sworn  enemy  of  the  savages.  He  was  peculiarly  fleet  of  foot, 
knew  every  nook  and  corner  of  the  country,  was  a  sure  shot,  and 
had  many  hair-breadth  escapes  in  his  contests  with  the  Indians, 
many  of  whom  are  said  to  have  fallen  by  his  gun.  He  is  said  to 
have  been  very  modest  when  speaking  of  his  exploits,  and  never 
admitted  that  he  had  killed  an  Indian.  He  would  say:  "I  shot  at 
him,"  and  it  was  pretty  well  understood  that  when  he  shot  at  an 
Indian  there  was  a  savage  that  needed  burial. 

"The  Rocky  Spring"  Presbyterian  Church  is  within  the  bounds 
of  this  township.  It  was  organized  about  the  year  1738,  and  had  a 
very  large  membership  for  many  years. 


This  township  was  organized  by  an  order  of  the  Court  of  Quarter 
Sessions  of  Cumberland  county  about  April  term,  1779,  out  of  An- 
trim township.  At  January  term,  1779,  a  petition  of  the  citizens  of 
Antrim  townshij5  was  presented,  praying  for  the  division  of  that 
township,  and  James  Johnston,  Abraham  Smith,  Humphrey  Ful- 
lerton,  James  M'Clenehan,  Ellas  Davison  and  William  Finley  were 
appointed  commissioners  to  examine  and  report  upon  the  propriety 
of  the  division.  I  have  been  unable  to  find  any  record  of  the  report 
of  these  commissioners,  nor  of  the  action  of  the  court  thereon. 
They  should  have  reported  to  April  term,  1779,  and  most  probably 
did,  as  the  name  of  the  new  township — Washington— appears  upon 
the  record  of  the  court  immediately  thereafter.  It  was  called  after 
General  Washington,  who  was  then  "  first  in  the  hearts  of  his 
countrymen,"  as  the  leader  of  their  armies  in  the  contest  then  going 
on  for  the  independence  of  the  United  Colonies.  The  new  township 
took  from  Antrim  more  than  one-half  the  latter's  area,  and  em- 
braced all  that  territory  now  within  the  township  of  Quincy. 

Settlements  were  made  in  what  is  now  Washington  township  as 

1  ''i^ 

5uMMfR   R 

CLERMONT  mUSL. south  m 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  133 

early  as  173o-'4().  The  tract  of  land  upon  which  Waynesboro  now 
stands  was  taken  up  in  1749.  The  first  I'oad  from  what  is  now  Ful- 
ton county  (then  Cumberland  county )  through  Peters  and  Antrim, 
and  what  is  now  Washington  township,  was  laid  out  by  order  of  the 
Court  of  Quarter  Sessions  of  Cumberland  county  in  the  yenv  1768. 
At  the  April  sessions  of  the  courts  of  Cumberland  county,  in  the 
year  1761,  a  petition  of  the  citizens  of  Peters  townsliip  was  presented 
setting  forth  "  that  they  have  no  prospect  for  a  standing  market  for 
the  produce  of  their  country,  only  at  Baltimore,  and  having  no  road 
leading  from  their  township  to  said  town  of  Baltimore,  and  tlour 
being  the  principal  commodity  their  township  i^roduceth,  and 
having  tivo  mills  in  said  township,  viz. :  John  M'Dowell's  and  Wil- 
liam Smith's,  they  pray  the  court  to  appoint  men  to  view  and  lay 
out  a  road  from  each  of  said  mills  to  meet  at  or  near  the  house  of 
William  Maxwell,  and  from  thence  to  run  by  the  nearest  and  best 
way  towards  said  town  of  Baltimore  until  it  intersects  the  "  tempo- 
mry  line^^''  or  the  line  of  York  county.  The  Court  appointed  Henry 
Pawlin,  James  Jack,  John  Allison,  Joseph  Bradner,  John  M'Clel- 
lan,  Jr..  and  William  Holliday,  viewers,  any  lour  of  them  to  make 
report.  No  rejDort  was  made  until  April  term,  1768,  when  the  view- 
ers reported  in  favor  of  a  road,  for  the  accommodation  of  the  people 
of  Peters,  Air  and  TJamilton  townships.  The  roads  were  to  be 
"  bridle  roads"  from  the  mills  to  the  boundaries  of  Peters  township. 
They  were  to  unite  at  or  near  James  Irwin's  mill,  in  Peters  town- 
ship, thence  crossing  the  Conococheague  creek  at  the  mouth  of 
Muddy  run,  thence  through  Antrim  townshij)  to  the  Gap,  commonly 
called  "Nicholson's,"  in  the  South  mountain,  and  thetice  to  the 
town  of  Baltimore.  This  is  substantially  the  route  of  the  present 
turnpike  from  Mercersburg,  by  way  of  Greencastle  and  Waynes- 
boro, towards  Baltimore,  and  the  reason,  that  none  of  these  towns 
are  named  is  because  they  were  not  then  in  existence. 


This  township  was  formed  out  of  the  southern  part  of  Peters 
township,  by  a  decree  of  the  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions  of  Cumber- 
land county.  At  the  October  term,  1780,  the  petition  for  the  division 
of  the  township  was  presented,  and  the  court  appointed  James 
Maxwell,  John  M'Clellan,  John  W^ork,  James  Campbell,  Adam 
Holliday  and  Thomas  Campbell  to  examine  and  report  upon  the 
propriety  of  the  division.  They  reported  at  January  term,  1781, 
and  their  report  was  then  confirmed,  dividing  the  township  as  fol- 
lows, viz. :  "  Beginning  at  a  pine  on  the  Bedford  county  line,  thence 
five  hundred  perches  to  the  south  branch  of  Smith's  run ;  thence 
down  said  run  an  easterly  course  until  where  it  empties  into  the 

134  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Coitnti/. 

West  Conocoeheague  creek  ;  thence  south  seventy- one  degrees,  east 
nine  hundred  and  ninety-four  perches  to  the  Baltimore  road,  near 
Charles  Lowry's;  thence  north  eighty  degrees,  east  one  thousand 
one  hundred  and  forty  perches  to  a  buttonwood  tree  standing  on  the 
bank  of  the  East  Conocoeheague  creek,  at  the  mouth  of  Wood's 
run,  being  the  whole  extei.t  of  said  division  line— the  south  side  to 
be  called  '  Montgomery.'  "  This  name  was  undoubtedly  selected  in 
honor  of  Brigadier  General  Richard  Montgomery,  who  had  been 
killed  in  the  attack  upon  Quebec,  Canada,  on  the  31st  of  December, 
1775.  The  first  settlers  were  mostly  Scotch-Irish,  though  there 
were  a  number  of  Welsh  in  the  south-eastern  part  of  the  township, 
from  whom  the  present  village  of  "Welsh  Run"  took  its  name. 
They  located  between  the  years  1730  and  1735.  The  first  Presbyte- 
rian church  there  was  organized  about  the  year  1736,  about  which 
time  their  first  church  edifice  was  erected,  which  was  used  until  the 
year  1760,  when  it  was  burned  by  the  Indians.  In  1741  the  Upper 
West  Conocoeheague  Presbyterian  congregation  was  divided,  and  a 
congregation  organized  in  the  Welsh  Run  district,  under  the  name 
of  "The  Lower  West  Conocoeheague  Church."  About  1774  they 
built  their  second  church,  which  was  used  until  the  present  beautiful 
structure  (''  The  Robert  Kennedy  Memorial  Presbyterian  Church  ") 
was  put  up  on  the  site  of  the  old  church,  and  dedicated  September 
30th,  1871. 

On  the  1st  of  September,  1787,  Mr.  John  Kennedy,  one  of  the  cit- 
izens of  this  township,  and  the  owner  of  five  hundred  acres  of  land 
in  it,  advertised  through  the  Carlisle  Gazette  that  he  had  laid  out  a 
new  town  at  the  forks  of  the  east  and  west  branches  of  the  Conoco- 
eheague creek;  that  there  were  two  hundred  and  twenty-six  lots  in 
his  town,  each  of  which  was  eighty-two  and  one-half  feet  wide  by 
one  hundred  and  sixty-five  feet  deep;  that  the  streets  were  to  be 
sixty  and  eighty  feet  wide,  two  of  which  were  named  "Water 
street,"  (east  and  west) ;  that  the  lots  were  to  be  disposed  of  by  lot- 
tery on  the  13th  of  November,  1787 ;  that  each  lot  must  be  inclosed 
with  a  rail  or  paling  fence  within  three  years,  and  a  house  of  brick, 
stone,  frame  or  log,  at  least  twenty-two  feet  square,  with  a  chimney 
of  brick  or  stone,  must  be  put  up  within  five  years,  and  that  the 
annual  quit  rent  on  each  lot  would  be  three  bushels  of  merchantable 
wheat.  No  name  was  given  to  the  new  town,  and  the  whole  enter- 
prise must  have  been  abandoned  for  some  cause  or  another.  A 
wharf  and  a  warehouse  were  erected  at  the  site  of  this  town  many 
years  ago,  and  wheat  and  other  grains  purchased  and  floated 
down  the  Conocoeheague  in  flat  boats  to  the  Potomac,  and  by  that 
river  to  Georgetown,  which  was  then  the  principal  market  for  the 
products  of  this  region  of  country.  The  erection  of  the  mill  dams 
on  the  creek  interfered  with  this  trade,  and  it  was  long  ago  aban- 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  135 


This  township  was  organized  out  of  tlie  south-eastern  part  of  Lur- 
gan  township,  by  tlie  order  of  tlie  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions  of  Cum- 
berland county,  about  the  year  1783.  I  have  been  unable  to  find 
the  exact  date  of  its  organization,  but  as  it  appears  upon  the  records 
of  that  county  in  that  year,  and  does  not  appear  earlier,  it  must 
have  been  organized  about  that  time.  Its  earliest  settlers  were  also 
Scotch-Irish,  who  located  in  that  township  (then  Hopewell,  Cum- 
berland county)  as  far  back  as  the  year  1738.  It  is  said  that  the 
township  was  called  after  the  county  of  Southampton,  in  the  south 
of  England,  in  which  there  is  a  city,  and  important  seaport,  of  the 
same  name,  containing  about  60,000  inhabitants. 

FRANKLIN— 1784. 

This  township  appears  on  the  records  of  our  county  in  the  year 
17S5,  and  was  carried  along  upon  the  books  of  the  Commissioners' 
office,  for  taxation  purjDoses,  as  late  as  the  year  1822.  I  could  find 
no  trace  of  it  on  the  records  of  Cumberland  county,  and  therefore  it 
must  have  been  organized  by  an  order  of  the  Court  of  Quarter  Ses- 
sions of  this  county  in  1784,  or  in  tlie  early  part  of  1785.  It  was 
formed  out  of  parts  of  Guilford  and  Hamilton  townships,  and  em- 
braced the  town  plot  of  Chambersburg,  and  seven  tracts  of  land 
adjacent  thereto  in  both  townships,  containing  about  1,150  acres. 
The  Borough  of  Chambersburg  was  erected  by  an  Act  of  Assembly 
approved  21st  March,  1803,  with  boundaries  greatly  less  in  extent 
than  those  of  the  toivnshi])  of  Franklin,  yet  the  assessments  were 
made  for  the  townshi])  for  nineteen  years  afterwards,  and  how  the 
township  organization  was  then  gotten  rid  of,  and  tlie  surplus  land, 
outside  the  boibugh  limits,  returned  to  the  adjoining  townships,  I 
cannot  tell.  It  may  have  been  done  by  the  order  of  our  Court  of 
Quarter  Sessions,  but  as  all  the  records  of  that  Court  prior  to  1864, 
were  destroj'ed  when  our  town  was  burnt  on  the  30th  of  July  in  that 
year,  I  cannot  speak  witli  any  certainty  as  to  any  action  of  that 
Court  in  relation  to  this  township.  It  was  undoubtedly  named 
after  our  county. 

GKEENE — 1788. 

This  township  was  formed  out  of  the  eastern  end  of  Letterkenny 
township,  by  an  order  of  the  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions  of  our 
county  in  the  year  1788.  The  records  containing  the  action  of  the 
Court  no  longer  exist,  but  there  are  contemporaneous  records  in  the 
Commissioners'  office  which  show  that  the  township  did  7iot  exist 
in  1787,  and  did  exist  in  1788.  Besides  this,  the  township  officers 
have  the  township  records  of  1788,  which  show  the  election  held 

136  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Counixj. 

that  year  for  their  first  township  officers.  Tliese  data  render  it  cer- 
tain that  tlie  townsliip  was  organized  in  1787,  or  in  the  early  part  of 
1788,  It  was  undoubtedly  named  after  Major  General  Nathaniel 
Greene,  of  the  revolutionary  army,  who  but  a  few  years  before  had 
so  gallantly  contested  the  possession  of  the  Carolinas  with  the  British 
troops  under  Lord  Cornwallis. 

The  original  settlers  in  this  township  (then  Hopewell  or  Lurgan), 
were  Scotch-Irish  Presbyterians,  who  came  into  it  contemporane- 
ously with  the  i^ettlement  of  the  surrounding  districts.  I  have  not 
been  given  the  dates  of  their  settlements,  and  cannot  therefore  par- 
ticularize them.  Among  them  were  the  Armstrongs,  Thomsons, 
Ramages,  Stewarts,  Culbertsons,  M'Clays,  Hendersons,  Criswells 
Bittingers,  Fergusons,  Bairds,  Johnsons,  &c.,  &c.,  who  lived  there 
many  years,  who  are  buried  there,  and  whose  descendants  are  among 
the  most  Avorthy  in  the  township,  and  still  adhere  to  the  faith  of 
their  forefathers.  A  house  built  in  1755,  one  hundred  and  tw^enty- 
one  years  ago,  is  still  standing,  and  in  a  fair  state  of  preservation. 

The  town  of  Green  village  stands  upon  the  suniinit  level  between 
the  Susquehanna  and  Potomac,  the  waters  rising  eastjof  it  flowing 
into  the  former,  and  those  rising  west  of  it  flowing  into  the  latter. 
Years  ago  a  certain  James  M'Nulty,  a  Roman  Catholic,  kept  a  tav- 
ern in  the  village,  and  the  celebrated  Lorenzo  Dow  frequently 
preached  in  his  bar-room  to  crowded  audiences,  ''^subject  to  certain 
rules,''''  among  which  was  one  that  he  should  not  abuse  the  Catholics, 
and  whenever  Lorenzo  in  his  haste  or  zeal  forgot  the  ^h-ules,"  out 
ivent  the  candle,  and  the  preacher  and  his  audience  were  left  in  the 

^'  METAL, — 1795. 

This  township  was  formed  out  of  the  southern  end  of  old  Fannett, 
by  the  order  of  the  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions  of  this  county,  about 
the  year  1795.  As  in  the  case  of  Franklin  and  Greene  townships, 
no  record  of  its  organization  can  be  found,  because  of  the  destruc- 
tion of  the  records  of  the  court.  But  from  the  records  referred  to 
before,  as  existing  in  the  Commissioners'  office,  (wherein  tables  con- 
taining the  names  of  all  the  townships  are  found),  it  is  certain  that 
this  township  must  have  been  created  about  1795,  for  its  name  does 
not  appear  in  1795,  and  does  appear  in  May,  1796.  Its  earliest  settlers 
were  chiefly  Scotch-Irish,  of  the  same  religious  faith  as  those  who 
settled  in  the  upper  part  of  the  Path  Valley.  Among  tliem  were 
the  Elliotts,  Walkers,  Nobles,  M'Connells,  Kilgores,  Alexanders, 
M'Cartneys,  M'Curdys,  Elders,  Skinners,  Campbells,  Mackeys, 
Montgomerys,  Armstrongs,  &c.,  &c.  A  Presbyterian  congregation 
was  formed  about  the  year  1767,  comjKJsed  of  the  Presbyterians  of 
the  whole  valley.  They  early  differed  as  to  the  location  of  their 
church  edifice,  and  finally  divided  and  formed  two  congregations, 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  137 

that  in  the  southern  t-nd  of  the  valley  taking  the  name  of  "The 
Lower  Path  Valley  Presbyterian  Church,"  built  their  church  about 
one  mile  south  of  where  Fannettsburg  now  stands.  The  congrega- 
tion in  the  northern  part  of  the  valley  took  the  name  of  "  The  Upper 
Path  Valley  Presbyterian  Church,"  and  built  their  church  edifice 
where  the  village  of  Spring  Run  now  stands.  The  Reverend  Amos 
A.  M'Giuley  ministered  to  both  churches  from  1802  to  1851— nt-arly 
fifty  years.  When  first  called  his  salary  was  fixed  at  five  hundred 
dollars  per  year,  one-half  of  which  was  paid  by  each  congregation. 
About  the  year  1820  or  1823,  when  times  became  very  hard,  money 
scarceand  everything  very  high,  the  sessions  of  the  churches  met  and 
added  two  hundred  dollars  to  their  pastor's  salary,  one-half  thereof  to 
be  paid  by  each  congregation.  In  a  few  years,  when  times  became 
better  and  prices  lower,  Mr.  M'Ginley  called  the  sessions  of  the 
churches  together  and  told  them  that  they  must  take  oflf"  the  extra 
two  hundred  dollars,  and  he  afterwards  continued  to  preach  for 
them  until  his  retirement,  in  1851,  at  his  old  salary  of  five  hundred 
dollars.  Few  clergymen  can  be  found  in  these  days  who  would  act 
so  disinterestedly  as  did  Dr.  M'Ginley  in  this  case. 

This  township  was  undoubtedly  so  called  because  of  the  large 
quantity  of  metal  to  be  found  within  its  boundaries. 

WARKEN — 1798. 

The  "  Little  Cove,"  as  this  district  was  called  in  former  times,  was 
a  part  of  Bedford  county  until  the  29th  of  March,  1798,  when  an  Act 
of  Assembly  was  approved  annexing  it  to  our  county,  and  making 
it  a  part  of  Montgomery  township.  It  was  formed  into  a  township 
during  that  year,  by  au  order  of  the  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions  of  our 
county,  and  called  "  Warren,"  in  honor  of  Brigadier  General  Joseph 
Warren,  who  had  been  killed  at  the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill,  on  the 
17th  of  June,  1776.  Because  of  the  destruction  of  our  county  records 
I  have  been  unable  to  fix  the  exact  date  of  the  order  of  court  organ- 
izing the  township,  but  it  must  have  been  between  the  April  and 
August  terms  of  that  year,  for  on  the  8d  of  January,  1799,  the 
County  Commissioners  paid  Benjamin  Williams  six  dollars,  in  part 
of  his  services  for  assessing  Warren  township. 

Settlements  were  made  in  this  township  as  early  as  1740.  Quite  a 
number  of  them  were  under  rights  from  Lord  Baltimore  and  the 
Maryland  authorities,  whilst  the  true  position  of  the  boundary  line 
between  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania  was  yet  undetermined.  There 
are  no  towns  in  the  township. 

ST.  THOMAS— 1818-1820. 

This  township  was  formed  out  of  territory  taken  from  Peters  and 
Hamilton.     That  part  of  the  township  east  of  Campbell's  run  was 


J38  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Coitnfij. 

taken  from  Hamilton,  that  west  of  the  run  from  Peters.  The  pre- 
cise date  of  its  organization  is  in  more  doubt  than  the  organization 
of  townships  formed  in  the  last  century.  The  records  of  our  Court 
of  Quarter  Sessions,  by  whose  order  it  was  created,  have  been  de- 
stroyed, and  no  contemporaneous  I'ecord,  either  in  the  township  or 
elsewhere,  has  been  found  that  would  fix  the  date.  The  first  assess 
book  for  the  laying  of  a  tax  in  it  was  issued  in  November,  1820,  but 
citizens  of  the  township  claim  that  it  was  formed  in  1818. 

The  early  settlers  in  the  township  were  chiefly  Scotch-Irish,  who 
went  theri-  between  1733  and  1737.  There  were  also  some  Germans 
in  the  eastern  or  Hamilton  part  of  the  township  at  a,  very  early 

The  township,  it  is  said  by  old  residents,  was  called  after  Thomas 
Campbell,  the  founder  of  Campbellstown,  (or  St.  Thomas,  as  it  is 
now  called),  by  putting  the  prefix  Saint  to  his  given  name,  making 
the  new  name  "St.  Thomas." 

QUINCY— 1837-1838. 

This  township  was  formed  out  of  the  northern  part  of  Washing- 
ton township,  by  the  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions  of  our  county,  and 
embraces  rather  more  than  the  one-half  of  the  territory  originally  in 
Washington  townshii).  It  was  organized  very  late  in  the  year  1837, 
or  within  the  first  nine  months  of  1838.  The  assess  books  for  1837 
were  issued  in  November  of  that  year,  and  no  book  for  this  town- 
ship appears  amongst  them,  whereas  it  does  appear  among  those 
issued  in  November,  1838. 

The  country  now  embraced  in  the  township  whs  early  settled  bj' 
a  mixed  population  of  Germans  and  Scotch-Irish.  Frederick  Fish- 
er located  in  1737;  George  Wertz  came  from  York  county  in  1745; 
Adam  Small  settled  about  the  same  time.  John  Snowberger,  a 
Swiss,  settled  in  1750;  John  M'Cleary,  of  Scotland,  in  1768,  and  his 
descendants  occupied  the  same  tract  of  land  for  one  hundred  and 
two  years.  Christopher  Dull,  Abraham  Knepper,  Adam  Small, 
George  Royer,  John  and  George  Cook,  Samuel  Toms,  John  Heefner 
and  others  were  early  settlers. 

William  Hay  man,  Jr.,  says  :  "The  first  settlers  were  a  hardy  and 
industrious  class  of  men,  who  came  principally  from  Germany,  or 
from  other  districts  of  this  country  settled  by  the  Germans.  They 
had  no  lofty  affixes  or  suffixes  to  their  names.  There  were  no  Gener- 
als, Colonels  or  "D.  D's."  amongst  them;  and  as  they  were  plain 
and  economical  in  their  style  of  living,  having  few  luxuries,  they  sel- 
dom needed  the  "M.  D's."  They  Mere  peaceable,  and  strictly  honest 
in  their  dealings  with  their  neighbors  and  fellow  men.  Tliey  loved 
the  institutions  of  tiie  land,  and  were  slow  to  favor  innovations,  think- 
ing that  the  old  and  well-known  ways  were  the  best.     They  went  in 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franld'm  County.  139 

for  the  substantialsof  life.  Their  clothing  was  plain  and  comforta- 
ble, both  in  summer  and  in  winter.  Shoddy  was  unknown  to  tliem. 
Ever^'  farmer  put  out  a  small  patch  of  flax  for  himself  and  his  house- 
hold. The  fields  yielded  abundantly,  and  the  men  served  their  coun- 
try as  faithfully  in  raising  produce  for  the  sustenance  of  mankind 
as  many  who  occupied  public  stations  and  bore  arms." 

This  township  is  very  rich  in  iron  ores  and  other  minerals,  and  has 
in  it  some  of  the  most  productive  farm  lands  in  our  county.  The 
old  residents  say  that  it  was  called  after  John  Quincy  Adams,  the 
sixth  President  of  the  United  States. 


The  first  settlement  in  our  county,  as  has  heretofore  been  stated, 
was  made  about  the  year  1730.  Thirty-four  years  afterwards,  or  in 
1764,  the  town  of  Cliambersburg  was  laid  out,  and  twenty  years 
after  that,  or  in  17S4,  the  county  of  Franklin  was  formed,  and  yet, 
it  was  not  until  six  years  later,  or  in  1790,  that  the  people  of  the 
county  were  given  a  post  ofHce.  Considerable  settlements  had  been 
in  existence  for  years  before  at  Fort  Loudon,  Chambersburg,  Mer- 
cersburg,  Greencastle,  Waynesboro',  Roxbury,  Strasburg,  St.  Thom- 
as and  other  points  in  the  county,  whilst  the  population  had  in- 
creased from  between  three  and  four  thousand  in  1750,  to  nearly 
fourteen  thousand  in  1784,  and  numbered  fifteen  thousand  six  hun- 
dred and  fifty-five  in  1790;  and  yet  for  nearly  sixty  years  our  ances- 
tors in  this  part  of  the  Cumberland  Valley  had  not  a  single  post 
oflice  among  them.  How  they  were  able  to  transact  their  necessary 
public  and  private  business,-  it  is  diflflcult  to  imagine.  It  is  well 
known  that  letters  were  not  near  as  numerous  then  as  now;  but 
how  a  people  numbering  nearly  sixteen  thousand,  with  a  county  or- 
ganization, and  all  the  consequent  public  and  private  corres- 
pondence, could  thus  get  along  for  six  years  I  cannot  conceive.  Of 
course  they  had  to  depend  upon  the  courtesy  of  travelers,  or  neigh- 
bors, or  rely  ui^on  private  post  riders,  for  the  transmission  of  their 
letters  and  other  postal  matter. 

The  Hon.  James  H.  Marr,  Acting  First  Assistant  Post  Master 
General,  has  certified  to  me  the  following  list  of  the  post  offices  in 
our  county,  with  the  dates  of  their  establishment,  respectively,  and 
the  names  of  the  first  post  masters,  viz.  : 

Chambersburg,  John  Martin,             appointed  P.  M,  June  1,  1790 

Greencastle,  John  Watson,  "  April  4,  1799 

Mercersburg,  James  Bahn,  "  Jan.  1,  1803 

Fannettsburg,  James  Sweeney,  "  March  30,  1809 

Brown's  Mills,  William  Brown,  "  July  1,1813 

Concord,  Edward  W.  Doyle,  "  Jan.  10,  1816 

Waynesboro,  Michael  Stoner,  "  ♦      Dec.  31,  1818 

140  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

Roxbury,  William  Reynolds,             appointed  P.  M.  Feb.  5,  1822 

St.  Thomas,  John  Shafer,  "  Feb.  21,  1824 

Dry  Run,  William  Campbell,  Jr.,  "  Sep.  15,1825 

Fayetteville,  John  Darby,  "  Sep.  4,  1826 

Green  village,  James  M'Nulty,  "  Sep.  12,  1827 

Jackson  Hall,  John  S.  Kerr,  "  Jan.  12,  1828 

Loudon,  Benjamin  Stenger,  "  Dec.  24,  1828 

Upper  Strasburg,  William  M'CIellan,  "  Feb.  28,1828 

State  Line,  David  Brumbaugh,  "  Feb.  9,  183i> 

Quincy,  Jacob  Byer,  "  March  27,  1830 

Welsh  Run,  John  Eldon,  "  May  17,  1830 

Marion,  William  Martin,  "  March  2,1833 

Orrstown,  James  B.  Orr,  "  Jan.  26,  1836 

Sylvan,  WiUiam  Bowers,  "  Feb.  3,  1837 

Bridgeport  Mills,  Martin  Hoover,  "  Feb.  15,  1837 

Mont  Alto,  John  Kuhn,  "  Dee.  14,  1843 

Scotland,  George  R.  M'llroy,  "  June  26,1849 

Spring  Run,   William  A.  Maekey,  "  Nov.  13,  1850 

Amberson's  Valley,  B.  J.  Culbertson,  "  Dec.  16,  1850 

Doylesburg,  Philip  T.  Doyle,  "  May  23,  1854 

Carrick  Furnace,  Geo.  W.  Swank,  "  July  5,  1860 

Shady  Grove,  Frederick  B.  Snively,  "  Dec.  7,  1860 

Mount  Parnel,  John  MuUan,  "  April  3,1862 

Clay  Lick,  Elam  B.  Winger,  "  April  21,  1862 

Mowersville,  Jacob  Snoke,  "  March    3,  1868 

New  Bridge,  H.  P.  Piper,  "  Sep.  8,1868 

Mason  &  Dixon,  A.  B.  Barnhart,  "  May  15,  1868 

Richmond  Furna<;e,  W.  Burgess,  "  May  23,  1872 

Williamson,  E.  H.  Hagerman,  "  Aug.  20,  1872 

Five  Forks,  W.  H.  Brown,  "  March    5,  1873 

Rouzersville,  C.  H.  Buhrman,  "  June  26,1873 

Lehmaster's,  C.  Plum,  "  1877 


Alto  Dale.     See  Funkstown. 

Bridgeport  (P.  O.,  Bridgeport  Mills)  is  situated  in  Peters  town- 
ship, at  the  intersection  of  the  roads  from  St.  Thomas  to  Mercers- 
burg,  and  from  Loudon  to  Upton.  It  is  a  very  old  settlement.  As 
early  as  1730  or  1731  John,  William,  Nathan  and  James  M'Dowell, 
four  brothers,  took  up  a  large  quantity  of  land  immediately  around 
where  the  village  now  is.  Within  a  few  years  afterwards  John 
M'Dowell  built  a  grist  mill,  and  in  1756  built  the  fort,  which  dur-" 
ing  those  early  days  was  so  well  known  as  "M'Dowell's  Fort."  A 
magazine  was  early  established  there  by  the  Colonial  authorities  for 
the  deposit  and  safe  keeping  for  arms  and  munitions  of  war.    About 

HistoyHccd  Sketch  of  Pranldin  County.  141 

fiftj'-five  years  ago  a  stone  bridge  was  built  there  over  the  West 
Branch  of  the  Conococheague,  and  from  that  time  tlie  place  was 
called  Bridgeport.  The  town  has  grown  up  principally  within 
the  last  twenty  five  or  thirty  years.  The  population  is  now  near 
one  hundred  and  fifty. 

Camp  Hit.l  is  situated  in  Montgomery  township,  at  the  base  of 
Casey's  Knob,  six  miles  south  of  Mercersburg.  It  was  started  by 
William  Auld,  Esq.,  about  the  year  1830,  and  took  its  name  from  a 
large  camp  meeting  that  was  held  there  at  that  time.  Its  popula- 
tion numbers  nearly  fifty  persons. 

Carrick  (P.  O.,  Carrick  Furnace)  is  situated  in  Metal  town- 
ship,  on  the  road  leading  from  Loudon  through  Path  Valley  north' 
ward,  about  four  miles  south  of  Fannettsburg.  Carrick  Furnace 
was  built  by  General  Samuel  Dunn  in  the  year  1828.  It  is  now 
carried  on  by  R.  M.  Shalter,  and  manufactures  about  thirty'tons  of 
iron  per  week.  The  population  of  the  village  is  about  one  hundred 
and  twenty  persons. 

Cashtown  is  situated  in  Hamilton  township,  on  the  slate  road 
leading  from  Chambersburg  to  Mercersburg,  six  miles  from  the 
former  place.     Its  population  numbers  about  fifty  persons. 

Centke,  or  Centre  Square,  is  situated  in  Lurgan  township,  on 
tlie  road  leading  from  Orrstown  to  Roxbury.  The  population 
numbers  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  persons. 

Chambersburg  (P.  O.)  is  situated  at  the  confluence  of  the  Cono- 
cocheague creek  and  the  Falling  Spring.  Benjamin  Chambers  set- 
tled here  about  the  year  1730.  On  the  30th  of  March,  1734,  before 
the  Indian  title  was  extinguished,  he  obtained  a  license  from  Samuel 
Blunston,  the  agent  of  the  Penns,  to  take  up  four  hundred  acres 
of  land,  on  both  sides  of  the  creek,  at  the  point  where  Chambers- 
burg now  stands.  He  immediately  built  a  saw  mill  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Falling  Spring,  and  a  few  years  afterwards  erected  a  flour 
mill  just  south  of  his  saw  mill.  In  the  early  part  of  June,  1764, 
Colonel  Chambers  laid  out  the  town  of  Chambersburg,  and  on 
Thursday,  the  28th  day  of  that  month,  held  a  lottery  to  dispose  of 
the  lots.  The  town  grew  slowly,  and  lots  commanded  but  poor 
prices,  as  thirteen  years  afterwards,  viz,  :  on  the  12th  day  of  July, 
1777,  Colonel  Chambers  sold  the  lotTrostle's  tavern  now  stands  upon 
to  Nicholas  Snj'der  for  one  pound  ten  shillings,  Pennsylvania  cur- 
rency, (or  $4.00  of  our  present  money),  upon  the  condition  that 
within  two  years  he  should  build  a  house  upon  it  at  least  sixteen  feet 
square^  and  forever  pay  an  annual  quit  rent  of  fifteen  shillings  to  the 
said  Chambers,  or  his  heirs  or  assigns. 

In  September,  1784,  by  the  act  creating  the  county  of  Franklin, 
Chambersburg  was  made  the  county  seat  of  the  new  county.  Its 
population  was  then  not  more  than  four  or  five  hundred.  In  1786 
there  were  ninety-six  houses  here,  and  in  1788  one  hundred  and 

142  Ilistoncal  Sketch  of  Franklin  Count}/, 

thirty-four.  We  have  now  about  1085  houses,  of  stone,  brick  and 
framed  timber,  all  of  them  substantially,  and  many  of  them  taste- 
fully built  and  ornamented.  We  have  fourteen  ehui'ches,  viz.  :  two 
Presbyterian,  one  Reformed,  one  English  Lutheran,  one  Protestant 
Episcopal,  two  Methodist  Episcopal,  one  German  Reformed,  one 
Baptist,  one  German  Lutheran,  one  United  Brethren,  one  Roman 
Catholic,  and  two  colored  Methodist.  Our  Court  House  is  one  of 
the  best  in  the  State,  whilst  our  prison  is  a  disgrace  to  the  county. 

We  have  two  banks,  with  commodious  banking  rooms,  a  conven- 
ient and  tasteful  Masonic  Hall,  two  Odd  Fellow's  Halls,  "Reposi- 
tory Hall,"  for  public  meetings,  concerts,  &c.,  and  seven  of  tlie 
most  convenient  and  best  conducted  hotels  to  be  found  anywhere 
in  the  interior  of  the  State.  We  have  also  an  immense  straw-paper 
mill,  (Heyser's),  a  largesteam  flouring  mill,  ( Wunderlich  &  Nead's), 
the  Chambersburg  flour  mUi,  and  the  Charnbersburg  Woolen  Mills. 
We  have  also  the  foundry  and  iron  works  of  T.  B.  Wood  &  Co.,  and 
the  furniture  manufactory  of  Henry  Sierer&  Co.,  where  everything 
in  their  lines  of  business  is  made,  and  we  have  water  works  and 
gas  works.  Our  population  is  about  six  thousand  eight  hundred, 
and  our  municipal  debt  does  not  exceed  ninety-five  thousand  dollars. 
The  borough  of  Chambersburg  was  formed  out  of  parts  of  the  town- 
ships of  Guilford  and  Hamilton,  by  an  Act  of  Assembly  approved 
21st  March,  1803,  and  has  been  enlarged  several  times  since  by  the 
action  of  the  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions. 

Charlestown  is  situate  in  Peters  township,  on  the  turnpike 
leading  from  Mercersburg  to  M'Connellsburg,  about  three  miles 
from  the  former  place.     It  has  a  population  of  near  fifty  persons. 

Cheesetown  is  situated  in  Hamilton  township,  three  miles  north- 
west of  Chambersburg,  on  the  road  leading  towards  Reefer's  store. 
It  was  begun  by  Joseph  Bowman  about  the  year  18-10,  and  has  a 
population  of  near  forty  persons. 

Church  Hij^l  is  a  small  village  in  Peters  townshij:),  on  the 
"Warm  Spring"  road.  It  has  sprung  up  recently,  and  is  located 
upon  land  formerly  the  property  of  the  "  Old  White  Church,"  from 
which  it  takes  its  name.  The  population  numbers  about  thirty 

Clay  Lick  (P.  O.)  is  situate  in  Montgomery  township,  at  t!ie 
base  of  Clay  Lick  mountain,  from  which  it  takes  its  name.  It  was 
begun  by  Jacob  Negley  about  the  year  1831.  Its  pojjulation  is  near 
one  hundred. 

Concord  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  Fannett  township,  in  the  upper 
end  of  Path  Valley.  It  was  laid  out  by  James  Widney,  and  the 
first  sale  of  lots  for  building  purposes  was  made  by  him  in  the  year 
1797,  It  was  doulxless  called  after  Concord,  Massachusetts,  the 
place  where,  on  the  l!)th  of  April,  1775,  the  British  troops  under 
Lieut.  Col.  Smith,  first  felt  the  temper  of  the  continental  minute 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Counfy.  143 

men.  The  town  now  contains  thirty-four  dwellings,  two  churches, 
two  stores,  one  hotel  and  one  grist  mill,  and  one  hundred  and 
seventy-six  inhabitants. 

Cove  Gap  is  situated  in  Peters  township,  at  the  point  where  the 
public  road  leading  out  of  the  Little  Cove,  or  Warren  township,  in- 
tersects the  turnpike  leading  from  M'Connellsburg  to  Mercersburg. 
Its  population  is  about  tifty  i^ersons. 

DoYLESBURG  (P.  O  )  is  situated  in  Fannett  township,  three 
miles  south  of  Concord,  at  the  mouth  of  Burns'  Valley,  on  the  i5ub- 
lic  road  from  Concord  to  Jivy  Run.  It  was  laid  out  by  Philip 
T.  Doyle,  in  the  year  1851,  and  contains  a  large  steam  tannery,  one 
store  and  eleven  dwellings,  with  a  population  of  about  seventy  per- 

Dry  Run  (P.  O  )  is  situated  in  Path  Valley,  Fannett  township, 
eight  miles  north  of  Fannettsburg.  The  first  house  was  built  by 
John  Holliday,  in  the  year  1833.  James  Stark  built  the  second  one 
about  the  year  1836.  In  1838  Stephen  Skinner  laid  out  tlie  town  and 
called  it  "Morrowstown,"  (Morrow,  being  the  maiden  name  of  his 
wife).  By  this  name  it  was  known  for  many  years.  It  had  been 
called  "Dry  Run"  before  the  town  was  laid  out,  from  the  fact  that 
the  stream  which  passes  through  the  town  frequently  ceased  to 
flow.  The  older  name  was  i^referred  to  that  of  Morrowstown,  and 
has  now  come  into  general  use.  The  population  numbers  one  hun- 
dred and  eighty  persons. 

Fairvimv  is  situated  in  Southampton  township,  at  the  point 
where  the  road  from  Shippensburg  to  Roxbury  crosses  the  Conodo- 
guinet  creek.  It  was  laid  out  by  the  late  William  G.  M'Lellan,  Esq., 
of  Strasbutg,  about  twenty-five  years  ago.  Its  iDoi^ulation  numbers 
ninety  persons. 

Fan  -ETTSKURG  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  Metal  township,  on  the  old 
"  Tuscarora  Path,"  twelve  miles  north  of  Loudon.  Settlements 
were  made  at  tliis  point  as  early  as  1787,  but  tlie  town  was  laid  out 
by  William  M'Intyre,  on  the  25th  July,  in  the  year  1790,  and  took 
its  name  from  the  towMiship  of  Fannett,  of  which  it  then  formed  a 
part.  The  lots  were  sold  at  the  price  of  four  to  six  pounds,  subject 
to  a  quit  rent  of  seven  shillings  and  six  pence  each.  A  number  of 
these  quit  rents  yet  exist.  There  is  one  church  (Methodist)  and  a 
public  hall  in  the  town,  and  two  churches,  one  Presbyterian  and 
one  Reformed,  near  the  town.  The  population  numbers  about  three 

Fayetteville  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  Greene  township,  on  the 
turni)ike  road  leading  from  Chambersburg  to  Gettysburg,  six  miles 
east  of  the  former  place.  Settlements  were  made  in  this  neighbor- 
hood at  a  very  early  day.  Edward  Crawford  owned  a  very  large 
tract  of  land— a  thousand  acres  or  more— but  a  short  distance  south 
of  where  the  village  stands.     In  the  year  1768  a  petition  was  pre- 

144  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Countij. 

seated  to  the  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions  of  Cumberland  county,  from 
citizens  of  Peters,  Hamilton  and  Guilford  townships,  for  a  public 
road  leading  from  James  Campbell's,  near  Loudon,  through  Cham- 
bersburg,  to  the  county  line  in  Black's  Gap.  Edward  Crawford, 
Josiah  Cook,  George  Brown,  William  M'Brier,  William  Holliday 
and  Nathan  M'Dowell  were  appointed  viewers,  who  reported  favor- 
ably, and  at  January  term,  1772,  the  road  was  granted.  Its  route 
was  nearly  that  of  the  present  turnpike.  Samuel  Beightal  bought 
the  property  now  known  as  the  "Renfrew  Mill"  estate  from  John 
Penn  the  elder  and  John  Penn  the  younger,  proprietaries,  in  the 
year  1792.  Jacob  Burkholder  owned  the  land  that  Greenwood  now 
stands  upon,  about  the  same  time.  In  the  year  1810  David  Eby 
built  the  merchant  mill,  saw  mill  and  several  dwelling  houses,  and 
called  the  place  "  Milton  Mills."  In  1824  a  school  house  was  built. 
In  1826  John  and  Benjamin  Darby  bought  the  mill  property,  dwel- 
ling houses,  &c.,  from  the  Bank  of  Chambersburg.  Shortly  after 
the  Darbys  purchased  they  laid  ofT  lots  fronting  the  pike  and  began 
to  build  houses.  The  "arcade"  was  built  by  John  Darby,  Jacub 
Koontz  and  Miss  Whitmore.  They  then  applied  for  a  post  office,  to 
be  called  "Milton  Mills,"  but  their  application  was  denied,  unless 
they  would  agree  to  change  the  name  of  the  village.  A  family 
council  was  held,  lots  were  cast,  and  the  name  of  "  Fayetteville  " 
selected,  in  honor  of  General  La  Fayette. 

Findlayville,  about  a  half  mile  west  of  Fayetteville,  and  now  in- 
corporated in  it,  was  laid  out  by  Colonel  John  Findlay,  of  Cham- 
bersburg, about  the  yetir  1830.  He  sold  a  number  of  lots,  and  some 
buildings  were  put  vip,  but  the  name  never  took.  The  places  are 
now  united  under  the  one  name— Fayetteville.  There  are  five 
churches  in  the  place — one  Lutheran,  one  Covenanter,  one  United 
Brethren,  one  Winebrennarian  and  one  Presbyterian.  There  are 
also  two  hotels,  one  town  hall,  three  dry  goods  stores,  one  grocery 
store  and  two  drug  stores,  and  two  schools,  one  of  which  is  graded. 
The  population  is  about  six  hundred. 

FuNKSTowN  (P.  O.  name  Mont  Alto)  is  situated  in  Quincy 
township,  on  the  road  leading  from  Fayetteville  to  Quincy,  five 
miles  south  of  the  former  place.  John  Funk  was  the  first  sertler, 
and  built  the  first  house  in  the  town  in  the  year  1817.  The  town 
was  called  after  him,  though  of  late  years  an  efTort  has  been  made 
to  change  the  name  to  Alto  Dale,  but  it  does  not  take  with  the  peo- 
ple of  the  neighborhood.  There  are  three  churches  in  the  town, 
viz.:  one  Reformed,  one  Methodist  and  one  Brethren  in  Christ. 
The  population  of  the  village  is  about  three  hundred  and  sixty-five. 

Gekmantown  is  a  small  village  in  Greene  township,  situate  on 
the  public  road  leading  from  Scotland  to  Fayetteville,  about  mid- 
way between  the  two  places.  It  contains  a  population  of  about  fifty 

Historical  Sketch  of  FranJdin  County.  145 

Greencastle  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  Antrim  township,  at  the  in- 
tersection of  the  Cumberland  Valley  railroad  and  the  Wayncsburg, 
Greencastle  and  Mercers  burg  turui:)ike  road.  The  land  on  whicli 
the  town  stands  was  taken  up  on  a  warrant  issued  to  Samuel  Smitli, 
Sej^tember  7th,  1750.  He  conveyed  to  John  Smith,  4th  November, 
1761.  John  Smith  conveyed  to  J-ohn  Davison,  6th  November,  1762, 
and  he  sold  to  William  Allison,  2oth  April,  1763.  A  patent  was 
issued  to  William  Allison,  26th  July,  1766.  and  by  his  deed,  dated 
3d  May,  1769,  he  conveyed  the  tract  (three  hundred  acres)  to  his  son, 
Colonel  John  Allison,  who  laid  out  the  town  in  1782.  .  He  named  it 
"Green-Castle,"  some  think  in  honor  of  Major  General  Nathaniel 
Greene,  of  revolutionary  fame;  but  it  is  more  likely  that  it  was 
called  after  Green-Castle,  a  large  flshino  station,  where  there  is  a 
fort  and  harbor,  in  the  county  of  Donegal,  Province  of  Ulster, 

Colonel  Allison  divided  his  town  plot  into  two  hundred  and  fifty- 
six  lots,  of  equal,  size,  and  numbered  them  from  one  to  two  hundred 
and  fifty-six.  Inclusive,  and  put  the  price  of  each  lot  at  three  jDounds, 
or  eight  dollars.  He  then  made  a  lottery,  and  every  person  who 
purchased  a  ticket  was  entitled  to  a  lot  somewhere  in  the  new  town, 
and  the  drawing  or  lottery  was  held  to  determine  what  lots  the 
ticket-holders  should  get.  There  were  no  blanks.  Every  ticket 
was  bound  to  draw  a  lot;  the  only  chance  or  uncertainty  being 
whether  it  should  be  located  on  the  public  square  or  on  a  back  street. 
Whatever  number  a  ticket-holder  drew  he  got  the  lot  bearing  the 
same  number  on  the  iilot  of  the  town,  and  received  a  deed  therefor 
from  Colonel  Allison,  subject  to  an  annual  quit  rent  of  ten  shillings 

There  are  six  churches  in  the  town,  viz. :  one  Presbyterian, 
organized  in  1737  or  1738,  one  Reformed,  one  Lutheran,  one  United 
Brethren,  one  Methodist  Epi.scopal  and  one  African  Methodist. 
The  edifices  of  the  first  three  churches  named  are  of  the  most  com- 
modious and  tasteful  character,  whilst  the  others  named  are  suffi- 
cient for  all  their  wants  There  is  also  a  fine  town  hall  in  the  place, 
for  the  holding  of  lectures,  concerts,  etc.  The  tow-n  was  made  a 
borough  by  an  Act  of  Assembly  passed  March  2oth,  1805.  and  has 
now  a  population  of  seventeen  hundred. 

Greenvillage  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  Greene  townshij),  on  the 
Harrisburg  turnpike,  five  miles  from  Chambersburg.  It  was  laid 
out  by  Samuel  Nicholson  in  1793.  He  purchased  of  Reuben  Gilles- 
l)ie  forty-five  acres  of  land  at  fifty  dollars  per  acre,  "at  the  intersec- 
tion of  the  Chambersburg  and  Strasburg  roads."  This  land,  and 
others  around,  was  located  as  early  as  1748.  Jonathan  Hirst  built 
the  first  house  where  the  town  now  stands,  on  the  north-east  corner 
of  the  intersection  of  the  present  turnpike  and  the  Scotland  road. 
It  stood  until  the  year  1844.  The  "  village  "  takes  its  name  from  the 

146  Historical  Sketch  of  FranJclin  County. 

township,  which  was  called  after  General  Nathaniel  Greene,  of  the 
revolutionary  army.  There  is  one  hotel,  two  churches  and  two 
stores  in  the  place,  and  the  population  numbers  three  hundred 

Greenwood  (P.  O.,  Black's  Gap)  is  situated  in  Greene  township, 
on  the  Chambersburg  aud  Gettysburg  turnpike,  eight  miles  east  of 
Chambersburg,  at  the  entrance  of  Black's  Gap,  in  the  South  moun- 
tain. Settlemv^nts  were  made  in  the  neighborhood  at  a  very  early 
day.  The  Black's  Gap  road  was  laid  out  in  1750,  and  was  made  by 
Robert  Black,  the  great-grandfather  of  Robert  Black,  Esq.,  of  Green- 
wood. Conrad  Brown  made  the  first  improvement  at  this  point 
about  the  year  1814. 

Jackson  Hall  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  Guilford  township,  on  the 
road  leading  from  Chambersburg  to  Mount  Hope  and  Waynesboro, 
five  miles  distant  from  the  former  place.  It  was  commenced  by 
Jacob  Snyder,  in  the  year  1812.  It  is  called  after  President  Jackson, 
and  contains  one  store  and  about  twenty-eight  inhabitants. 

Lennhervtlle  is  situated  on  the  Warm  Spring  road,  in  Hamil- 
ton township,  just  south  of  CashtoVn,  of  which  it  may  be  consid- 
ered as  a  part.  It  was  started  by  and  named  after  Henry  Lennher, 
who  resides  and  keeps  a  store  there. 

Loudon  iP.  O.)  is  situated  on  the  Chambersburg  and  Bedford 
turnpike,  in  Peters  township,  near  the  base  of  the  Cove  mountain, 
fourteen  miles  west  of  Chambersburg.  It  is  a  very  old  place,  and 
was  the  scene  of  many  a  stirring  incident  in  old  Colonial  times.  It 
is  mentioned  in  history  as  "Loudon  town,"  as  early  as  1756.  In 
that  year  "Fort  Loudon"  was  built  by  the  Colonial  government, 
for  the  protection  of  the  frontier  settlers  against  the  incursions  of  the 
Indians.  It  stood  about  a  mile  south-east  of  the  pres-nt  town,  and 
was  frequently  garrisoned  by  British  and  Provincial  troops.  Before 
the  making  of  wagon  roads  over  the  mountains  it  was  a  great  point 
of  departure  for  pack-horse  trains  for  Bedford,  Fort  Cumberland 
and  Pittsburg.  The  present  town  was  laid  out  by  Johnston  Elliott, 
in  the  year  1804.  For  half  a  century,  and  particularly  from  the 
completion  of  the  Pittsburg  turnpike,  in  the  year  1819,  it  was  a 
great  place  for  the  manufacture  of  wagong^  wagon  gears  and  whips; 
but  after  the  opening  of  the  Pennsylvania  railroad  to  the  Ohio  its 
business  rapidly  fell  away.  It  now  has  one  hotel,  two  graded 
schools  and  three  churches,  and  a  population  of  three  hundred  and 
fifty.  The  Southern  Pennsylvania  railroad  passes  bj'  the  town,  and 
affords  the  citizens  much  greater  facilities  for  all  purposes  than  they 
formerly  had. 

Mainsville  (formerly  Smoketown)  is  situated  in  Southampton 
townshi]),  on  the  road  leading  from  Shippensburg  to  the  old  South- 
ampton iron  works,  and  about  two  miles  south  of  the  former  town. 
It  was  laid  out  by  Wm.  Mains,  Esq.,  about  ten  years  ago,  and  con- 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  147 

tains  a  church,  store  and  blacksmith  shop,  and  a  population  of  about 
forty  pei'sons. 

Marion  (P.  O.j  is  situated  in  Guilford  township,  on  the  great 
road  from  Chambersburg  to  Greencastle,  six  miles  south  of  the 
former  place.  Settlements  were  made  in  tlie  neighborhood  as  early 
as  1748,  and  a  tavern  was  kept  near  the  south  end  of  the  town  long 
years  ago.  The  village  was  commenced  about  the  year  1810.  It 
was  first  called  Independence ;  but  when  a  post  office  was  estab- 
lished there,  it  was  called  Marion,  no  doubt  after  General  Francis 
Marion,  the  "Swamp  Fox  of  the  Carolinas,"  so  dreaded  by  the 
British  and  Tories  of  the  South  in  revolutionary  days.  The  first 
store  opened  in  the  place  was  in  the  year  1822,  by  Major  Cook.  The 
jsresent  i^opulation  is  one  hundred  and  twenty-three. 

Marion  Station  is  situated  in  Guilford  township,  on  the  Cum- 
berland Valley  railroad,  six  miles  south  of  Chambersburg,  and  about 
halfamileeast  of  the  town  of  Marion.  A  new  village  isspringing  up 
there.  A  warehouse  now  owned  and  conducted  by  Diehl  &  Co.,  was 
built  there  in  the  year  1862,  since  which  seven  or  eigiit  new  and  ele- 
gant dwellings  have  been  put  up,  a  German  Reformed  church  is  also 
being  built,  and  Andrew  A.  Statler  is  building  a  large  dwelling  and 
store  near  the  station,  on  land  purchased  from  Jacob  Myers,  at  the 
rate  of  $900  per  acre.  A  sale  of  lots  has  also  recently  been  had,  and 
a  number  of  dwelling  houses  are  now  under  contract.  It  is  a  very 
desirable  point  for  a  private  residence. 

Mason  and  Dixon  (P.  O.)  is  situated  on  the  Cumberland  Valley 
railroad,  in  Antrim  township,  immediately  at  the  State  line,  wliere 
tlie  public  road  from  Middleburg  to  Welsh  Run  crosses  the  railroad. 
There  are  a  warehouse,  a  store  and  several  dwellings  at  this  point. 
Population  about  thirty  persons. 

Mercersburg  (P.  O.)  is  situated  on  the  Waynesburg,  Greencastle 
and  Mercersburg  turnijike,  at  the  nortliern  line  of  Montgomery 
township.  Much  the  larger  part  of  the  town  is  in  Montgomery 
township,  and  a  small  part  of  it  is  in  Peters  township.  It  is  a  very 
old  settlement.  Locations  were  made  in  the  neigliborhood  as  early 
as  1730,  and  it  is  stated  that  a  man  named  James  Black,  built  a  mill 
at  or  near  where  the  town  now  stands,  about  the  year  1730.  His 
improvement  was  at  first  called  "Black's  town."  The  settlers 
around  were  nearly  all  Scotch-Irish,  and  by  the  year  1738  a  Presby- 
terian church  was  organized  under  tlie  name  of  "The  West  Conoco- 
cheague  Church."  Subsequently  William  Smith  bought  out  Mr. 
Black  ;  the  date  of  that  purchase  I  have  not  been  able  to  ascer- 
tain, but  it  was  as  early  as  1750.  The  property  subsequently  passed 
into  the  hands  of  William  Smith,  Jr.,  a  son  of  William  Smith,  by 
inheritance  from  his  father,  and  was  known  during  the  troublesome 
times  from  1750  to  1764  as  "Squire  Smith's  town,"  the  proprietor, 
William  Smith,  then  being  one  of  the  Justices  of  the  Peace  for  Cum- 

148  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Coanty. 

iDerland  county.  An  extensive  trade  was  carried  on  witli  the  Indians 
and  first  settlers  on  tlie  western  frontiers  from  tliis  point  during 
tbose  years.  It  was  notliing  uncommon  to  see  from  fifty  to  one 
liundred  i:)ack  horses  there  at  one  time,  loaded  with  merchandise, 
salt,  iron,  and  other  commodities  ready  to  be  transported  over  the 
mountains  to  tlie  Monongaliela  country.  As  is  usual  in  frontier  set- 
tlements, there  were  many  unruly  spirits  to  be  found  about  the 
place,  and  on  more  than  one  occasion  Ihey  became  participants  in 
riotous  and  illegal  proceedings  that  led  to  trouble  with  the  Colonial 
authorities,  and  with  the  British  troops  stationed  at  Fort  Loudon. 

The  town  was  laid  out  in  1780  by  William  Smith,  Jr.,  the  lots 
being  sulijeet  to  an  annual  quit  rent  of  ten  shillings.  He  called  it 
Mercersburg,  in  honor  of  General  Hugh  Mercer,  of  the  revolutionary 
army,  who  fell  mortally  wounded  at  the  battle  of  Princeton,  Janu- 
ary 3,  1777,  and  died  a  few  days  afterwards.  General  Mercer  was 
an  eminent  physician,  and  resided  for  a  number  of  years  in  the 
neighboi'hood  of  Davis'  Fort,  south  of  Mercersburg,  near  the  Mary- 
land line,  where  he  practiced  his  profession. 

Having  enjoyed  some  military  training  and  experience  in  Europe, 
and  having  a  taste  for  military  life,  he  was  early  in  1756  appointed  a 
captain  in  the  Provincial  service,  in  which  he  continued  for  some 
years,  rising  to  the  rank  of  colonel.  On  the  13th  of  July,  1757,  he  was 
appointed  and  commissioned  by  the  Supreme  Executive  Council,  one 
of  the  Justices  of  the  Peace  for  Cumberland  county.  He  was  inti- 
mately acquainted  with  General  Washington,  who  had  a  high  re- 
gard for  him,  and  upon  the  breaking  out  of  the  revolutionary  war, 
Congress,  in  1776,  upon  the  recommendation  of  General  Washington, 
who  had  served  with  him  in  Forbes'  campaign  in  1758,  appointed 
Dr.  Mercer  a  brigadier  in  the  army  of  the  United  States.  Whilst 
the  army  was  encamped  near  New  Brunswick,  New  Jersey,  General 
Mercer  had  shown  great  kindness  to  the  father  of  Mr.  Smith,  or  to 
Mr.  William  Smith  himself,  it  is  not  known  which,  but  in  remem- 
brance of  that  kindness,  Mr.  Smith  named  his  new  town  Mercers- 

The  town  now  contains  seven  churches,  viz. :  one  Presbyterian, 
one  United  Presbyterian,  (formerly  Associated  Presbyterian),  one 
Eeformed,  one  Lutheran,  one  Methodist  Episcopal,  one  United 
Brethren  and  one  Bethel.  Mercersburg  College,  under  the  care  of  the 
Reformed  church,  is  located  there,  the  President  of  which  is  Rev.  E. 
E.  Higbee,  D.  D.  There  is  also  a  Female  Seminary  there,  under  the 
care  of  Rev.  Jacob  Hassler.  "The  Farmers'  Bank  of  Mercersburg" 
was  established  in  1874,  Mr.  George  Steiger  is  its  President,  and 
William  M.  Marshall,  Esq.,  its  Cashier.  Fairview  Cemetery  was 
laid  out  in  1866.  The  population  of  the  town  at  the  present  time  is 
about  twelve  hundred. 

MiDDLEBURG  (P.  O.,  STATE  Line)  is  situated  in  Antrim  township, 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  149 

immediately  at  the  Maryland  State  line,  on  the  great  road  leading 
from  Greeneastle  to  Hagerstown,  Maryland.  It  was  laid  out  by 
Jacob  Strictcler,  about  the  year  1812,  and  takes  its  name  from  the 
fact  of  its  location  midway  between  the  towns  named.  The  town  is 
regularly  laid  out,  and  at  present  has  two  churches,  one  Reformed 
and  one  United  Brethren,  two  stores  and  a  town  hall  in  it.  The 
population  is  about  two  hundred. 

The  town  was  originally  called  "  Spiglersburg."  A  man  named 
Jack  Wolgamot,  built  the  first  house  in  the  place.  He  was  a  reckless, 
rollicking  fellow,  and  often  had  the  constables  after  him,  with  a 
warrant  for  his  arrest  for  the  non  payment  of  his  debts,  contracted  in 
Marylaudand  in  Pennsylvania.  For  the  purpose  of  escapingthe  offi- 
cers of  the  law,  he  built  his  house,  which  is  still  standing,  across 
the  State  line,  as  lie  thought,  one-half  in  Marj^land,  and  the  other 
half  in  Pennsylvania,  so  that  when  an  officer  came  all  he  had  to  do 
to  put  him  at  defiance  was  to  slip  across  the  line  into  the  other  State, 
take  his  seat  and  laugh  at  the  baffied  officer.  He,  however,  made  a 
mistake  as  to  the  true  location  of  the  State  line,  and  built  all  of  the 
house  in  the  State  of  Maryland,  except  the  chimney,  which  is  in 
Pennsylvania.  But  as  this  error  was  not  discovered  for  many  years 
after  the  house  was  put  up,  his  ruse  served  his  purposes  on  manj^  an 
occasion,  when  he  did  not  wish  to  have  the  company  of  those  officers 
who  had  warrants  against  him. 

Mont  Alto  (P.  O).    See  Funkstown. 

Mount  Hope  (P.  O.  name  Five  Forks)  is  a  small  village  situated 
in  Quincy  township,  on  the  road  from  Chambersburg  to  Waynes- 
boro, four  miles  north-west  of  the  latter  place.  There  is  a  store, 
grist  mill,  and  a  blacksmith  shop,  and  a  population  of  about  eighty 
persons  in  the  place. 

MowERSViLLE  (P.  O.)  is  a  small  village  in  Lurgan  township, 
about  three  and  a  half  miles  east  of  Roxbury.  It  was  started  by  Jo- 
seph Mowers,  Esq.,  fifteen  or  more  years  ago,  and  contains  a  store, 
blacksmith  shop,  carriage  manufactory,  &c.,  with  a  population  of 
about  forty  persons. 

New  Franklin  is  situated  in  Guilforji  township,  on  the  road 
leading  from  Chambersburg  to  Waynesboro,  four  miles  south-east  of 
the  former  place.  It  was  commenced  by  Balthazar  Kountz,  in  1795, 
and  John  Himes,  Sr.,  built  the  next  house  in  1827.  It  now  contains 
one  store  and  seventy-seven  inhabitants. 

New  Guilford  is  situated  in  Guilford  township,  three  miles  east 
of  New  Franklin.     It  contains  a  population  of  about  sixty  persons. 

Orrstown  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  Southampton  township,  on  the  old 
State  road  from  Shippensburg  to  Strasburg,  five  miles  west  of  the 
former  place.  Settlements  were  made  in  that  neighborhood  as  early 
as  the  year  1738,  and  for  many  years  prior  to  the  completion  of  the 
Pennsylvania  railroad,  down  to  within  a  very  few  years  past,  a  very 

1 50  Historical  Sketch  of  FrankUn  County. 

large  number  of  horses  and  cattle  were  annually  passed  along  the 
State  road  from  the  great  west  to  the  markets  of  the  east.  The 
town,  which  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  in  the  county,  was  laid  out 
in  1833,  by  John  and  William  Orr.  They  called  it  at  first  South- 
ampton, after  the  township ;  but  in  183-5,  when  application  was  made 
for  a  post  otfice  to  be  called  Southampton,  the  Post  Office  Depart- 
ment refused  the  grant  for  the  reason  that  there  was  already  an 
office  of  that  name.  Hon.  George  Chambers,  who  was  then  in  Con- 
gress, named  the  office  ''Orrstown,"  and  the  name  has  since  attached 
to  the  town.  It  was  incorporated  as  a  borough  in  the  year  1847,  and 
now  contains  one  hotel,  two  stores,  one  carriage  factory,  and  four 
churches,  viz. :  one  Lutheran,  one  Presbyterian,  one  United  Breth- 
ren, and  one  Winebrennarian.  The  poj^ulation  is  thi-ee  hundred 
and  twenty-five, 

PiKESViLi.E.     See  Rouzersville. 

Pleasant  Hall  is  situated  in  Letterkenny  township,  on  the  old 
State  road,  about  two  and  a  half  miles  east  of  Strasburg.  It  was 
laid  out  by  Joseph  Burkhart  about  the  year  1840.  It  contains  one 
store,  one  wagon-maker's  shop  and  a  blacksmith  shoj^,  and  several 
dwellings.     The  population  is  about  thirty  pers<ms. 

QuI^'CY  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  Quincy  township,  about  four  miles 
directly  north  of  Waynesboro,  on  the  road  leading  to  Fayetteville. 
Many  of  the  earlier  settlers  in  this  section  of  our  county  were  Ger- 
mans, as  is  shown  by  their  family  names.  As  it  had  been  the 
policj'  and  practice  of  the  agents  of  the  proprietaries,  in  the  early 
years  of  the  past  century,  to  send  the  German  emigrants  into  York 
county,  (which  then  included  what  is  now  Adams  county),  it  is 
very  likely  that  many  of  those  Germans  came  over  the  mountains, 
from  York  county,  and  settled  down  in  the  eastern  part  of  our 
county,  instead  of  coming  up  through  Lancaster  county  by 
way  of  Harris'  Ferry,  (now  Harrisburg),  as  all  the  other  early 
settlers  of  the  Cumberland  Valley  did.  They  made  settlements  in 
what  is  now  Quincy  township  as  early  as  1737,  and  many  of  their 
descendants  are  to  be  found  there  yet, 

Richmond  (P.  O.,  "Richmond  Furnace")  is  situated  in  Metiil 
township,  at  the  termination  of  the  Southern  Pennsj-Ivania  Rail- 
road and  Iron  Comi>any's  railway,  four  miles  north  of  Loudon. 
The  locality  was  formerly  better  known  as  "Mount  Pleasant  Fur- 
nace," the  oldest  furnace  in  the  county.  The  furnace  has  been  re- 
built by  the  present  owners,  and  it  and  the  village  is  now  called 
"Richmond,"  after  Richmond  L.  Jones,  who  was  president  of  the 
lompany  at  the  time  their  railroad  was  built.  There  is  a  large 
warehouse,  a  store,  a  number  of  dwellings,  and  a  i)opulation  of 
about  si.xty  persons  in  the  place. 

Rou/EKSviLLE  (P.  O.)  or  PiKESViLLE  is  a  Small  village  in  Wash- 
ington township,  on  the  turnpike  leading  from  Waynesboro  to  Em- 

Bistorical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Coimty.  151 

mittsburg,  Maryland,  three  miles  east  of  Waynesboro.  It  contains 
a  churcli  and  store,  and  a  population  of  about  thirty  persons. 

RoxBUBY  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  Lurgan  townsliip,  upon  the  banks 
of  the  Conodoguinet  creek,  at  the  base  of  the  Kitatiuny  mountains. 
It  was  commenced  by  William  Leephar,  about  the  year  1778.  He 
built  a  grist  mill  about  the  year  178.3.  "Sound-well  Forge"  was 
built  at  Roxbury  by  Leephar,  Crotzer  &  Co.,  in  1798,  and  "  Roxbury 
Furnace"  by  Samuel  Cole,  in  the  year  1815.  The  Hughes'  ran  these 
works  at  one  time,  and  the  last  persons  who  carried  them  on  were 
Messrs.  Fleming  &  Sheffler,  in  1857.  In  the  old  "pack  horse  "  times 
there  was  a  considerable  amount  of  business  done  at  Roxbury.  For 
many  years  past,  however,  the  tpwn  has  not  improved  much.  There 
are  two  churches  in  the  place — the  "  Union  church,"  built  in  1815, 
and  the  "Methodist  Protestant,"  built  in  1873.  Population  about 
two  hundred. 

St.  Thomas  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  St.  Thomas  township,  on  the 
Chamliersburg  and  Bedford  turnpike,  eight  miles  west  of  Cham- 
bersburg.  Settlements  were  made  in  the  neighborhood  of  where 
the  town  stands  as  early  as  1737.  Thotnas  Campbell  laid  out  the 
town  about  the  year  179(1,  and  for  many  years  afterwards  it  was 
known  by  the  name  of  "Campbellstown."  It  is  only,  however,  with- 
in the  past  thirty  or  thirty-tive  years  that  the  toivn  began  to  be  gen- 
erally called  "St.  Thomas."  Within  the  recollection  of  the  writer  it 
was  frequently  called  by  its  old  name — "  Campbellstown."  There  are 
two  hotels,  three  stores  and  two  groceries  in  the  town.  There  are 
ahso  four  church  edifices,  occupied  by  five  denominations,  viz. :  one 
Reformed,  one  Methodist,  one  Brethren,  and  one  used  by  the  Pres- 
byterians and  Lutherans  jointly.  The  population  numbers  about 
four  hundred. 

Scotland  (P.  O.)  is  situated  on  the  Conococheague  creek,  in 
Greene  township,  about  five  miles  north-east  of  Chambersburg,  and 
a  short  distance  south  of  Scotland  station,  on  the  Cumberland  Val- 
ley railroad.  It  contains  two  churches,  (one  Covenanter  and  one 
United  Brethren),  three  stores,  a  grist  and  saw  mill,  a  planing  mill, 
and  a  population  of  about  two  hundred  and  twenty-five  persons. 

Shady  Grove  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  Antrim  township,  on  the 
Waynesburg,  Greencastle  and  Mercersburg  turnpike,  two  miles  east 
of  Greencastle.  A  warrant  for  the  land  on  which  it  stands  was 
granted  to  Thomas  Minnock  in  1752.  The  town  was  started  by 
Melchi  Snively,  Esq.,  in  1848.  There  are  now  one  store,  twenty- 
four  dwellings  and  one  hundred  and  twenty  inhabitants  in  the  place, 

Shimpstown  is  a  small  village  situated  in  Montgomery  township, 
three  miles  south  of  Mercersburg,  on  the  road  to  Clay  Lick.  Popu- 
lation about  fifty  persons. 

Smoketown  is  a  small  village  situated  in  Greene  townshi]),  one 

152  HMorical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

and  a  half  miles  south-east  of  Scotlaud.     It  contains  a  population  of 
about  seventy-five  persons. 

Snow  Hill,  or  Schneeberg,  is  situated  on  Antietam  creek,  in 
Quincy  township,  one  mile  south  of  Quincy.  Since  the  decline  of 
Ephrata,  in  Lancaster  county,  it  is  the  principal  in'stitLtion  of  the 
German  Seventh-day  Baptists  of  the  United  States.  The  society 
have  a  farm  of  about  one  hundred  and  thirty  acres,  with  a  grist  mill 
upon  it.  They  have  also  a  large  brick  building,  for  the  brothers  and 
sisters,  two  stories  high  and  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  long. 
They  have  also  a  church  in  which  worship  is  held  weekly,  every 
Saturday.  Their  annual  religious  meetings  are  held  here.  Their 
whole  property  is  worth  about  twenty-five  thousand  dollars.  There 
are  only  about  eight  male,  and  seven  female  members  remaining 
vipon  the  premises — all  old  people — and  as  there  are  no  accessions  to 
their  numbers,  the  society  must  soon  become  extinct. 

Spring  Run  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  Fannett  township,  on  the  main 
road  through  Path  Valley,  six  miles  north  of  Fannettsburg.  There 
are  two  churches,  one  Presbyterian  and  one  United  Brethren,  two 
stores,  one  tannery,  and  several  shops,  and  a  population  of  about 
fifty  persons. 

Springtown  is  a  small  village,  chiefly  of  farm  houses,  situated  in 
Metal  township,  one  mile  north  of  Fannettsburg.  A  small  fort  or 
block-house  stood  here  during  the  troublous  times  of  1750-1764,  to 
which  the  settlers  in  the  neighborhood  frequently  fled  for  refuge 
during  the  incursions  of  the  hostile  Indians.  Population  about 
twenty  persons. 

Stoufferstown  is  situated  in  Guilford  township,  one  and  one- 
fourth  miles  east  of  Chambersburg,  on  the  Chambersburg  and  Get- 
tysburg turnpike.  The  oldest  house  in  the  place  was  built  by  Pat- 
rick Vance,  about  1773.  Daniel  StouflTer  built  the  "  Falling  Spring 
Mill,"  or  "StoafTer's  Mill,"  about  1792,  and  the  village  has  grown 
up  around  it  during  the  last  twenty-five  or  thirty  years.  The  popu- 
lation is  now  about  two  hundred. 

Strasburg  (P.  O.,  Upper  Strasburg)  is  situated  in  Letterkenny 
township,  on  the  old  State  road  leading  from  Shippensburg  to  Fan- 
nettsburg, near  the  base  of  the  Kittochtinny  mountains.  It  was 
laid  out  by  Dewalt  Keefer,  in  the  fall  of  1789,  and  was  called  after 
the  city  of  Strasburg,  in  Germany.  After  the  completion  of  the 
Three  Mountain  road  it  became  quite  a  business  place,  and  so  long 
as  transportation  was  done  by  the  old-fashioned  "Conestoga  wagon," 
and  horses  and  cattle  were  brought  from  the  west  to  the  east  in 
droves,  Strasburg,  because  of  the  absence  of  all  tolls  on  the  road, 
and  because  an  abundant  supply  of  feed  was  to  be  had  at  low  rates, 
was  able  to  hold  its  own,  but  all  improvement  was  at  an  end.  It 
has  three  churches— one  used  by  the  Lutheran  and  Reformed  con- 
gregations, one  Methodist  and  one  United  Brethren,  in  which  the 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franldin  County.  153 

Presbyterians  worship  at  stated  times.  It  has  also  one  hotel,  one 
steam  tannery,  one  saw  mill,  two  stores,  two  blacksmitli,  two  shoe- 
maker, two  cabinet-maker,  one  tailor  and  one  saddler  shops,  and 
two  hundred  und  ninety-three  inhabitants. 

ToMSTowN  is  situated  in  Quincy  township,  at  the  base  of  the  South 
mountain,  one  mile  south-east  of  Quiucy.  It  was  started  hy  a  man 
named  John  Toms,  sixty  yr-ars  ago  or  more.  It  contains  one  store, 
and  twenty-five  or  thirty  houses.     Population  about  two  hundred. 

Upton  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  Peters  township,  on  the  Greencastle 
and  Mercersburg  turnpike,  four  miles  west  of  the  former  place. 
The  first  improvement  was  made  by  Alexander  White,  where  the 
hotel  is  now  kept,  in  the  year  1812.  The  town  was  commenced  by 
George  Cook,  in  the  year  1840,  but  the  greater  portion  of  it  has  been 
built  since  1860.  The  post  office  was  established  in  1836,  and  the 
name  "Jacksonville"  was  selected  for  it,  but  disapproved  by  the 
Post  Office  Department,  as  there  was  already  an  office  of  the  same 
name.  At  the  suggestion  of  Miss  Elizabeth  Watson,  of  Greencastle, 
the  name  of  "Upton"  was  taken  for  the  office,  which  has  also 
attached  to  the  village.  There  are  one  store  and  hotel,  and  several 
shops  in  the  place.     Population  about  one  hundred  and  eighty. 

Waterloo  is  a  small  village  situated  in  Washington  township, 
near  the  turnpike  leading  from  Waynesboro  to  Emmittsburg,  Ma- 
ryland. It  is  a  short  distance  south  of  Pikesville,  or  Rouzersville, 
of  which  it  may  be  considered  as  forming  a  part. 

Waynesboro  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  Washington  township,  on  the 
line  of  the  turnpike  road  from  M'Connellsburg  to  Baltimore.  It  is 
one  of  the  most  beautiful  and  flourisliing  towns  in  our  county.  The 
land  upon  which  the  town  stands  was  taken  up  by  John  Wallace, 
Sr.,  in  1749.  A  settlement  gradually  grew  up,  in  after  years,  at  the 
point  where  the  town  now  stands,  and  Wiis  called  "  Wallacetown." 
In  the  year  1797,  John  W^allace,  Jr.,  formally  laid  out  the  present 
town,  and  called  it  "  Waynesburg,"  in  honor  of  General  Anthony 
Wayne — "Mad  Anthony" — of  the  revolutionary  army.  The  price 
of  lots  on  "  Main  street "  was  fixed  at  five  i^ounds  specie,  and  on  the 
cross  streets  at  six  pounds,  with  an  annual  quit  rent  of  one  dollar  on 
each  of  them.  The  land  around  Waynesboro  is  among  the  most 
fertile  and  valuable  in  our  valley.  On  the  21st  December,  1818,  the 
town  was  incorjDorated  into  a  borough,  by  the  name  of  "Waynes- 
boro." There  are  two  hotels,  two  drug  stores,  four  dry  goods  stores, 
four  hardware  stores,  and  eight  churches  in  the  town,  viz.:  the 
Trinity  Reformed,  St.  Paul's  Reformed,  Lutlieran,  Methodist  Epis- 
copal, Presbyterian,  German  Baptist  orDunker,  Reformed  Mennon- 
ite  and  Catholic.  There  are  also  a  town  hall,  a  Grangers'  hall  and 
an  Odd  Fellows'  hall,  and  three  large  manufacturing  establislunenis 
in  the  place,  viz. :  "The  Geiser  Manufacturing  Company,"  makers 
of  grain  threshers,  reapers,  mowers,  &c.  ;  "Frick  &  Co.,"  steam  en- 

154  Hiiitorical  Sketch  of  Fi-anklin  County. 

gine  and  boiler  works,  and  "  George  F.  Lidy  &  Co.,"  lumber  manu- 
facturers. John  Bell  has  also  for  years  carried  on  a  large  pottery  at 
this  point.     The  populatiou  of  the  town  is  about  fifteen  hundred. 

Welsh  Run  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  Montgomery  township,  on  the 
road  leading  from  Mercersburg  to  Hagerstown,  Maryland,  six  miles 
from  the  former  place.  David  Davis,  an  emigrant  from  Wales, 
purchased  a  large  tract  of  land  along  the  stream  near  by,  between 
the  years  1736  and  1740,  and  being  joined  by  a  number  of  others 
from  his  native  land,  the  settlement  received  the  name  of  "  Welsh 
Run."  The  village  now  contains  one  store,  one  tannery,  one  black- 
smJthshop,  one  wagon-maker  shop,  one  physician's  otiice  and  one 
hundred  and  fifty  inhabitants.  "  Kennedy  Academy,"  (Rev.  J.  H. 
Fleming,  principal),  is  situated  here,  as  is  also  the  "Robert  Ken- 
nedy Memorial  Presbyterian  Church." 

Williamson  (P.  O.)  is  situated  in  8t.  Thomas  township,  on  the 
line  of  the  Southern  Pennsylvania  railroad,  five  miles  south-west  of 
Marion.  It  was  commenced  about  the  year  1870,  by  Samuel  Z. 
Hawbaker,  who  then  owned  the  land  around,  and  who  built  the 
principal  buildings  in  the  ))lace.  There  is  a  store,  a  grist  and  saw 
mill,  and  about  fifty  inhabitants  in  the  place. 

Willow  Grovk  is  situated  in  Guilford  township,  on  the  Spring 
road,  about  three  miles  south-east  of  Charabersburg.  It  was  started 
by  John  BtouflTer,  about  the  year  1850,  and  contains  one  grist  mill, 
one  straw  paper  mill,  and  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  inhabitants. 


In  the  olden  time,  as  appears  hy  the  Colonial  Records  and  Penn- 
sylvania Archives,  there  existed  an  officer  called  the  "County  Lieu- 
tenant," who  figured  prominently  in  all  the  military  affairs  of  the 
State.  He  was  appointed  by  the  Supreme  Executive  Council,  and 
held  his  office  at  the  pleasure  of  that  body.  The  office  was  some- 
what like  that  of  a  Brigade  Inspector,  but  the  powers  of  the  incum- 
bent were  greatly  larger  than  those  of  this  latter  named  officer,  and 
his  duties  much  more  diversified.  By  the  act  of  17th  March,  1777, 
(now  obsolete),  it  was  provided  that  "the  President  in  Council,  or 
in  his  absence  the  Vice  President,  should  appoint  and  commission 
one  reputable  freeholder  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  and  one  in  each 
•county,  to  serve  as  lieutenants  of  the  militia;  and  also  any  number 
of  jier.-^ons,  not  exceeding  two  for  said  city,  and  in  the  several  coun- 
ties any  number  not  exceeding  the  number  of  battalions,  to  serve  as 
sw6-lieutenants,  who  were  severalh'  to  have  such  rank  as  the  Presi- 
dent or  Vice  President  might  confer  upon  them.  In  the  absence  of 
the  County  Lieutenant,  any  two  of  the  sub-lieutetiants  had  power 
to  perform  all  liis  duties. 


Ov^nfT^X-^  -<-• 




Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  155 

By  the  act  of  tlie  20th  of  March,  17S0,  now  also  obsolete,  tliey  were 
each  required  to  give  bond,  with  good  securities,  in  the  sum  of 
twenty  thousand  pounds.  They  were  to  divide  the  several  counties 
into  militia  districts,  to  contain  not  less  than  four  hundred  and 
forty,  nor  more  than  one  thousand  militia-men  ;  cause  the  said 
militia  to  be  enrolled;  divide  each  district  into  eight  parts,  or  compa- 
nies ;  fix  the  time  for  holding  elections  for  oflftcers— one  captain,  one 
lieutenant  and  one  ensign,  for  each  company,  and  one  lieutenant 
colonel  and  one  major  for  each  battalion  of  eight  companies.  They 
were  required  to  collect  the  militia  fines,  through  the  sub-lieuten- 
ants, who  were  to  settle  every  three  months,  whilst  the  lieutenants 
were  required  to  settle  every  six  months,  or  forfeit  the  sum  of  ten 
thousand  pounds.  The  fine  of  an  officer  for  non-attendance  at  com- 
pany exercise  was  the  \)rice  of  three  days'  labor,  and  the  fine  of  non- 
commissioned officers  and  privates  for  such  absence  was  the  price  of 
one  and  a-half  days'  labor.  At  battalion  trainings  the  fine  of  a  field 
officer  for  non-attendance  was  the  price  of  eight  days'  labor,  and 
other  commissioned  officers  four  days  labor,  and  privates  two  days 
labor.  All  fines  were  collected  under  warrants  from  the  County 
Lieutenant  by  sale  of  all  the  goods  of  the  delinquent^  or  hy  impris- 
onment iu  jail  for  ten  days  for  each  fine. 

The  county  lieutenants  bought  the  arms  for  the  militia— had 
them  marked  with  the  name  of  the  county,  battalion  and  company, 
and  appraised  all  private  arras  and  horses  that  went  into  service — 
paid  for  those  arms  that  were  lost  or  horses  that  were  killed.  When 
the  militia  were  called  out  into  service  they  gave  them  notice  of  the 
time  and  place  of  assembling,  held  and  heard  appeals,  and  granted 
relief,  forwarded  the  troops  called  out  to  their  points  of  destination, 
providing  in  the  meanwhile  for  their  support. 

The  county  lieutenants  were  the  representatives  of  the  State  gov- 
ernment in  military  matters  in  the  several  counties,  and  had  very 
arduous  and  important  duties  to  perform  in  the  troublous  times  of 
the  revolution.  To  them  the  Supreme  Executive  Council  issued 
their  orders  direct,  and  they  enforced  them  through  their  subordi- 
nates— the  sub-lieutenants— one  of  whom  was  attached  to  each  bat- 

The  pay  of  the  county  lieutenants  vvas  the  value  of  one  and  a  half 
bushels  of  wheat  per  day,  and  the  pay  of  the  sub-lieutenants,  the 
value  of  one  and  a  quarter  bushels  of  wheat  per  day,  to  be  paid 
out  of  the  militia  fines  collected.  On  the  7th  of  April,  1785,  Colonel 
Abraham  Smith,  of  Antrim  townsliip,  was  ap^jointed  lieutenant  of 
our  county,  and  served  until  after  his  election  as  councillor,  when 
he  resigned  on  the  2Sth  November,  1787.  On  the  1st  December,  1787, 
Major  Jeremiah  Talbott  was  appointed  lieutenant  for  this  county, 
and  served  until  the  abolition  of  the  office  under  the  constitution  of 
1 789-' 90. 

156  Historical  Sketch  of  FranJdin  County. 


Tlie  year  1859  has  become  celebrated  in  the  annals  of  our  country, 
because  of  the  anti-slavery  raid  then  made  by  John  Brown  and  his 
followers  into  the  ancient  Commonwealth  of  Virginia  against  human 
slavery.  The  exciting,  and  oft-times  bloody,  struggles  which  took 
place  in  Kansas,  between  the  advocates  of  slavery,  and  the  free-state 
men  of  the  nation,  whilst  that  region  of  country  was  being  settled 
uj),  have  become  historical.  John  Brown  wtis  amongst  the  most 
active  and  ardent  of  the  free-state  men  of  Kansas,  and  owes  his  cog- 
nomen of  "Ossawatomie  Brown,"  to  his  participation  in  one  of  the 
fearful  fights  that  took  place  there.  So  utterly  hostile  was  h^  to 
every  thing  that  in  any  way  gave  sanction  to  human  slavery,  that 
he  became  disgusted  even  with  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States, 
and  in  the  month  of  May,  1858,  was  one  of  a  band  of  about  fifty 
ultra  anti-slavery  men  who  assembled  at  Chatham,  Canada  West, 
and  made  a  new  constitution  of  forty-eight  articles,  and  a  schedule 
"for  the  proscribed  and  oppressed  people  of  the  United  States." 
That  convention,  on  the  8th  day  of  May,  1858,  unanimously  elected 
John  Brown  commander-in-chief  of  all  the  forces  that  might  be 
called  into  the  field  under  their  constitution.  At  the  same  time  J. 
H.  Kagi  was  elected  Secretary  of  War;  Eichard  Realf,  Secretary  of 
State;  George  B.  Gill,  Secretary  of  the  Treasury;  Owen  Brown, 
Treasurer;  and  Alfred  M.  Ellsworth  and  Osborne  Anderson  mem- 
bers of  Congress. 

From  that  time  forward  the  energies  of  John  Brown  were  devoted 
to  the  making  of  preparations  for  the  destruction  of  slavery.  Money 
was  collectedLaind  men  were  enlisted,  both  in  the  east  and  the  west. 
John  Brown  an<l  two  of  his  sons,  under  the  name  of  Smith,  visited 
Virginia  at  various  times  between  May,  1858,  and  June  or  July,  1859, 
and  Harper's  Ferry  was  finally  selected  as  the  point  for  commencing 
operations.  The  money  collected  by  Brown  was  devoted  to  the  pur- 
chase of  arms  and  munitions  of  war,  and  the  payment  of  the 
travelling  expenses  of  those  "choice  spirits"  whom  he  had  persuaded 
to  join  him  in  his  enterprise,  who  were  instructed  to  come  to  Cham- 
bersburg  in  twos  and  threes,  and  there  quietly  take  boarding,  so  as 
not  to  attract  attention  to  their  movements.  Of  course  all  this  was 
done  silently  and  secretly,  no  person  but  Brown  and  his  followers 
knowing  tvho  they  were,  ivhere  they  came  from,  nor  what  was  their 
purpose  in  coming  to  Chamberaburg. 

I.  Smith,  alias  John  Brown,  was  first  seen  at  Chambersburg 
about  June  or  July,  1859.  He  was  accompanied  by  one  or, two  of 
his  sons.  They  got  boarding  for  awhile  at  one  of  our  hotels,  and 
afterwards  in  a  private  family  in  one  of  the  back  streets  of  the  town, 
and  i)rofessed  to  be  engaged  prospecting  for  minerals  in  the  moun- 
tains of  Maryland  and  Virginia,  skirting  the  Potomac  river.     Their 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Count}).  157 

absences  were  frequent— sometimes  shorter,  sometimes  longer— and 
they  never  spoke  of  where  they  had  been  nor  what  they  had  been 
doing.  Ill  a  short  time,  about  July  or  August,  1859,  a  number  of 
boxes  were  forwarded  here  through  the  commission  liouse  of  Messrs. 
Oalvs  &  Caufman,  consigned  to  /.  Smith  &  Sons.  These  boxes  were 
most  carefully  secured,  so  that  thjeir  contents  could  not  be  seen, 
being  in  many  cases  double  boxes.  They  were  represented  by  the 
Smiths  to  coi\Xi\\n  picks  and  mattocks,  and  other  tools  f>r  mining, 
and  they  were  hauled  away  from  the  warehouse  by  persons  em- 
ployed by  Smith,  who  were  resident  in  sections  of  our  county  remote 
from  Chambersburg.  Smith  (or  Brown)  himself  came  several  times 
with  a  two-horse  wagon  and  took  away  part  of  the  goods  consigned 
to  him,  and  the  purchases  made  here  by  him. 

There  was  nothing  whatever  in  the  conduct  of  Smith,  nor  of  any 
of  those  who  were  with  him  here,  nor,  indeed,  in  the  character  of 
the  freight  he  was  receiving,  to  induce  Messrs.  Oaks  &  Caufman,  or 
any  of  their  emi:)loyes,  to  think  that  he  and  those  with  him  were 
not  what  they  professed  to  be,  nor  that  their  consignments  were  not 
what  they  said  they  were. 

It  is  now  known  that  those  boxes  contained  Sharpe's  rifles  and 
pistols,  carbines,  swords  and  pike  heads,  and  ammunition  suited  to 
the  fire  arms  named  ;  but  then  all  these  things  were  most  carefully 
concealed  from  the  most  prying  and  inquisitive  eyes. 

The  people  of  Chambersburg  were  greatly  censured  because  they 
did  not  find  out  what  these  boxes  really  did  contain,  whilst  they 
were  passing  through  the  warehouses  here,  and  because  they  did 
not  discover  the  objects  and  purposes  of  Brown  in  time  to  have 
prevented  his  useless  and  murderous  raid.  But  Brown  told  no  one 
here  what  he  had  in  view,  and  his  consignments  came  as  any  other 
consignments  did,  and  were  delivered  to  him  by  the  carriers  without 
a  suspicion  in  regard  to  them.  Besides,  Brown,  whilst  here,  openly 
purchased  mattocks  and  picks,  and  other  articles  such  as  he  said 
were  in  his  boxes,  and  such  as  he  would  have  had  need  for  had  his 
business  really  been  such  as  he  stated  it  to  be.  His  every  act  served 
to  pi'event  suspicion,  and  to  make  those  dealing  with  him  believe 
that  he  was  only  what  he  professed  to  be ;  and  when  his  mad  effort 
had  failed,  and  the  truth  became  known  as  to  who  he  was  and  what 
his  purposes  had  been,  none  were  more  surprised  than  were  the 
l^eople  of  Chambersburg.  * 

Shortly  after  Brown  apjDeared  in  the  vicinity  of  Harper's  Ferry, 
under  his  assumed  name  of  I.  Smith,  he  rented  a  small  farm  in 
Maryland,  a  few  miles  from  the  ferr3\  There  he  took  the^oods  he 
received  at  Chambersburg,  thus  gradually  collecting  a  considerable 
quantity  of  arms  and  ammunition,  and  a  body  of  twenty-two  men, 
of  whom  seventeen  were  white  and  five  colored.     The  resolute  and 

Jo8  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

daringeharac'ter  of  Brown  was  well  calculated  to  make  him  a  leader 
in  such  an  enterprise,  and  to  inspire  confidence  in  his  followers. 

His  first  effort  was  made  Sunday  evening,  October  16th,  1859. 
Before  leaving  his  mountain  retreat  to  commence  operations,  he 
made  an  address  to  his  followers,  concluding  thus  :  "  And  now,  gen- 
tlemen, let  me  press  one  thing  on  your  minds.  You  all  l^now  how 
dear  life  is  to  you,  and  how  dear  your  lives  are  to  your  friends ;  and 
in  remembering  that,  consider  that  the  lives  of  others  are  as  dear  to 
them  as  yours  are  to  you.  Do  not,  therefore,  take  the  life  of  any 
one  if  you  can  possibly  avoid  it;  but  if  it  is  necessary  to  take  life  in 
order  to  save  your  own,  then  make  sure  work  of  it." 

To  all  of  those  taken  prisoner  by  Brown,  and  who  inquired  as  to 
the  object  of  the  proceedings,  his  answer  was,  "  To  free  the  sl.aves,^^ 
and  to  the  questi(jn,  by  what  authority  he  was  acting,  the  reply  was 
made,  "  By  the  authority/  of  God  Abnighty.'''' 

The  result  of  Brown's  mad  undertaking  is  well  known.  Within 
forty  eight  hours  of  its  commencement,  it  was  crushed  into  nothing 
ness  by  the  ti'oops  of  the  general  government,  under  Colonel  Robert 
E.  Lee,  and  those  of  the  State  of  Virginia,  under  Colonels  Baylor, 
vShutt,  and  others.  Of  Brown's  whole  band  of  twenty-two  men,  ten 
whites  and  three  negroes  were  killed — three  whites,  two  of  whom 
were  severely  wounded,  and  two  negroes,  were  taken  pi-isoners,  and 
four  escaped,  two  of  whom,  J.  E.  Cook  and  Albert  Hazlett  were 
subsequently  captured.  John  E.  Cook,  who  with  two  or  three 
others  had  attempted  to  escape  north,  alorjg  the  South  mountain, 
was  captured  in  Quincy  township,  in  our  county,  and  was  confined 
in  jail  here  for  some  time  before  his  surrender  to  the  authorities  of 
Virginia.  In  his  pocket  book  was  found  a  commission  in  the  fol- 
lowing form  : 

No.  4.  Headquarters  War  Department,  No.  4. 

Near  Harper's  Ferry,  Maryland. 
Whereas,  John  E.  Cook  has  been  nominated  a  captain  in  the 
army  established  under  the  Provisional  Government.     Now,  There- 
fore, in  pursuance  of  the  authority  vested  in  us,  we  do  hereby  ap- 
point and  commission  said  John  E.  Cook,  captain, 
(irivenattheotticeof  the  Secretary  of  War,  thisday,  Octoberl5, 1859. 
H.  Kagi,  John  Brown, 

Secretary  of  War.  Commander-in-Chief. 

Brown  was  convicted  November  2d,  1859,  and  sentenced  to  be  hung 
December  2d,  1859;  Cook  was  convicted  November  10th,  1859,  and 
sentenced  to  be  hung  December  16th,  1859,  along  with  Edwin  Cop- 
pee,  white,  and  Shields  Creen  and  John  Copeland,  colored. 
Ha/.lett  was  captured  at  Carlisle  and  surrendered  to  the  Virginia 
authorities,  and  subsequently  tried,  convicted  and  hung.  The  other 
execuHons  took  place  at  the   times  appointed.     When  the    union 

Hisforical  SJcetch  of  FranJdin  County.  lo9 

armies  captured  Richmond  they  released  from  the  penitentiary 
there,  a  colored  man  named  Jerry  Myers,  who  had  been  tried  and 
convicted  as  an  accomplice  of  Brown's,  and  sentenced  to  imprison- 
ment for  life.  He  denied  that  he  had  ever  aught  to  do  with  Brown's 
movements.  After  his  liberation  he  came  to  Chambersburg,  where 
he  lived  until  his"death.  several  years  ago. 

Looking  back  at  the  undertaking  of  John  Brown,  and  all  its  sur- 
roundings and  attendant  circumstances,  one  cannot  fail  to  be  im- 
pressed with  the  belief  that  he  was  not  in  his  right  mind.  No  sane 
man  would  have  attempted  what  he  did  with  such  inadequate  prep- 
arations as  he  had  made.  Neither  he,  nor  those  acting  witli  him, 
could  have  reasonably  hoped  for  success  had  they  for  a  moment 
seriously  considered  the  power  of  the  State  upon  which  they  made 
their  raid. 

John  Brown,  upon  being  asked  why  sentence  should  not  be  passed 
upon  him,  said  :  "  I  deny  everything  but  what  I  have  all  along  ad- 
mitted, the  de^-ign  on  iny  part  to  free  the  slaves.  That  was  all  I  in- 
tended. I  never  did  intend  murder,  or  treason,  or  the  destruction 
of  property,  or  to  excite  or  incite  slaves  to  rebellion,  or  to  make 
insurrection.  This  court  acknowledges,  as  I  suppose,  the  validity 
of  the  Law  of  God.  I  see  a  book  kissed  here  which  T  sup23ose  to  be 
the  Bible,  or,  at  least,  the  New  Testament.  That  teaches  me  that 
'all  things  whatsoever  I  would  that  men  should  do  unto  me,  I 
should  do  even  so  to  them.'  It  teaches  me  further,  to  'remember 
them  that  are  in  bonds  as  bound  with  them.'  I  endeavored  to  act 
up  to  that  instruction.  I  am  yet  too  young  to  understand  that  God 
is  any  respecter  of  persons.  I  believe  that  to  interfere,  as  I  have 
done,  was  not  wrong,  but  right.  Now,  if  it  is  deemed  necessary 
that  I  should  forfeit  my  life  for  the  furtherance  of  the  ends  of  jus- 
tice, and  mingle  my  blood  further  with  the  blood  of  my  children, 
and  with  the  blood  of  millions  in  this  slave  country,  whose  rights  are 
disregarded  by  wicked,  cruel  and  unjust  enactments,  I  submit;  so 
let  it  be  done." 

Of  John  Brown's  bravery,  no  testimony  could  be  more  emphatic 
than  that  of  his  opponents.  Governor  Wise,  who  saw  him  after  his 
conviction,  said  :  "They  are  mistaken  who  take  him  to  be  a  mad- 
man. He  is  a  bundle  of  the  best  nerves  I  ever  saw,  cut,  and  thrust, 
and  bleeding,  and  in  bonds.  Be  is  a  man  of  clear  head,  of  courage 
and  fortitude,  and  simple  ingeniousness.  He  is  cool,  collected  and 
indomitable,  and  inspired  me  with  great  trust  in  his  integrity  as  a 
man  of  truth.  He  is  as  brave  and  resolute  a  man  as  ever  headed  an 
insurrection.  He  has  coolness,  daring,  persistency,  stoic  faiili  and 
patience,  and  a  firmness  of  will  and  purpose  unconquerable.  He  is 
the  farthest  possible  remove  from  the  ordinary  ruffian,  fanatic  or 
madman."  Colonel  Washington,  also,  said  that  "Brown  was  the 
coolest  man  he  ever  saw  in  defying  death  and  danger.     With  one 

160  Historical  -S/cetch  of  Franklin  Count u. 

son  dead  by  his  side,  aud  another  shot  through,  he  felt  the  pulse  of 
his  dying  son  with  one  hand,  held  his  rifle  with  the  other,  and  com- 
manded his  men  with  the  utmost  composure,  encouraging  them  to> 
be  firm,  and  to  sell  their  lives  as  dearly  as  possible." 

I  have  referred  to  this  chapter  in  the  history  of  our  country,  be- 
cause in  our  county  town  of  Chambersburg,  unknown  to  our  people, 
this  great  opponent  of  human  slavery  had  established  his  base 
for  the  receipt  of  supplies  for  his  undertaking;  here  he  lived  for 
several  months;  here  his  followers  secretly  and  silently  assembled  ; 
here  the  ofltice  of  his  war  department  was  established,  and  from 
hence  went  out  his  orders  north,  south,  east  and  west,  and  from 
hence  his  chosen  band  of  little  over  a  score,  went  off  upon  that 
desperate,  dare-devil  enterprise,  in  which  nearly  all  of  them  ren- 
dered up  their  lives  to  the  furtherance  of  the  cause  they  had  so 
blindly  espoused.  Unaided  by  any  others  than  those  leagued  with 
them,  without  the  countenance  of  those  surrounding  them,  aud 
with  no  hope  of  assistance  from  the  an tl -slavery  element  of  the 
country,  like  the  gallant  six  hundred  at  Balaklava,  thej' 
"Rushed  into  the  jaws  of  death" — 

and  went  down  into  bloody  graves,  martyrs  to  a  desperate  and 
hopeless  undertaking, 


We  have  had  four  Constitutional  Conventions  in  Pennsylvania  in 
the  past  one  hundred  years. 

The  delegates^  to  the  first  Convention  were  elected  July  8th,  1776, 
in  pursuance  of  a  resolve  of  the  Provincial  Conference  of  Pennsylva- 
nia, which  met  at  Carpenter's  Hall,  Philadelphia,  June  18th,  1776. 

Among  the  members  of  that  Conference  from  Cumberland  county, 
were  James  M'Lene,  Colonel  John  Allison,  John  M'Clay,  Dr.  John 
Calhoun  and  John  Creigh,  all  of  whom,  I  believe,  were  from  the 
region  of  country  now  in  our  county. 

The  Constitutional  Convention  met  at  Philadelphia,  July  15th,  1776, 
and  passed  and  adopted  a  constitution,  which  was  signed  September 
28th,  1776.  There  were  eight  delegates  from  Cumberland  county,  only 
one  of  whom,  James  M'Lene,  Esq.,  was,  I  believe,  from  our  county. 

The  second  Constitutional  Convention  convened  in  Philadelphia, 
November  24th,  1789,  and  framed  a  new  constitution,  which  was  sub- 
sequently adopted  by  the  people  of  the  State.  The  members  fiom 
Franklin  county  were  Jame.s  M'Lene  and  George  Matthews. 

The  third  Constitutional  Convention  met  at  Harrisburg,  May  2d, 
1887.  After  several  adjournments  they  reassembled  at  Philadelphia, 
November  28th,  1837,  and  adjourned  finally  February  22d,  1838.  The 
constitution,  as  amended,  was  adopted  by  the  people  at  October 
election,  1838,  by  one  thousand  two  hundred  and  thirteen  majority. 

Historical  Sketch  of  FranJdin  County.  IGl 

This  convention  was  composed  of  senatorial  and  rerresentative 
delegates.  The  senatorial  district  composed  of  Franklin,  Cumber- 
land and  Adams  counties,  was  represented  by  James  Dunlop,  of 
Franklin  county,  and  Levi  Merkle,  of  Cumberland  county. 

The  representative  delegates  from  Franklin  county  were  George 
Chambers,  of  Chambersburg,  and  Joseph  Snively,  of  Antrim. 

The  fourth  and  last  Constitutional  Convention  met  in  the  hall  of 
the  House  of  Representatives,  at  Harrisburg,  November  12th,  1872, 
and  on  the  27ti>  of  the  same  month  adjourned  to  meet  in  Philadel- 
phia on  the  7th  of  January,  1873.  This  convention  was  comi:)osed 
of  one  hundred  and  thirty-three  delegates — twenty-eight  from  the 
State  at  large,  and  one  hundred  and  five  from  the  senatorial  districts. 

The  nineteenth  senatorial  district,  composed  of  the  counties  of 
Cumberland  and  Franklin,  was  represented  by  Samuel  M.  Wherry, 
of  Cumberland,  and  J.  M'Dowell  Sharjie  and  John  Stewart,  of 

The  new  constitution  was  submitted  to  the  voters  of  the  Common- 
wealth at  a  special  election  held  16th  December,  1873,  and  was 
adopted  by  a  majority  of  one  hundred  and  forty-four  thousand  three 
hundred  and  sixty-two  votes. 


Under  the  constitution  of  1776,  delegates  to  the  Congress  of  the 
United  States  were  appointed  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State, 
to  serve  for  one  year,  and  were  liable  to  be  superseded  at  any  time. 
One  of  our  citizens  was  twice  appointed,  viz. : 

James  M'Lene,  3d  March,  1779,  to  13th  Nov.,  1779,  to  fill  a  vacancy. 

James  M'Lene,  13tli  November,  1779,  to  13th  November,  1780. 

Under  the  constitution  of  the  United  States,  which  went  into 
force  on  the  first  Wednesday  of  March,  1789,  members  of  Congress 
were  required  to  be  elected  by  the  people.  They  were  thereafter 
elected  by  a  general  ticket  throughout  the  State.  At  the  first  elec- 
tion, held  in  October,  1789,  there  were  eight  members  of  Congress 
elected,  the  highest  vote  for  the  successful  candidates  being  that  of 
Frederick  Augustus  Muhlenberg,  of  Montgomery  county  —  eight 
thousand,  seven  hundred  and  seven  votes;  and  the  highest  vote  for 
the  unsuccessful  ticket  being  seven  thousand  and  sixty-seven,  for 
John  Allison,  of  Franklin  county. 

I  am  not  sufficiently  well  acquainted  with  the  residences  of  the 
members  of  Congress  elected  between  1789  and  1802  to  determine 
which  ones,  if  any  of  them,  were  from  our  county. 

On  the  2d  of  April,  1802,  an  act  was  passed  dividing  our  State  into 
eleven  congressional  districts.  By  that  act  the  counties  of  Franklin 
and  Bedford  were  made  a  district,  to  elect  one  member.  The  fol- 
lowing persons  were  elected,  and  served  for  the  following  years,  viz. : 

162  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

1803-1805,  John  Rea,  of  Franklin,      .        .        .  Vllltli  Congress. 

180-5-1807,  "  "  ...  IXth 

1807-1809,  "  "  ...  Xth  " 

1S09-1811,  "  "  ...  Xlth 

1811-1813,  William  Piper,  of  Bedford,        .        .  Xllth 

ACT   OF   20tH   march,  1812— STH   district— CUMBERLAND,  FRANK- 

1813-1815,  Robert  Whitehill,  Cumberland;  Dr.  William  Crawford, 
Adams;  John  Rea,  Franklin,  (1);  Xlllth  Congress. 

1815-181 7',  William  Maclay,  Franklin  ;  Andrew  Boden,  Cumberland; 
XlVth  Congress. 

1817-1819,  AVilliam  Maeiay,  Franklin  ;  Dr.  William  Crawford  Adams; 
XVth  Congress. 

1819-1821,  David  Fullerton,  Franklin,  (2);  Andrew  Boden,  Cumber- 
land; Thomas  G.  M'Culloh,  Franklin  (2);  XVIth  Congress. 

Perry  county  was  created  in  March,  1820,  and  made  part  of  the 
Fifth  District,  and  so  voted  at  the  regular  election  in  1821,  when 
Colonel  John  Findlay  was  first  elected. 

1821-1823,  James  M'Sherry,  Adams;  James  Duncan,  (3),  Cumber- 
land; John  Findlay,  (3),  Franklin;  XVIIth  Congress. 


1823-1825,  John  Findlay,  Franklin;  James  Wilson,  Adams;  XVIIIth 

1825-1827,  John  Findlay,  Franklin;  James  Wilson,  Adams;  XlXth 

1827-1829,  James  Wilson,  Adams;  William  Ramsay,  Cumberland; 
XXth  Congress. 

1829-1831,  Thomas  H.  Crawford,  Franklin  ;  William  Ramsay,  Cum- 
berland ;  XXIst  Congress. 

1831-1833,  Thomas  H.  Crawford,  Franklin  ;  William  Ramsay,  Cum- 
berland ;  XXIId  Congress. 

ACT   OF   9th   JUNE,    1832— 12tH    DISTRICT— ADAMS   AND   FRANKLIN, 

1833-1835,  George  Chambers,  Frankli 


1837-1839,  Daniel  Sheffer,  Adams,    . 

1839-184],  James  Cooper, 

1841-1843,       " 

XXIIId  Congress. 
XXVIIth       " 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franldin  County. 


ACT  OF  25th  march,  1843 — 16th  district— franklin,  cumber- 
land  AND  PERRY. 

1843-1845,  James  Black,  Perry,     .        .        .  XXVIIIth  Congress. 

1845-1847,       •'  "  •  "  .         .        ;  XXIXth 

1847-1849,  Jasper  E.  Brady,  Franklin,        .  XXXth  "     • 

1849-1851,  James  X.  M'Lanahan,  Franklin,  XXXIst  " 

1851-1853,        "  "  "  XXXIId 

ACT  OF  1st  may,  1852— 17th  DISTRICT— ADAMS,  FRANKLIN,  FULTON, 

1853-1855,  Samuel  L.  Russell,  Bedford, 
1855-1857,  David  F.  Robison,  Franklin, 
1857-1859,  Wilson  Reilly,  Franklin,  . 
1859-1861,  Edward  M'Phersou,  Adams, 

XXXIIId  Congress. 
XXXI  Vth 
XXX  Vth 
XXXVIIth      " 


1863-1865,  Alex.  H.  Coffroth,  Somerset,  . 

r  A.  H.  Coffroth,  (4),  Somerset, 
1865-1867,  {^illi^.^jj_j^;^Vt;,        " 
1867-1869,  " 

1869-1871,  John  Cessna,  Bedford, 
1871-1873,  Benjamin  F.  Myers,  Bedford, 
1873-1875,  John  Cessna,  " 

XXXVIIIth  Congress. 


ACT    OF    28TH    APRIL,    1873— 18TH    DISTRICT— franklin, 


1875-1877,  William  S.  Stenger,  Franklin, 


XLIVth  Congress. 
XL  Vth 

(1)  Robert  Whitehill  and  Dr.  William  Crawford,  were  elected  for 
the  Fifth  District  in  1812,  but  Mr.  Whitehill  died  April  7th,  1813, 
soon  after  his  return  home,  upon  the  adjournment  of  the  Xllth 
Congress,  of  which  he  had  been  a  member  from  another  district,  of 
which  Cumberland  formed  a  part ;  and  at  a  special  election  held  on 
the  11th  May,  1813,  John  Rea  was  chosen  to  fill  the  vacancy,  by  a 
majority  of  five  hundred  and  twenty-three  over  Edward  Crawford, 
of  Franklin.  He  took  his  seat  in  the  extra  session  of  Congress, 
which  met  in  May,  1813. 

164  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Conntij. 

(2)  David  Fullerton  resigned  after  the  close  of  his  first  session  in 
Congress,  because  his  constituents  disapproved  of  his  votes  upon  the 
Missouri  Compromise,  and  upon  some  otlier  questions.  On  tlie  9th 
of  October,  1820,  Thomas  G.  M'Culloh  was  elected  to  fill  the  vacancy. 
He  took  his  seat  13th  November,  1S20,  and  served  until  the  od  of 
March,  1821. 

(3j  At  the  regular  election  in  1820,  James  M'Sherry,  of  Adams, 
and-  James  Duncan,  of  Cumberland,  vi^ere  elected ;  but  before  the 
meeting  of  the  XVIIth  Congress,  Mr.  Duncan  resigned,  and  at  the 
regular  election  in  1821,  John  Findlay,  of  Franklin,  was  chosen  his 
successor  over  Thomas  G.  M'Culloh. 

(4)  At  the  opening  of  the  first  session  of  the  XXXIXth  Congress, 
Mr.  Cofiroth  was  awarded  a  seat  on  a  x^rima-faeie  ease,  and  served 
during  most  of  the  session,  but  Mr.  Koontz  obtained  the  seat  on  a 
contest,  and  was  sworn  in  July  18th,  1866. 


Under  the  constitution  of  1776,  which  was  in  force  when  the 
county  of  Franklin  was  organized,  there  was  no  State  Senate.  The 
State  was  governed  by  an  Assembly  of  the  Representatives  of  the 
freemen  of  the  State,  and  by  a  President  and  Council.  Councillors 
were  elected  for  three  years.  The  following  persons  served  as  Coun- 
cillors for  this  county,  viz.  : 

James  M'Lene, from  1784  to  1787 

Abraham  Smith, "     1787  to  1790 

Under  the  constitution  of  1790,  the  Supreme  Executive  Council 
was  abolished,  and  it  was  provided  that  the  government  of  the 
State  should  be  carried  on  by  a  Governor,  and  a  Senate  and  House 
of  Representatives,  all  of  whom  were  to  be  elected  by  the  people, 
the  Governor  to  hold  office  for  three  years,  Senators  for  four  years, 
and  Representatives  for  one  year.  The  following  are  the  senatorial 
districts  in  which  Franklin  county  has  been  since  1790,  and  the 
names  of  the  various  persons  who  have  represented  this  district  in 
the  Senate,  with  their  terms  of  service. 


Abraham  Smith,  of  Franklin,  from  Dec,  1790,  to  December,  1794 

Thomas  Jolinston,             "  "          "      1794,  to          "            1803 

James  Toe,                           "  "           "      1803,  to          "            1807 

Archibald  Rankin,            "  "          "      1807,  to         "            1811 

By  the  act  of  21st  March,  1808,  Franklin  county  M'as  made  a  sen- 
atorial district,  and  given  one  Senator. 

from  Dec. 

1811,  to  Dec. 


"    " 

1819,  to   " 


"   " 

1S23,  to   " 


"    " 

1824,  to   " 


"    " 

1827,  to   " 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Comny.  165 

James  Poe,         .... 

Robert  Smith, 

John  Rea,  (resigned), 

James  Dunlop, 

David  Fallerton,       ... 

By  the  act  of  16th  June,  1836,  Franklin,  Cumberhand  and  Adams 
were  made  a  senatorial  district,  to  elect  two  Senators.  The  persons 
who  served  uuder  this  act  in  this  district,  were — 
Charles  B.  Penrose,  of  Cumberland,  from  Dec,  1837,  to  Dec,  1841 
Jacob  Cassat,  of  Adams,  from  December  1837,  to  December  25,  1838,  (1 ) 
Thomas  C.  Miller,  of  Adams,  from  Jan.  13,  1839,  to  December,  1841 

Under  the  constitution  of  1838,  the  senatorial  term  was  reduced  to 
three  years.     The  Senators  were — 

William  R.  Gorgas,  of  Cumberland,  .  for  1842,  1843  and  1844 

James  X.  M'Lanahan,  of  Franklin,  .  "      "        "      "       " 

By  the  act  of  14th  April,  1843,  Franklin  and  Adams  were  made  a 
senatorial  district,  to  elect  one  member.     The  Senators  were — 
Thomas  Carson,  of  Franklin,  ....  1845,  1846,  1847 

William  R.  Sadler,  of  Adams,        ....  1848,  1849,  1850 

Thomas  Carson,  of  Franklin,  ....  1851,  1852,  1858 

David  Mellinger,  of  Adams,  ....         1854,  1855,  1856 

George  W.  Brewer  of  Franklin,     ....  1857,  1858,  1859 

By  the  act  of  20th  May,  1857,  Adams,  Franklin  and  Fulton  were 

made  a  senatorial  district,  and  given  one  Senator.  The  Senators 
were — 

A.  K.  M'Clure,  of  Franklin,            .         .         .         .  1860,  1861,  1862 

William  M'Sherry,  of  Adams,        ....  1863,  1864,  1865 

David  M'Conaughy,  of  Adams,      .         .         •         .  1866,  1867,  1868 

Calvin  M.  Duncan,  of  Franklin,            .        .        .  1869,  1870,  1871 

By  the  act  of  6th  May,  1871,  Cumberland  and  Franklin  were  made 
a  senatorial  district,  to  elect  one  member.  Under  it  James  M. 
Weakley,  of  Cumberland,  served  in  1872,  1873  and  1874. 

By  the  constitution  of  1873,  the  senatorial  term  was  again  made 
four  years. 

By  the  act  of  May  19th,  1874,  Franklin  and  Huntingdon  were 
made  a  senatorial  district,  to  elect  one  member.  Under  it  the  Sen- 
ator elected  in  this  district  in  1874,  was  to  serve  but  two  years. 

Chambe/i  M'Kibbin,  of  Franklin,  served  in  1875  and  1876;  Hora- 
tio G.  Fisher,  of  Huntingdon,  elected  November,  1876.  for  four  years. 

(1)  Mr.  Cassat  died  at  Harrisburg  during  his  second  session  in  the 
Senate,  on  the  25th  of  December,  1838,  and  General  Thomas  C.  Miller, 
of  Adams  county,  was  elected  to  till  the  vacancy.  He  subsequently 
removed  to  Cumberland  county',  and  died  there  a  few  years  ago. 

166  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County, 


Names  of  persons  who  have  represented  the  county  of  Frankliii 
in  the  House  of  Representatives  of  Pennsylvania: 
1784-1785,  James  Johnston,  Abraham  Smith,  James  M'Cammont- 
1785-1786,  James  M'Cammont,  Abraham  Smith,  John  Rea. 
1786-1787,  Abraham  Smith,  James  M'Canamont. 
1787-1788,  James  M'Lene,  James  M'Cammont. 
1788-1789,  James  M'Lene,  James  Johnston. 
1789-1790,  James  Johnston,  John  Rea. 
1790-1791,  James  Johnston,  James  M'Lene. 
1791-1792,  James  Johnston,  John  Maclay. 
1792-1793,  James  Johnston,  Jolin  Rea. 
1793-1794,  James  M'Lene,  John  Maclay. 
1794-1795,  William  Henderson,  James  Poe,  Baniel  Royer. 
1795-1796,  William  Henderson,  James  Poe,  Daniel  Royer. 
1796-1797,  James  Poe,  William  Henderson,  John  Rea. 
1797-1798,  William  Henderson,  John  Rea,  William  Findlay. 
1798-1799,  John  Scott,  Andrew  Dunlop,  John  Spear. 
1799-1800,  Daniel  Royer,  John  Scott,  Andrew  Dunlop. 
1800-1801,  John  Rea,  James  Poe,  John  Statler. 
1801-1802,  John  Rea,  James  Poe,  John  Statler. 
1802-18. 13,  Robert  Peebles,  James  Poe,  John  Statler. 
1803-1804,  William  Findlay,  Robert  Peebles,  Jacob  Dechert. 
1804-1805,  William  Findlay,  Jacob  Dechert,  James  M'Connell. 
1805-1806,  William  Findlay,  Jacob  Dechert,  James  M'Connell. 
1806-1807,  William  Findlay,  William  M'Clelland,  George  Nigh, 
1807-1808,  William  Maclay,  Robert  Smith,  Jacob  Heyser. 
1808-1809,  Wi41iam  Maclay,  Robert  Smith,  Jacob  Heyser, 
1809-1810.  Jacob  Dechert,  James  Smith,  Archibald  Bard. 
1810-1811,  Jacob  Dechert,  James  Smith,  Archibald  Bard. 
1811-1812,  Robert  Smith,  James  Smith,  Jacob  Dechert. 
1812-1813,  Robert  Smith,  David  Maclay,  Jacob  Dechert. 
1813-1 8] 4,  Robert  Smith,  David  Maclay,  Jacob  Dechert. 
1814-1815,  Jacob  Heyser,  Patrick  Campbell,  John  Cox. 
1815-1816,  Robert  Smith,  Jacob  Dechert,  David  Maclay. 
1816-1817,  Andrew  Robeson,  Stephen  Wilson,  Ludwig  Heck. 
1817-1818,  Andrew  Robeson,  Stephen  Wilson,  Ludwig  Heck. 
1818-1819,  Andrew  Robeson,  Stephen  Wilson,  Ludwig  Heck. 
1819-1820,  Andrew  Robeson,  William  Alexander,  Ludwig  Heck, 
1820-1821,  Samuel  Dunn,  John  Stoner,  Robert  Crooks. 
1821-1822,  John  Holliday,  Peter  S.  Dechert,  John  Flanagan. 
1822-1823,  John  King,  John  Holliday,  Peter  S.  Dechert. 
1823-1824,  Frederick  Smith,  Robert  Smith,  William  ^Maclay. 
1824-1825,  Frederick  Smitli,  James  Walker,  William  Alexander. 
1825-1826,  Frederick  Smith,  James  Walker,  William  Alexander- 

U^.^.  DeNSLO**^,  ou. . 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  167 

1826-1827,  Frederick  Smith,  James  Walker,  Peter  Aughinbaufrh. 

1827-182S,  Philip  Berlin,  Andrew  Robeson,  Benjamin  Reynolds.  ■ 

1828-1829,  Ludwig  Heck,  William  Boal,  John  Cox.  ! 

1829-1830,  Frederick  Smith,  John  Cox.  \ 

1830-1831,  Frederick  Smith,  John  Cox.  | 

1831-1832,  James  Dunlop,  Thomas  C4.  M'Culloh. 

1832-1833,  Thomas  Bard,  Thomas  G.  M'Culloh. 

1833-1834,  Thomas  H.  Crawford,  William  S.  M'Dowell. 

1834-1835,  Thomas  G.  M'Culloh,  Thomas  Carson.  ! 

1835-1836,  Thomas  Carson,  John  D.  Work.  - 

1836-1837,  John  D.  Work,  John  Flanagan. 

1837-1838,  James  Colhoun,  Henry  Funk. 

1838-1839,  William  M'Kinstry,  Frederick  Smith. 

1840,  William  M'Kinstry,  James  Nill.  | 

1841,  Andrew  Snively,  Joseph  Pomero3^ 

1842,  Andrew  Snively,  Peter  Cook. 

1843,  Jacob  Walter,  Thomas  Carson. 

1844,  Jasper  E.  Brady,  Thomas  Carson.  ^ 

1845,  Jasper  E.  Brady,  Andrew  Snively. 

1846,  John  .Stewart,  John  ISI.  Pomeroy. 

1847,  Thompson  M'AIlister,  John  M.  Pomeroy.  | 

1848,  William  Baker,  Samuel  Seibert. 

1849,  William  Baker,  Samuel  Seibert.  \ 

1850,  William  Baker,  John  M'Lean. 

1851,  David  MacUy,  John  M'Lean.  ,[ 

1852,  David  Maclay,  George  A.  Madeira.  'I 

1853,  John  Rowe,  Charles  T.  Campbell. 

1854,  John  Rowe,  Samuel  Gilmore. 

1855,  James  B.  Orr,  James  Lowe. 

1856,  James  B.  Orr,  James  C.  Boyd. 

1857,  George  Jacobs,  John  Witherow.  I 

By  act  of  20th  May,  1857,  Franklin  and  Fulton  were  made  a  dis- 
trict and  given  two  members. 

1858,  A.  K.  M'Clure,  James  Nil).  ^^ 

1859,  A.  K.  M'Clure,  James  Nill. 

1860,  James  R.  Brewster;  James  C.  Austin,  of  Fulton. 

1861,  James  R.  Brewster;  James  C.  Austin,      " 

1862,  John  Rowe;  WilUam  W.  Sellers, 

1863,  Jonathan  Jacoby;  William  Horton  " 

1864,  J.  M'Dowell  Sharpe  ;  William  Horton,     " 

By  act  of  5th  May,  1864,  Franklin  and  Perry  were  made  a  district  i 

and  given  two  members.  1 

1865,  A.  K.  M'Clure,  J.  M'Dowell  Sharpe. 

1866,  F.  S.  Stumbaugh;  G.  A.  Shuman,    of  Perry. 

1867,  F.  S.  Stumbaugh;  G.  A.  Shuman, 

168  Historical  Sketch  of  FranJdin  County. 

1868,  B.  F.  Winger;   John  Shively,  of  Perry  county. 

1869,  John  H.  Walker;  John  Shively,  " 
1S70,  George  W,  Skinner;  D.  B.  Milliken,       " 

1871,  George  W.  Skinner;  D.  B.  Milliken,       " 

By  act  of  6th  May,  1871,  Franklin  was  made  a  district  and  given 
one  member. 

1872,  Thaddeus  M.  Mahon, 
187S,  Thaddeus  M.  Mahon. 

1874,  George  W.  Welsh. 

By  act  of  19th  May,  1874,  Franklin  was  given  three  members. 

1875,  Hastings  Gehr,  M.  A.  Embich,  Simon  Lechron. 

1876,  Hastings  Gehr,  M.  A.  Embich,  Simon  Lechron. 
1877-1878,  Hastings  Gehr,  H.  C.  Greenawalt,  William  A.  Burgess, 


President  Judge — Thomas  Smith,  from  2nth  August,  1791,  to  31st 
January,  1794. 

Associates— Z&vaes  M'Dowell,  First  Associate,  17th  August,  1791  ; 
James  Maxwell,  Second  Associate,  17th  August,  1791;  Geor^je 
Matthews,  Third  Associate,  17th  August,  1791 ;  James  M'Cammont, 
Fourth  Associate,  17th  August,  1791. 


President  Judge — James  Riddle,  of  Chambersburg,  fi'om  4th  Feb- 
ruary, 1794,  to  latter  i^art  of  1804. 

Associates— 3 Sivces.  M'Dowell,  George  Matthews,  James  M'Cam- 
mont; James  Chambers,  from  November  12th,  1795,  until  his  death, 
April  25th,  1805. 


President  Judge— Sames,  Hamilton,  of  Carlisle,  from  1st  March, 
1806,  to  13th  March,  1819. 

Associates— 3 'AmQ^  M'Cammont,  till  his  death,  in  1809;  James 
Maxwell,  James  M'Dowell;  William  Maclay,  September  2d,  1809; 
Archibald  Bard,  April  2d,  1811 ;  Isaac  Eaton,  January  9th,  1815. 


President  Judge— Qh&vle^  Smith,  of  Carlisle,  from  March  27th, 
1819,  to  April  27th,  1820. 
Associates — Archibald  Bard,  Isaac  Eaton. 

Uinforical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  169 

9th  district— 18liO—CUMBKKLAND,  FRANKLIN,  ADAMS  AND  PERRY. 

PreHident  Judf/e— John  Reed,  of  Carlisle,  from  10th  July,  1S20,  till 
29th  March,  1824. 

Associates— Archihiihl  Bard,  Isaac  Eaton  ;  Jacob  Oyster,  August 
23d, 1823. 

16th  district— 1824— fkanklin,  Bedford  and  somerset. 
FORMED  29rH  march,  1824. 

President  Judge— John  Tod,  of  Bedford,  appointed  June  8th,  1824; 
served  till  25th  May,  1S27,  when  he  was  appointed  a  Justice  of  the 
Supreme  Court. 

^.ssociail'^s— Archibald  Bard,  Jacob  Oyster. 

16th    district— 1827— franklin,    BEDFORD  AND   SOMERSET. 

President  ./wc/ve- Alexander  Thompson,  of  Bedford,  from  25th 
June  1827,  till  1842. 

dissociates- Archibald  Bard  ;  Jacob  Oyster;  Matthew  Patton,  from 
October  9th,  1830;  William  M'Kesson,  from  November  7th,  1832; 
Robert  Smith,  from  December  12th,  1836. 

By  the  constitution  of  1838,  the  terms  of  the  Judges  then  in  com- 
mission were  all  shortened  and  terminated;  and  thereafter  the 
President  Judges  were  nominated  by  the  Governor,  with  the  consent 
of  the  Senate,  to  hold  for  ten  years,  and  Associate  Judges  to  hold 
for  five  years. 

16th  district— 1842— franklin,  Bedford  and  somerset. 

President  Judge — Jeremiah  S.  Black,  of  Somerset,  from  30th  June, 
1841,  to  1st  Monday  in  December,  1851. 

^4ssocia<es— Robert  Smith;  James  J.  Kennedy,  March  5th,  1842; 
Samuel  Dun,  March  5th,  1843;  Henry  Ruby,  March  5th,  1847;  John 
Orr,  March  9th,  1848. 

By  the  amendment  to  the  constitution  of  1850,  the  Judges  were 
all  made  elective. 

16th  district— 1852— franklin,  FULTON,  BEDFORD  AND  SOMERSET. 

President  J^wfZ^e- Francis  M.  Kimmell,  of  Somerset,  from  first 
Monday  in  December,  1851. 

Associates— J -cxnuis  L.   Black,   first  Monday  in  December,  1851; 
Thomas  Poineroy,   first  Monday  in  December,  1851  ;  John  Huber, 
first  Monday  in  December,  1856;  James  O.  Carson,  first  Monday  iu 
December,  1856;  John  Orr,  first  Monday  iu  December,  1857. 

170  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

16th  district— 1862— franklin,  FULTON,  BEDFOKD  AND  SOMERSET. 

President  Judge — Jaraes  Nill,  of  Chambersbiu  g,  from  first  Monday 
in  December,  1861,  till  his  death,  May  27th,  1864. 

Associates — John  Orr,  James  O.  Carson,  first  Monday  in  December, 
1861;  W.  W.  Paxton,  first  Monday  in  December,  1862. 

16th  district— 1864— franklin,  fulton,  Bedford  and  somerset. 

President  Judge — Alexander  King,  of  Bedford,  from  4th  June, 
1864,  till  his  death,  January  10th,  1871.     (1 ) 

Associates— 3 'Ame^  O.  Carson,  W.  W.  Paxton;  Jatnes  Ferguson, 
from  first  Monday  in  December,  1866;  John  Armstrong,  from  first 
Monday  in  December,  1867. 

Additional  Law  Judge— D.  W.  Rowe,  from  18th  March,  1868.  (2) 

16TH  district— 1871— franklin,  FULTON,  BEDFORD  AND  SOMERSET. 

President  Judge — William  M.  Hall,  of  Bedford,  from  February 
1st,  1871,  till  17th  April,  1874.  (3) 

Additional  Law  Judge — D.  W.  Rowe. 

Associates— 3 -cxme^  Ferguson,  John  Armstrong  ;  James  D.  M'Dow- 
ell,  from  first  Monday  in  December,  1871 ;  David  Oaks,  from  the 
first  Monday  in  December,  1872. 

39tH   district— 1874  — FRANKLIN   AND   FULTOX. 

President  Judge— J). yV .  Rowe,  of  Greencastle,  frum  17th  April,  1874. 
Associates — James  D.  M'Dowell ;  David  Oaks,  till  his- death,  De- 
cember 2d,  1874. 

(1)  Judge  King  was  appointed  June  4th,  1864,  to  fill  the  vacancy 
caused  by  the  death  of  Judge  Nill.  He  was  elected  President  Judge, 
October,  1864,  and  was  commissioned  December  3d,  1864,  for  ten 

(2)  Judge  Rowe  was  appointed  Additional  Law  Judge,  18th 
March,  1868.  He  was  elected  to  the  same  position  in  October,  1868, 
for  ten  years  from  first  Monday  in  December,  1868.  Under  the  con- 
stitution of  1873,  Franklin  county  became  a  separate  judicial  district, 
to  which  Fulton  county  has  been  attached,  and  on  the  17th  April, 
1874,  Hon.  D.  Watson  Rowe,  Avas  commissioned  President  Judge  of 
the  thirty-ninth  district,  to  hold  for  the  balance  of  his  term  as  Ad- 
ditional Law  Judge,  viz.,  till  the  first  INIon.iay  of  December,  1878. 

(3)  Appointed  1st  February,  1871,  to  fill  vacancy  caused  by  death  of 
Judge  King  ;  nominated  and  elected  October,  1871,  for  full  term  of 
ten  years.  The  district  having  been  divided,  Bedford  and  Somerset 
counties  were  continued  as  the  sixteenth  district,  and  Judge  Hall 
continues  to  preside  there. 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 



Whe7i  Axopointcd. 

Edward  Crawford,  Jr., September  10th,  1784 

Edward  Crawford, August  17th,  1791 

Edward  Crawford, January  8th,  1800 

Edward  Crawford,  continued  by  proclamation,  1802 

Edward  Crawford,         '1             "            "  1805 

Jonn  Findiay, January  27th,  1809 

John  Findiay, April  1st,  1818 

John  Shryock, February  8th,  1821 

John  Hershberger, January  14th,  1824 

John  Hershberger, December  30th,  1826 

John  Flanagan, January  28th,  1830 

John  Flanagf-n, December  24th,  1832 

Joseph  Minnich, January  18th,  1836 

Recommissioned,    .       • January  2d,  1839 

Mathias  Nead, January  29th,  1839 

Mathias  Nead, November  14th,  1839 


Mathias  Nead, 
Thomas  P.  Bard,     . 
James  Wright, 
Isaac  H.  M'Cauley, 
Abraham  K.  Weir, 
Hiram  C.  Keyser,    . 
Abraham  D.  Caufman, 
K.  S.  Taylor,    . 
William  H.  M'Dowell, 
George  W.  Welsh,  . 
John  A.  Hyssong,  . 
John  A,  Hyssong,  . 

November  12th,  1842 
November  17th,  1845 
November  25th,  1848 
November  22d,  1851 
November  14th,  1854 
December      1st,  1857 
















first  Monday  of  January,  187 


Edward  Crawford,  Jr., September  10th,  1784 

Edward  Crawford,  Jr., September    4th,  1790 

Edward  Crawford,  continued,       .        .        .  December    13th,  1790 

Edward  Crawford, January        Sth,  1800 

Edward  Crawford,  continued  by  proclamation,  1802 

Edward  Crawford,          "            "             "  1805 

John  Findiay, January      27th,  1809 

Peter  Spyker  Dechert, April               1st,  1818 

Joseph  Culbertson, February      Sth,  1821 

172  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 


John  Findlay,  Jr. 
John  Findlay,  Jr. 

When  Appointed. 
January       14th,  1824 
December    30th,  1826 


Paul  J.  Hetich, 
Paul  J  Hetich, 
Joseph  Pritts, 
Henry  Ruby.  . 
Henry  Ruby,  . 

John  W.  Reges, 
James  Watson, 
Benjamin  Mentzer, 
David  Oaks,     . 
George  H.  Merklein, 
George  W.  Toms,    . 
Edward  C.  Boyd,    . 
Henry  Strickler, 
Henry  Strickler, 
Hiram  T.  Snyder,   . 
Adolphus  A.  Skinner, 
Adolphus  A.  Skinner, 


January  28th,  1830 
December  24th,  1832 
January  18th,  1836 
January  2d,  1839 

January  29th,  1839 
November  14th,  1839 

November  12th,  1842 
November  17th,  1845 
November  25th,  1848 
November  22d,  1851 
November  14th,  1854 
December      1st,  1857 


1st,  1860 
1st,  1863 
1st,  1866 
1st,  1869 
1st.  1872 

1st  Monday  of  January,  1876 


Edward  Crawford,  Jr., September  10th,  1784 

Edward  Crawford,  Jr., August  17th,  1791 

Edward  Crawford, January  8th,  1800 

Edward  Crawford,  continued  bj' prot;laination,  1802 

Edward  Crawford,          "           "             "  1805 

John  Findlay January  27th,  1809 

John  Findlay, April  1st,  1818 

John  Shryock, February  8th,  1821 


John  Hershberger, January       14th,  1824 

John  Hershberger, December   30th,  1826 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Counti/. 



When  Appointed. 

Richard  Morrow, January       28th,  1830 

Richard  Morrow, December   24th,  1832 

Joseph  Morrow January       18th,  1836 

Recomruissioned January  2d,  1839 

John  Wood,     . January       29th,  1839 

John  Wood, November  14th,  1839 


John  Wood, November  12th,  1842 

John  M.  Fisher,      ......  November  17th,  1845 

Josiah  W.  Fletcher, November  25th,  1848 

Henry  S.  Stoner, November     22d,  1851 

Henry  S.  Stoner, November  14th,  1854 

B.  Y.  Hamsher, December      1st,  1857 

William  G.  Mitchell, December      1st,  1860 

William  G.  Mitchell, December      1st,  1863 

Thaddeus  M.  Mahon, December       1st,  1866 

Bernard  A.  Cormany, December      1st,  1869 

Lewis  W.  Detrich, December      1st,  1872 

W.  Rush  Gillan,     ....  1st  Monday  of  January,  1876 

Jeremiah  Talbot, 
Jeremiah  Talbot, 
John  Johnston, 
John  Johnston, 
John  .Johnston, 
Heury  Work, 
Robert  Shannon, 
George  Hetich, 
John  Hetich, 
John  Brotherton, 
Jacob  Snider, 
Jacob  Merkle, 
WMlliam  Alexander, 
Thomas  Alexander, 
Jeremiah  Snider, 
John  Maclay, 
David  Washabaugh 
Archibald  Fleming, 



20th,  1784,  forone  year. 


26th,  1785,  " 


23d,  1786,   " 


23d,  1787,   " 

November  8th,  1788,  "          " 


5th,  1789,  " 


October,  1790,  to  October,  1793. 


1793,     "                  1796. 


1796,     "                  1799. 


1799,     "                   1802. 


18112,     "                  1805. 


1805,     "                   1808. 


1808,  to  Nov.  court,  1811 

Nov.  court,  1811,  to  Nov.  court,  1814. 

1814,     "  "       1817. 

1817,     '•  "       1820. 

1820,  to  June,  1823. 
16th  June,     1823,  to  Nov.  court,  1823. 
Nov.  court,  1823,     "  "       1826. 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  C'ounff/. 

Joseph  Culbertson, 

from  Nov.  court 


to  Nov.  court 


David  Washabaugh 

,    "               " 


"               " 


Ennion  Elliott, 



u                    u 


James  Burns, 

"               " 


"             " 


George  Hoffman, 





William  Gilmore, 

"               " 


n                     u 


Adam  M'Kinnie, 



to  October  " 


John  W.  Taylor, 

"      Oct.  court. 


"               " 


Thomas  J.  Earley, 

"              " 


to  Nov.      " 


William  Skinner, 

"      Nov.  court 




Jacob  S.  Brown, 

"      Oct.  court, 


to  Nov.  18th, 


William  M'Grath, 

"      Nov.  18th, 


to  Oct.  18th, 


Samuel  Brandt, 

"      October, 


to  November 


John  Doebler, 

"      November, 


to  October, 


J.  W.  Fletcher, 

"      October, 


to  November 


S.  F.  Greenawalt, 

"      November, 


to  Jan.  4th, 


John  Sweney, 

"      January  4tl 

,  1875 

,  to 


John  Rea, 
John  Johnston, 
Conrad  Snyder, 
Conrad  Snyder, 
George  Clark, 
George  Clark, 
George  Clark, 
Matthew  Duncan, 
Archibald  Rankin, 
Archibald  Rankin, 
James  Campbell,     . 
Andrew  Robeson,   . 
Robert  Liggett, 
William  Young, 
Thomas  M'Kinstry, 
William  Young, 
David  Washabaugh, 
James  Burns,   . 
Allen  K.  Campbell, 
John  Tritle, 
James  M'Dowell,    . 
William  Slyder,       . 
Alexander  Hamilton, 
John  M.  M'Dowell, 
James  Burns, 












































24  th, 








Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 



wereappointefl  by  the  CountyCommissioners  until  the  act  of  27th  May, 

1841,  provided  foi' their  election,  in  October  of  that  year,  to  hold  office 

for  two  years,  from  the  first  Monday  of  January  after  their  election. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  names  of  those  persons  who  have 

been  Treasurers  of  this  county,  with  the 

Dr.  George  Clingan 

Matthew  -Wilson, 

John  Riddle, 

Patrick  Campbell 

David  Denny, 

Jacob  Heyser, 

Henry  Reges, 

John  Hershberger, 

Jacob  Heyser, 

William  Heyser, 

Samuel  G.  Calhoun 

Dr.  John  Sloan,   . 

Hugh  Greenfield, 

William  Hamilton, 

Daniel  Spangler  . 

Joseph  Pritts, 

Henry  Smith, 

Jasper  E.  Brady, 

George  Garlin,  Jr., 

Henry  Smith, 


Joseph  Pritts, 
George  K.  Harper, 
George  Garlin, 
William  M'Lellan, 
Lewis  Denig, 
Washington  Crooks, 
Daniel  K.  Wunderlich 
J.  Smith  Grier 
WMlliam  D.  M'Kinstr.v 
John  Stouffer, 
George  J.  Balsley, 
James  G.  Elder,  . 
John  Hassler, 
George  W.  Skinner 
W'illiam  Reber,    . 
Samuel  Knisely, 
Hiram  M.  White, 
Ellas  K.  Lehman, 

ir  years  of  service. 
























176  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  I 


1785,  James  Poe. 

1786,  John  Work. 

1787,  John  Beard. 

1788,  Robert  Boyd,  James  M'Connell.  William  Allison. 

1789,  James  M'Connell,  William  Allison,  Josiah  CrawforcL 

1790,  William  Allison,  Josiah  Crawford,  Matthew  Wilsois. 

1791,  Matthew  Wilson,  James  Poe,  Daniel  Rover.  ■ 

1792,  Matthew  Wilson,  James  Poe,  John  Work.  ' 

1793,  James  Poe,  Daniel  Royer,  James  Chambers. 

1794,  Daniel  Royer,  James  Chambers,  George  Hetich,  ! 

1795,  James  Chambers,  George  Hetich,  Henry  Work.  i 

1796,  George  Hetich,  Henry  Work,  William  Scott.  | 

1797,  Henry  Work,  William  Sett,  William  Allison.  I 

1798,  William  Scott,  William  Allison,  James  Irvin,  I 

1799,  William  Allison,  James  Irvin,  Jolin  Holliday.  ' 

1800,  James  Irvin,  John  Holliday,  Nathan  M'Dowell,  | 

1801,  John  Holliday,  Robert  M'Dowell,  David  Maclay.  1 

1802,  R.  M'Dowell,  David  Maclay.  "  •' 
1808,  R.  M'Dowell,  David  Maclay,  William  Rankin.  ! 

1804,  R.  M'Dowell,  David  Maclay,  Archibald  Rankin,  Jacob  Heyser. 

1805,  William  M'Clay,  Archibald  Rankin,  Jacob  Heyser.  i 

1806,  William  M'Clay,  Jacob  Heyser,  Patrick  Campbell.  »  ; 

1807,  Jacob  Heyser,  Patrick  Campbell,  John  Royer.  ' 

1808,  Pat  Campbell,  James  Smith,  Jacob  Dechert.  ' 

1809,  Jacob  Dechert,  John  Rothbaust,  Robert  Crooks.  ; 

1810,  John  Rothbaust,  Robert  Crooks,  William  Alexander. 

1811,  John  Rothbaust,  Robert  Crooks,  William  Alexander. 

1812,  David  Rankin,  John  Cox,  Ludwig  Heck. 

1813,  David  Rankin,  John  Cox,  Ludwig  Heck, 

1814,  John  Cox,  Ludwig  Heck,  Isaac  Eaton. 

1815,  Ludwig  Heck,  James  M'Dowell,  John  M.  Maclay. 

1816,  James  M'Dowell,  John  M.  Maclay,  William  Bleakney. 

1817,  John  M.  Maclay,  William  Bleakney,  Philip  Berlin. 

1818,  William  Bleakney,  Philip  Berlin,  William  Rippey,  Jr. 

1819,  Philip  Berlin,  William  Rippey,  Jr.,  David  Beshore. 

1820,  William  Rippey,  Jr.,  David  Beshore,  Frederick  Miller. 

1821,  Frederick  Miller,  David  Beshore,  Andrew  Thomson. 

1822,  David  Beshore,  Frederick  Miller,  Anth'ew  Thomson. 

1823,  Andrew  Thomson,  James  Walker,  Jacob  Wunderlich. 

1824,  Jacob  Wunderlich,  Philip  Laufnian,  David  Fullerton.  ,  j 

1825,  Jacob  Wunderlich,  Philip  Laufman,  Benjamin  Keyser,  j 

1826,  Philip  Laufman,  Benjamin  Keyser,  William  Heyser.  ' 

1827,  William  Heyser,  Benjamin  Keyser,  John  Walker,  |i 

1828,  William  Heyser.  John  Walker,  Daniel  Shaffer.  \ 

1829,  John  Walker,  Daniel  Shailer,  John  Radebaugh.  ! 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  177 

Daniel  Shaffer,  John  Radebaugh,  John  Walker, 

Daniel  Shaffer,  John  Raiiebaugh,  Jacob  Walter, 

John  Rjdebaugh,  Jacob  Walter,  Samuel  Dunn. 

Samuel  Dunn,  Joseph  Culbertson,  John  Cox. 

Joseph  Culbertson,  John  Cox,  Tobias  Funk. 

John  Cox,  Tobias  Funk,  George  Hoffman. 

Tobias  Funk,  George  Hoffman,  George  Johnston. 

George  Hoffman,  John  Johnston,  John  Johnston,  (of  George), 

John  Johnston,  John  Johnston,  (of  George),  George  Hoffman, 

John  Johnston,  (of  George),  D.  Washabaugh,  Emanuel  Hade. 

John  Johnston,  (of  George),  D.  Washabaugh,  Emanuel  Hade. 

D.  Washabaugh,  Emanuel  Hade,  William  Seibert. 

Emanuel  Hade,  William  Seibert,  Garland  Anderson. 

William  Seibert,  G.  Anderson,  James  Burns. 

G.  Anderson,  James  Burns,  Jacob  Oyster, 

James  Burns,  Jacob  Oyster,  Thomas  Pumroy. 

Jacob  Oyster,  Thomas  Pumroy,  James  Davison, 

Thomas  Pumroy,  James  Davison,  George  A.  Madeira. 

James  Davison,  George  A  Madeira,  Dewalt  Keefer. 

G.  A.  Madeira,  Dewalt  Keefer,  John  A.  Shank. 

D.  Keefer,  John  A.  Shank,  George  S.  Eyster. 

John  A.  Shank,  George  S.  Eyster,  James  Lowe. 

George  S.  Eyster,  James  Lowe,  John  Alexander. 

James  Lowe,  John  Alexander,  John  Huber. 

John  Alexander,  John  Huber,  Jos.  Johnston. 

John  Huber,  Jos.  Johnston,  Robert  M'llvaney, 

Jos.  Johnston,  Robert  M'Hvaney,  Samuel  Myers, 

Robert  M'llvaney,  Samuel  Myers,  D.  M,  Leisher. 

Samuel  Myers,  D.  M.  Leisher,  John  S.  Nimmon. 

D.  M.  Leisher,  John  S.  Nimmon,  J.  A,  Eyster. 
J.  S.  Nimmon,  J,  A.  Eyster,  Jacob  S.  Good, 

J.  A.  Eyster,  Jacob  S.  Good,  James  D.  Scott. 
Jacob  S.  Good,  James  D.  Scott,  John  Nitterhouse. 
James  D.  Scott,  John  Nitterhouse,  John  Downey. 
John  Nitterhouse,  John  Downey,  Henry  Good, 
John  Downey,  Henry  Good,  John  Armstrong, 
Henry  Good,  John  Armstrong,  Daniel  Skinner, 
John  Armstrong,  Daniel  Skinner,  Jonas  C.  Palmer. 
Daniel  Skinner,  J.  C.  Palmer,  William  Shinafield. 
J.  C.  Palmer,  William  Shinafield,  E,  K.  Lehman. 
William  Shinafield,  E,  K.  Lehman,  J,  B,  Brumbaugh. 

E.  K.  Lehman,  J.  B,  Brumbaugh,  S.  M.  Worley. 
J.  B.  Brumbaugh,  S.  M.  Worley,  R.  J.  Boyd. 

S,  M,  Worley,  R.  J.  Boyd,  Jacob  Kauffman. 
R.  J.  Boyd,  Jacob  Kauffman,  W.  D.  Guthrie. 
Jacob  Kauffman,  W.  D.  Guthrie,  Samuel  Coble. 

1''^  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

1876,  Daniel  Gelwix,  James  Patton,  J.  Watson  Craig. 
d^fr?nTtliV^IfJ7°8tSranT?7t7.^^^^'°'^   ''^-^'^  ^^^^^  -  Commissioners 

Robert  Boyd, 
James  Paries, 
William  Scott,      . 
William  Orbison, 
William  Ward,  Jr., 
Thomas  G.  M'Culloh, 
J.  M.  Russell, 
E.  B.  Mendenhall, 
Henry  Reges, 
William  M.  M'Dowell 
Peter  S.  Deckhert, 
Dauiel  Spangler, 

Hiram  Cox,  . 

John  Colhoun, 

Richard  Morrow, 

Henry  Smith, 

James  R.  Kirby,  , 

I.  H.  M'Cauley,    . 

A.  H,  M'Culloh,  . 

John  M.  Fisher,  . 

Thomas  L.  Fletcher, 

Jacob  Sellers, 

William  Gelwicks, 

Jacob  Sellers, 

Samuel  Longenecker 

George  Foreman, 

H.  C.  Koontz, 

H.  C.  Keyser, 

H.  S.  Shade, 

H.  C.  Keyser, 

Thomas  M.  Nelson, 





































1785-1788,  Unknown. 

1788,  James  Johnston,  Benjamin  Chambers,  James  Irwi 

1789-1793,  Unknown. 

1793-1794,  Benjamin  Chambers,  James  Irwin,  John  Rea 

1794-1798,  Unknown. 

1798-1800,  James  Ramsey,  John  Brown. 

1800-1801,  John  Brown,  James  Buchanan. 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Countij.  179 

Jatnes  Buchanan,  Nicholas  Clopper. 

Nicholas  Clopper,  George  Hetich. 

George  Hetich,  William  Scott. 

Nicholas  Clopper,  William  Scott,  Robert  Smith. 

William  Scott,  Robert  Smith,  Thomas  Brown. 

Robert  Smith,  Thomas  Brown,  John  Gilmor. 

Thomas  Brown,  John  Gilmor,  John  Holliday. 

John  Gilmor,  John  Holliday,  David  Ranl^in. 

D.  Fuilerton,  David  Maclay,  Henry  Thompson. 

Henry  Thompson,  David  Fuilerton,  D.  Maclay. 

Henry  Thompson,  Robert  Robison,  Josejjh  Scott. 

Robert  Robison,  Joseph  Scott. 

Patrick  Campbell,  David  Eby,  W^illiam  Scott. 

David  Eby,  Andrew  Robison,  William  Alexander. 

William  Alexander,  Sr.,  Andrew  Robison,  John  Walker. 

John  Walker,  John  Culbertson. 

John  Walker,  John  Culbertson,  James  M'Coy. 

John  Culbertson,  James  M'Coy,  John  Flanagan. 

James  M'Coy,  John  Flanagan,  Thomas  M'Clelland. 

John  Flanagan,  George  Hetich. 

Thomas  M'Clelland,  George  Hetich,  Thomas  Waddell. 

George  Hetich,  Joseph  Grubb. 

Thomas  Waddell,  Joseph  Grubb,  William  Gamble. 

Joseph  Grubb,  William  Gamble,  Thomas  Carson. 

William  Gamble,  Thomas  Carson,  John  Walker. 

Thomas  Carson,  John  Walker,  Isaac  Ward. 

John  Walker,  Jacob  Negley,  John  Findlay,  Sr. 

Isaac  Ward,  Jacob  Negley,  John  M'Clintock. 

Jacob  Negley.  Archibald  S.  M'Cune. 

Archil)ald  S.  M'Cune,  J.  Allison. 

.1.  Allison,  James  Colhoun. 

Jacob  Heyser,  Joseph  Pumroy. 

Jacob  Heyser,  Joseph  Pumroy,  John  M'Clintock. 

Joseph  Pumroy,  John  M'Clintock,  John  Witherow. 

John  M'Clintock,  John  Witherow,  Jacob  Negley. 

John  Witherow,  Jacob  Negley. 

Jacob  Negley,  William  Fleming,  David  Lytel. 

William  Fleming,  David  Lytle,  John  Orr. 

David  Lytle,  John  Orr,  J.  B.  Guthrie. 

John  Orr,  J.  B.  Guthrie,  John  Deardorff'. 

J.  B.  Guthrie,  John  D.  Work,  John  Deardorff. 

John  Deardorff,  John  D.  Work,  Robert  Wallace. 

Samuel  Lehman,  Robert  Wallace,  John  Tritle. 

Robert  Wallace,  John  Tritle. 

John  Tritle,  John  Johnston,  Abram  Stouffer. 

John  Johnston,  Abram  Stouffer,  Joseph  Snively. 

180  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Counti/. 

1848,  Abrani  Stouffer,  Joseph  Snively,  Thomas  Carson. 

1849,  Joseph  Snively,  Thomas  Carson,  B.  A.  Doyle. 

1850,  Thomas  Carson,  B.  A.  Doyle,  George  W.  Zeigler. 

1851,  B.  A.  Doyle,  George  W.  Zeigler,  James  L.  Black. 

1852,  G.  W.  Zeigler,  James  L.  Black,  W.  A.  Shields. 

1853,  William  A.  Shields,  William  Armstrong,  David  Spencer. 

1854,  William  Armstrong,  David  Spencer,  W.  S.  Amberson. 

1855,  D.  Spencer,  W.  S.  Amberson,  John  Bownifin. 

1856,  W.  S.  Amberson,  John  Bowman,  C.  W.  Burkholder. 

1857,  John  Bowman,  C.  W.  Burkholder,  D.  H.  M'Pherson. 

1858,  C.  W.  Burkholder,  D.  H.  M'Pherson,  William  Fleagle. 

1859,  D.  H.  M'Pherson,  William  Fleagle,  J.  R.  Brewster. 

1860,  William  Fleagle,  Andrew  Davison,  John  Downey. 

1861,  John  Downey,  Andrew  Davison,  George  Jarrett. 

1862,  John  Downey,  George  Jarrett,  D.  K.  Wunderlich. 

1863,  George  Jarrett,  D.  K.  Wunderlich. 

1864,  D.  K.  Wunderlich,  D.  B.  Martin,  W.  S.  Amberson. 

1865,  D.  B.  Martin,  W.  S.  Amberson,  M.  Martin. 

1866,  W.  S.  Amberson,  D   B.  Martin,  Samuel  W.  Nevin. 

1867,  M.  Martin,  Samuel  Nevin,  Samuel  Myers. 

1868,  Samuel  W.  Nevin,  Samuel  Myers,  Joseph  Mowers. 

1869,  Samuel  W.  Nevin,  Sainuel  Myers,  Joseph  Mowers. 

1870,  Samuel  Myers,  Joseph  Mowers,  J.  W.  Winger. 

1871,  Joseph  Mowers,  J.  W.  Winger,  John  C.  Tritle. 

1872,  J.  W.  Winger,  John  C.  Tritle,  John  A.  Sellers. 

1873,  John  A.  Sellers,  John  Cressler,  Samuel  Taylor. 

1874,  John  A.  Sellers,  John  Cressler,  H.  R.  Harnish. 

1875,  J.  Cressler,  H.  R.  Harnish,  Samuel  Taylor. 

1876,  Samuel  Taylor,  W.  H.  Blair,  William  M.  Gillau. 


The  act  of  assembly  for  the  erection  of  the  "house  for  the  em- 
ployment and  support  of  the  poor"  of  our  county  was  approved  by 
the  Governor,  March  11th,  1807.  The  second  section  of  the  act  j^ro 
vided  that  at  the  election  to  be  held  in  October,  1807,  five  persons 
should  be  elected  "to  determine  upon  and  fix  the  place  on  which  the 
buildings  should  be  erected,"  and  also  that  there  should  be  elected 
"three  jjersons  to  be  Directors  of  the  Poor,"  one  to  serve  for  one 
year,  one  for  two  years,  and  one  for  three  years,  their  terms  to  be 
determined  by  lot. 

William  Allison,  David  Fullerton,  John  Colhoun,  Colonel  Joseph 
Culbertson  and  John  Maclay,  were  elected  the  Commissioners  to  fix 
the  site  for  the  Poor  House ;  and  Robert  Liggett,  James  Robinson 
and  Ludwig  Heck  were  elected  Directors  of  the  Poor. 

The  Commissioners  selected  the   farm  of  Thomas  Lindsay   (the 

'^  '  ^% 


5T0CK  Farm  S  Res.  of   COL.Wm.  D.  D/XC 

II  St.  Thomas  Tp,  r^NffUN  Co., Pa.  (  R0.STTH0MA5 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  181 

site  of  the  present  Poor  House)  as  the  place  where  the  Poor  House 

should  be  placed  ;  and  in  the  year  1808  the  directors  purchased  it  for 

the  sum  of  eight  thousand  two  hundred  dollars.     The   farm  then  | 

contained  one  hundred  and  sixty-five  acres,  and  had  a  stone  farm  j 

house,  barn,  &c.,  upon  it.     This  house  was  somewhat  enlarged,  and  ' 

used  until  the  year  1811,  when  the  large  stone  building  now  standing  | 

was  put  up.  i 

In  the  years  18.53-'54,  the  large  brick  house  was  erected  at  a  cost  of 
*!hout  twelve  thousand  dollars.  The  farm  now  contains  about  two 
hundred  and  ten  acres. 

The  following  lists  contain  the  names  of  the  Directors  of  the 
Poor,  their  stewards,  treasurers,  attorneys,  clerks  and  physicians, 
from  the  year  1807  to  the  present  time,  so  far  as  they  could  be  ascer- 


1808,  James  Robinson,  Robert  Liggett,  Ludwig  Heck. 
180!»,  Robert  Liggett,  Ludwig  Heck,  Henry  Etter. 

1810,  Ludwig  Heck,  Henry  Etter,  Isaac  Eaton. 

1811,  Henry  Etter,  Isaac  Eaton,  Samuel  Radebaugh. 

1812,  Isaac  Eaton,  Samuel  Radebaugh. 

1813,  Samuel  Radebaugh,  Matthew  Lind.  ." 
1814, ,  Matthew  Lind,  John  Vance. 

1815,  Matthew  Lind,  John  Vance,  Philip  Berlin. 

1816,  John  Vance,  Philip  Berlin,  John  Snider. 

1817,  Philip  Berlin,  John  Snider,  John  Rudieile. 

1818,  John  Snider,  John  Rudieile,  Matthew  Patton. 

1819,  John  Rudieile,  Matthew  Patton,  D.  Washabaugh. 

1820,  Matthew  Patton,  D.  Washabaugh,  J.  Stouffer. 

1821,  D.  Washabaugh,  J.  Stouffer,  Willian^M'Kisson. 

1822,  J.  Stouffer,  William  M'Kisson,  John  Snider. 

1823,  William  M'Kisson,  John  Snider,  Thomas  Yeates. 

1824,  John  Snider, 'Thomas  Yeates,  Jacob  Heck. 

1825,  Thomas  Yeates,  Jacob  Heck,  A.  Thomjison. 

1826,  Jacob  Heck,  A.  Thompson,  John  Davison.  | 
1S27,  A.  Thompson,  John  Davison,  Thomas  Yeates. 

1828,  John  Davison,  Thomas  Yeates,  John  Vance. 

1829,  Thomas  Yeates,  John  Vance,  John  Coble. 

1830,  John  Vance,  John  Coble,  Samuel  Dechart.    , 

1831,  John  Coble,  Samuel  Dechart,  Nicholas  Baker. 
lSi2,  Samuel  Dechart,  Nicholas  Baker,  James  Davison. 

1833,  Nicholas  Baker,  James  Davison,  John  Radebaugh. 

1834,  James  Davison,  John  Radebaugh,  John  Orr. 

1835,  John  Radebaugh,  John  Orr,  Jacob  Oyster. 

1836,  John  Orr,  Jacob  Oyster.  John  Whitmore. 

1837,  Jacob  Oyster,  John  Whitmore,  William  Linn. 

182  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 


John  Whitmore,  William  Linn,  Samuel  Campbell.  '\ 

William  Linn,  Samuel  Campbell,  Philip  Nitterhouse.  '■ 

Samuel  Campbell,  Philip  Nitterhoase,  James  Davison.  ; 

Philip  Nitterhouse,  James  Davison,  Matthew  Patton.  ; 

James  Davison,  Matthew  Patton,  Upton  Washabaugh. 

Matthew  Patton,  Upton  Washabau«h,  John  Monn,  Jr. 

Upton  Washabaugh,  John  Monn,  Jr.,  Samuel  Lehman, 

John  Monn,  Jr.,  Samuel  Lehman,  John  L.  Detwiler. 

Samuel  Lehman,  John  L.  Detwiler,  Daniel  Bonebrake, 

John  L.  Detwiler,  Daniel  Bonebrake,  Fred.  Boyer.  '-- 

Daniel  Bonebrake,  Fred.  Boyer,  John  Wise. 

Fred.  Boyer,  John  Wise,  David  Hays.  .; 

John  Wise,  David  Hays,  S.  Detwiler.  • 

David  Hays,  S.  Detwiler,  Jacob  Garver.  ! 

Samuel  Lehman,  Jacob  Garver,  Martin  Newcomer.  ; 

Jacob  Garver,  Martin  Newcomer,  D.  O.  Gehr.  ; 

Martin  Newcomer,  D.  O.  Gehr,  James  Furguson.  I 

D.  O.  Gehr,  James  Furguson,  Josiah  Besore.  ,  * 

James  Furguson,  Josiah  Besore,  Jacob  Weaver. 

Josiah  Besore,  Jacob  Weaver,  M.  Gillan.  ' 

Jacob  Weaver,  M.  Gillan,  Jacob  Strickler.  | 

M.  Gillan,  Jacob  Strickler,  David  Spencer.  *        t 

Jacob  Strickler,  David  Spencer,  J.  S.  Latshaw. 

David  Spencer,  J.  S.  Latshaw,  William  Harris. 

J.  S.  Jjatshaw,  William  Harris,  Samuel  Seacrist. 

William  Harris,  Samuel  Seacrist,  John  Doebler. 

Samuel  Seacrist,  John  Dcebler,  John  H.  Criswell. 

John  K  Criswell,  John  H.  Clayton,  Martin  Heintzelman. 

John  H.  Criswell,  John  H.  Clayton,  Martin  Heintzelman, 

James  H.  Clayton*,  Martin  Heintzelman,  John  Gillan,  Jr. 

Martin  Heintzelman,  John  Gillan,  Jr.,  J.  R.  Smith. 

Martin  Heintzelman,  John  Gillan,  Jr.,  J.  R.  Smith. 

John  Gillan,  John  Smith,  Fred.  Long. 

J.  R.  Smith,  Fred.  Long,  Peter  M'Ferren. 

Fred.  Long,  Peter  M'Ferren,  David  Deatriek. 

Peter  M'Ferren,  David  Deatriek,  Jacob  Kreider. 

David  Deatriek,  Jacob  Kreider,  Amos  Stouffer. 

Jacob  Kreider,  Amos  Stouffer,  William  Bossart. 

Amos  Stouflfer,  William  Bossart,  Henry  Lutz. 

William  Bossart,  Henry  Lutz,  B.  F.  Funk. 


Daniel  Shroeder, 1808-1814 

Benjamin  Gruver, 1814-1821 

Richard  Morrow, 1821-1827 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  183 

Philip  Lauffman, 1S27-1S30 

Andrew  M'Lellan 1830-1833 

€oI.  John  Snider, 1833-1839 

David  Fegley, 1839 

William  J.  Morrow, 1840-1843 

Emanuel  Crosland, 1843-1845 

Samuel  Jeffries,  1845-1854 

David  Piper 1854-1856 

William  Shinafield, 1856-1859 

John  Bo\yman 1859 

James  Chariton, 1860-1864 

William  M'Grath, 1864-1866 

John  Ditzlear, 1866-1868 

David  Piper, 1868 

Samuel  Brandt .  1869-1873 

Joseph  Middower, 1873-1877 


David  Denny, 1808-1814 

Unknown,     .  181'1^182] 

William  Heyser,  .        .        .  • 1821-1823 

John  Sloan, 1823 

Hugh  Greenfield,  .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .  1824-1827 

Daniel  Spangler, 1827-1830 

Joseph  Pritts 1830-1832 

Henry  Smith, 1832-1835 

Jasper  E.  Brady, 1835 

William  Bard, 1836-1838 

Henry  Ruby, 1838 

Daniel  Dechert, .         .  1839-1843 

AVilliam  Flory, 1843-1845 

Daniel  S.  Fahnestock, 1845-1848 

James  Wright, 1848 

D.  S.  Fahnestock, 1849-1856 

J.  Smith  Grier,     .         . 1856-1858 

John  W.  Reed, ■  .         .         .  1858-1861 

Charles  Gelwieks, 1861-1869 

Alex.  Martin, 1869-1872 

Thomas  Metcalfe, 1872 

H.  B.  Davison, 1873-1876 


Elijah  B.  Mendenhall, 1808-1814 

F.  Hershljei'ger, 1814 

Matthew  Lind, 1815 

184  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

D.  C.  Dehart, 1816 

James  M'Kay,       ....-..,.  1817 

HeDry  Reges,         .         .         .         .     •    ,         .         .         .         ,  1818-1821 

Daniel  Spangler 1821-1823: 

Richard  Morrow, 1823-1827 

Hiram  Cox,           . 1827 

William  S.  Davis, 1828-1831 

John  Colhoun, 1831 

James  R.  Kirby, 1832 

John  Smith, J833-1855 

John  W.  Reges, 1835-1837 

Richard  Morrow, 1837-1840 

Jacob  Heck, 1840-1843 

Hugh  B.  Davison,        ........  1843-1845 

Charles  W.  Heart, 1845-1848 

John  W.  Reges, 1848-1850 


Lyman  S.  Clarke, 1851-1856 

J.  Wyeth  Douglas, 1856-185» 

Snively  Strickler, 1859-1862 

William  S.  Everett,     .        . 1862-1866 

E.  J.  Bonebrake, 1866-1869 

John  R.  Orr 1869-1873 

James  A.  M'Knight, 1873-1876 

Frank  MehafFey,           .         .        • 1876 


Abraham  Senseny, 
John  Sloan, 
Andrew  M'Dowell, 
George  B.  M'Knight, 
A.  J.  Dean, 
Samuel  D.  Culbertson, 
Peter  Fahnestock, 
N.  B.  Lane, 
Andrew  M'Dowell, 
Jeremiah  Senseny, 
D.  S.  Byrne, 
J.  Bain, 

A.  H.  Senseny,     . 
John  Lambert,     . 
J.  Evans, 
J,  C.  Richards,     . 

















Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 


William  H.  Boyle,       . 

John  Lambert,      .... 

N.  B.  Lane 

John  King,  .... 

John  Linibert,  .... 
A.  H.  Senseny,  .... 
S.  G.  Lane,  .... 

A.  H.  Senseny,  .... 
W.  H.  Boyle,  .... 
S.  G.  Lane,  .... 

James  Hamilton, 
J.  L.  Suesserott,    .... 
J.  C.  Richards,      .... 
C.  L.  Bard  and  T.  J.  M'Lanahan, 
W.  H.  Boyle,        .... 
T.  J.  M'Lanahan, 
S.  G.  Lane,  .... 

















Augustus  Bickley, 


Elected  1873. 


Zachariah  Butcher,  Lancaster  county, 
Thomas  Cookson,  "  ' 

Colonel  John  Armstrong,  Cumberland  county, 
Matthew  Henderson,  of  Cumberland  county,  to 
Matthew  Henderson,  of  Lurgan  township, 

Daniel  Henderson, 

Thomas  Kirby,  Chambersburg, 

Thomas  Poe,  Antrim,  .... 

Archibald  Fleming,  Antrim, 

William  S.  Davis, 

William  Hamilton,  Peters  or  Montgomery, 
William  S.  Davis,  Chambersburg,     . 

Seth  Kline,  Greene, 

William  .S.  Davis,  Chambersburg,     . 

Samuel  M.  Armstrong 

Hugh  Auld,  Chambersburg, 

Augustus  F.  Armstrong,  Chambersburg, 

Hugh  Auld,  Chambersburg, 







By  the  act  of  9th  April,  1850,  County  Surveyors,  were  directed  to  be 
elected  to  serve  for  the  term  of  three  years  each.     The   following 
persons  have  filled  the  otHce  : 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

Emanuel  Kiihn,  St.  Thomas,     . 
John  B.  Kaufman,  Letterkenny, 
Emanuel  Kuhn,  Chambersburg,  (1' 
John  B.  Kaufman,  Letterkenny, 
John  W.  Kuhn,    .... 


(1)  Resigned  April,  1871,  and  John  B.  Kaufman  was  appointed  for 
the  unexpired  term.  Mr.  Kaufman  was  also  elected  for  the  full  term 
in  October,  1871. 


Prior  to  the  passage  of  the  act  of  1850,  providing  fcfr  the  election  of 
District  Attorneys,  the  "State's  Attorney"  or  "Prosecuting  Attor- 
neys" were  the  "Deputies"  of  the  Attorney  General  for  the  time 
being,  appointed  by  him,  and  removable  at  his  pleasure.  Our  court 
records  prior  to  1842  having  been  burned,  I  have  not  been  able  to 
make  more  than  a  partial  list  of  our  former  Prosecuting  Attorneys, 
as  follows: 

John  Claik 1789-1790 

William  M.  Brown, 1790-1802 

William  Maxwell,  Gettysburg, 1802-1812 

William  M.  M'Dowell, 1813 

Matthew  St.  Clair  Clarke, 1819 

Frederick  Smith, 1824 

Wilson  Reilly 1842-1845 

William  R.  Rankin 1845-1847 

George  W.  Brewer, 1847-1849 

Hugh  W.  Reynolds 1849-1851 


Elected  under  the  act  of  3d  of  May,  1850,  to  serve  for  three  years, 
from  first  Monday  of  November  after  election. 

James  S.  Ross, 
Thomas  B.  Kennedy, 
Lyman  S.  Clarke, 
Lyman  S.  Clarke, 
George  Eyster, 
William  S.  Stenger, 
William  S.  Stengor, 
William  S.  Stenger, 
Theodore  M' Go  wan, 
Oliver  C.  Bowers, 



Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 



Elected  under  the  act  of  10th  April,  1867, 
1867-1870,  Addison  Imbrie,  William  Boyd. 
1870-1873,  W.  H.  H.  Mackey,  Elias  Patton. 
1873-1876,  John  Gilbert,  A.  H.  Etter. 
1876-1879,  J.  C.  M'Culloh,  Lewis  Lechron. 

to  serve  for  three  years. 


Selected  under  act  of  8th  May,  1854,  to 
1854-1857,  James  M'Dowell, 

Hugh  J.  Campbell, 
1857-1860,  Philip  M.  Shoemaker, 
1860-1863,  Philip  M.  Shoemaker, 
1863-1866,  Andrew  J.  M'Elwain, 
1866-1869,  Philip  M.  Shoemaker, 
1869-1872,  Samuel  Gelwis, 
1872-1875,  Jacob  S.  Smith, 
1875-1S78,  S.  H.Eby, 

serve  for  three  years. 

salary,  $600  per  year. 





"  1,200 
"  1,000 
"   1,000 


Thomas  Creigh,  D.  D  , 
J.  Agnew  Crawford,  D. 
John  C.  Caldwell, 
R.  Lewis  M'Cune, 

J.  Smith  Gordon, 

Samuel  C.  Alexander, 

Samuel  C.  George, 

David  K.  Richardson, 
Joseph  H.  Fleming, 


D.,  Chambersburg, 



Dry  Run, 


Welsh  Run. 


Falling  Spring. 

Central  Church. 

f  Lower    Path    Valley 
\    and  Burnt  Cabins.* 

Upper  Path  Valley. 
f  St.  Thomas andRocky 
L    Spring. 


Welsh  Run. 


A.  Stewart  Hartman,  Chambersburg,      \ 

R.  H.  Clare, 

A.  Hamilton  Shertz, 
F.  Klinefelter, 
P.  Bergstresser, 
D.  Black  welder,    . 


First  Church,  Cham 

I  Second  Church  Cham- 
\    bersburg,  (German). 

Grindstone  Hill. 



Upper  Strasburg,     Upper  Sti-asburg. 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

N.  J.  Hesson, 
B.  F.  Allemau, 
H.  B.  Winton, 
Hiram  Knodle, 

William  C.  Cremer, 

H.  I.  Comfort,       • 

Carl  Gundlach, 

H.  H.  W.  Hibshraan, 

J.  G.  Brown, 

E.  E.  Higbee,  D.  D., 

John  H.  Sykes,     . 

Jacob  Hassler, 

Isaac  M.  Hotter, 

William  J.  Stewart, 

Clearspring,  Md. 






St.  Thomas, 


Grindstone  Hill. 
St.  John's,  (German). 
Wav  nesboro. 
College  Church. 
Waynesboro  &  Mont 

St.  Thomas. 


B.  B.  Hamlin,  Presiding  Elder,   C 

W.  G.  Ferguson, 

M.  L.  Smith, 

J.  H.  M'Cord, 
H.  C.  Cheston, 
T.  M.  Griffith, 
E.  W.  Wonner, 
W.  Moses, 
A.  R.  Bender, 


Gi'een  castle, 
Mont  Alto, 


(First  Church,  Cham- 

\    bersburg. 

(King  Street  Church, 

\    Chambersburg. 






Mont  Alto. 


H.  A.  Schlichter, 
W.  A.  Dickson, 
W.  B.  p]vers, 
W.  H.  Shearer, 
D.  W.  Proffitt, 
S.  T.  Wallixce, 
William  Quigly, 

H.  Stoiiffer,  Sr., 
W.  Humberger, 
Augustus  Bigley, 
J.  Fohl, 
J.  M.  Bishop, 
W.  H.  Rebok, 

Chambersburg,         Chambersburj 

Spring  Run, 




Spring  Run. 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  189 


H.  C.  Svventzel,     .        .        Chambersburg,        Chambersburg. 


T.  J.  Fleming,  Pastor,         Chambersburg,        Chambersburg. 
Joseph  Kalin,  assistant,  "  " 


T   M   Carvell  Chflmbersbnro-   T  Chambersburg,   Orrs- 

J.M.  caivell,  .        .        Chambeisburg,^    town  &  Fayetteville. 


John  Hunsecker,         .....        Letterkenny  township. 


John  O.  Lehman,  .....  Letterkenny  township. 

Peter  Wadle,  Greene  " 

Philip  Parret,  

Benjamin  Lesher, near  Mercersburg. 


Samuel  Stoner Guilford  township. 

Jacob  S.  Lehman, "  " 


Henry  Strickler,         .        •        .        .        .        Montgomery  township. 

Jacob  Frantz, Washington 

Martin  Hoover, "  " 

John  Bonebrake, ■     Waynesboro. 


Joseph  Wenger, Guilford      '-  township. 

Henry  Lesher,  Antrim  " 

Samuel  Zook,  Southampton        " 

Aaron  Wenger,  .        .        .        .        .  Washington  " 


John  Burkhart, Lurgan  township. 

John  Bert,            "  " 

Noah  Zook, Southampton  " 

Martin  Oberholtzer, Greene  " 

Michael  Wenger, "  " 

Peter  Bert,            Letterkenny  " 

William  Tanner, Peters  " 

Christian  Stoner, Montgomery  " 

Jacob  Lesher,               Antrim  " 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

Abraham  Lesher, 

Antrim           township 

Isaac  Shank, 

"                         " 

L.  C.  Wenger, 


Noah  Myers, 

Guilford          township 

George  Wenger, 

"                         " 

John  Sollenberger, 


"                         " 

Eli  Martin, 

Hamilton               " 

Benjamin  Myers, 

Montgomery         " 



Joseph  Gipe, Guilford          township 

David  Buck, 


Qiiincy                   " 

Henry  Kontz, 


Antrim                  " 

John  Shank, 

u                                  u 

Jacob  Price, 


Washington         " 

Adam  Pile, 


St.  Thomas    township. 

Abraham  Pile,     . 


14                                                11 

John  Lenard, 

1(                                                t( 

Daniel  Miller,      . 


Daniel  Miller,      . 

Hamilton              " 

David  Bouebrake, 

Quincy                  " 

Jonathan  Baker, 



Christian  Royer, 


(1                       i( 

Benjamin  StoufFer, 



Jacob  Oyler,.^ 



Jacob  Snider, 



Daniel  Good, 


Washington  township. 

Daniel  Baker, 

(1                   ii 

Henry  Etter, 


Greene                   " 



John  Riddlesberger, 
John  Walk, 




The  fact  that  an  effort  was  made,  years  ago,  under  the  leadership 
of  Sidney  lligdon,  one  of  the  first  Presidents  of  the  Mormon  Church, 
to  build  their  promised  new  "  City  of  Ziou  "  within  the  borders  of 
our  county,  has  passed  away  from  the  recollection  of  most  of  our 
]jeople.  And  yet  such  was  the  fact.  Joseph  Smith,  the  founder  of 
Mornionism,  and  Sidney  Rigdon  were  intimate  acquaintances  for  a 
considerable  time  before  Mormonism  was  first  heard  of.     Together 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County.  191 

they  planned  the  great  imposture  which  tliey  subsequently  brought 
into  life  as  the  "  Cluirch  of  Jtsus  Christ  of  the  Latter  Day  Saints." 
It  was  started  at  Manchester,  New  York,  in  April,  1830.  In  Janu- 
ary, 1831,  Smith,  who  claimed  to  be  the  "  Prophet  of  the  Lord,"  led 
his  followers  to  Kirtland,  Ohio,  which  he  then  said  was  to  be  the 
seat  of  the  City  of  the  New  Jerusalem.  There  they  remained  until 
January,  1838,  organizing  the  church,  appointing  presidents,  bishops 
and  apostles,  and  sending  out  missionaries  to  all  the  ends  of  the 
earth.  They  built  a  large  and  costly  temple,  which  it  took  them 
three  years  to  erect.  There  they  had  a  bank,  run  by  Smith  and 
Rigdon,  which  failed  disastrously  for  its  noteholders  and  depositors, 
and  Smith  and  Rigdon  fled  to  Missouri  to  avoid  arrest.  Their  de- 
luded followers  went  after  them,  being  called  so  to  do  by  a  new  rev- 
elation from  Smith,  as  prophet.  They  were  soon  driven  out  of 
Missouri,  Smith  and  Rigdon  having  been  tarred  and  feathered  by 
the  indignant  Missourians.  and  came  back  to  Commerce,  Carthage 
county,  Illinois,  in  1840,  w^here  they  founded  the  city  of  Nauvoo, 
and  built  a  magnificent  temple.  There,  in  July,  1843,  Smith  pro- 
mulgated the  revelation  in  relation  to  polygamy,  making  a  plu- 
rality of  wives  one  of  the  doctrines  of  the  new  church.  It  was  not 
well  received  by  many  of  his  co-workers.  Dissensions  arose;  the 
church  split  into  factions  ;  anarchy  and  lawlessness  were  wide 
spread.  The  people  of  the  State  of  Illinois  arose  in  arms  against 
the  doctrines  and  crimes  of  those  who  had  thus  come  amongst  them 
as  fugitives  from  the  neighboring  State  of  Missouri.  Smith  and  his 
brother  Hyrum,  and  some  sixteen  others,  were  arrested  and  impris- 
oned at  Carthage,  the  county  seat,  where,  on  the  evening  of  the 
27th  of  June,  1844,  Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith  were  killed  by  an 
armed  mob.  The  death  of  their  prophet  caused  much  temporary 
confusion  among  the  saints.  Sidney  Rigdon  aspired  to  succeed  him 
as  head  of  the  church,  but  Brigham  Young  was  chosen  first  presi- 
dent, and  Rigdon,  being  contumaceous,  was  cut  off  from  the  com- 
munion of  the  faithful,  cursed,  and  solemnly  delivered  over  to  the 
Devil,  "  to  be  buffeted  in  the  flesh  for  a  thousand  years."  In  a  short 
time  Rigdon,  who  had  a  considerable  number  of  followers,  seceded 
and  came  eastward  to  Pittsburg,  Pennsylvania,  where  they  estab- 
lished a  paper  through  which  to  spread  their  doctrines.  But  public 
sentiment  being  against  them,  they  resolved  to  remove  to  a  more 
quiet  neighborhood. 

In  September,  1845,  the  city  of  Nauvoo  was  cannonaded  for  three 
days  by  the  forces  of  the  State  of  Illinois,  its  inhabitants  driven  out 
at  the  point  of  the  bayonet,  and  the  city,  with  its  magnificent  tem- 
ple and  public  buildings,  wholly  destroyed.  About  the  same  time  two 
of  Rigdon's  emissaries  came  through  the  southern  partof  our  county, 
on  the  turnpike  leading  from  Mercersburg  to  Greencastle.  Stopping 
upon  the  bridge  spanning  the  Conococheague  creek,  about  a  mile 

192  '  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Counti/. 

and  a  quarter  west  of  Greencastle,  they  looked  over  the  farm  of 
Andrew  G.  M'Lanahan,  Esq.,  which  lay  spread  out  just  north  of 
them,  and  said  that  "  there  was  the  place  the  Lord  had  shown  them 
in  visions  was  to  he  the  site  of  the  City  of  the  New  Jerusalem."  In 
a  short  time  afterwards  Mr.  Peter  Boyer,  a  wealthy  farmer  of 
Allegheny  county,  Pennsylvania,  came  on  and  contracted  with  Mr. 
M'Lanahan  for  his  farm  of  four  hundred  acres,  at  the  price  of  four- 
teen thousand  seven  hundred  dollars.  Six  hundred  dollars  were 
imid  in  cash,  and  on  the  3d  of  April,  1846,  Mr.  M'Lanahan  received 
five  thousand  four  hundred  dollars  additional,  gave  a  deed  and  took 
a  judgment  lor  the  balance  of  the  purchase  money— eight  thousand 
seven  hundred  dollars — payable  April  1st,  1847.  The  purchaser  at 
once  took  possession,  and  in  a  short  time  Sidney  Rigdon,  Elders 
Hyde  and  Heber,  Judge  Richards,  William  E.  M'Lellan,  Hatch, 
Hinkle,  Zody,  Grimes,  Ringer  and  others  joined  them.  The 
band  numbered  from  one  to  two  hundred  all  told.  The  most 
of  them  went  upon  the  farm,  where  they  said  that  they  intended  to 
lay  out  a  great  city,  build  a  magnificent  temple  and  other  needed 
public  edifices.  Quite  a  number  of  them  located  in  the  town  of 
Greencastle,  where  they  established  a  weekly  newspaper,  called  the 
"  Conococheague  Herald,"  under  the  editorship  of  Mr,  E.  Robinson, 
the  church  printer.  Among  them  were  professioiial  men,  mechan- 
ics and  farmers,  and  one  or  two  who  had  been  heavy  capitalists  in 
Pittsburg  when  they  joined  the  band,  but  their  riches  had  been 
squandered  subsequently.  Sidney  Rigdon  was  their  Prophet  and 
High  Priest.  Every  Sunday  they  held  services  in  the  barn  on  the 
farm,  Rigdon  generally  doing  the  preaching;  occasionally  one  of 
the  elders  held  forth.  Their  meetings  were  largely  attended  by  the 
peoj^leof  the  neighborhood,  more  from  curiosity  to  hear  what  would 
be  said  than  from  any  similarity  of  thought  or  feeliug  with  them. 
They  made  few  converts  amongst  our  people— not,  perhaps,  over 
half  a  dozen  in  the  whole  county.  They  talked  largely  about  what 
they  intended  to  do — about  laying  out  avenues  and  streets,  building 
glass  works,  cotton  mills,  &c.  But  most  of  them  lived  in  idleness 
the  while,  and  all  their  plans  soon  came  to  naught.  Their  money 
was  soon  spent;  death  swung  his  scythe  amongst  them  and  cut 
down  quite  a  number  of  them  ;  others  became  discouraged  and  left ; 
they  could  not  meet  their  indebtedness  due  to  Mr.  M'Lanahan  on 
the  1st  of  April,  1847,  and  the  farm  was  sold  at  9herifl''s  sale  and 
bought  in  by  Mr.  M'Lanahan,  in  August  of  that  year,  who  again 
obtained  possession  of  it  in  November  following.  After  this  death- 
blow to  their  hopes  and  prospects  all  discipline  and  organization 
were  at  an  end,  and  the  band  dissolved.  A  majority  of  them  went 
to  Salt  Lake,  whilst  others  joined  the  Gentiles  and  started  life  anew. 
In  the  pines,  on  the  farm,  a  number  of  them  lie  buried,  and  the 
spot  is  known  as  the  "Mormon  Grave-yard." 

Jtistorical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 


Brigliam  Young  died  at  Salt  Lake  City,  August  29th,  1877,  aged 
seventy-six  years.  It  is  thought  by  many  tliat  Mornionism  will 
not  long  survive  this  event ;  that  there  is  no  person  among  his  fol- 
lowers who  will  be  able  to  keep  them  together  as  he  did  ;  that  divi- 
sions and  heart  burnings  will  inevitably  arise,  no  difference  upon 
whose  shoulders  his  mantle  may  descend,  and  that  disintegration 
and  dissolution  must  speedily  follow.  An  historian  cannot  foretell 
the  future.  It  is  his  ijrovince  to  speak  of  the  2^ci^t,  and  Time  alone 
will  show  what  is  to  become  of  this  great  imposture  of  the  nine- 
teenth century. 


James  K.  Davidsoi 
William  Grubb, 
Adam  Carl, 
A.  A.  Miller, 

D.  Rench  Miller, 
Thomas  M.  Kennedy 
George  Carl, 

A.  S.  Bonebrake, 

E.  A.  Hering,      . 
Isaac  N   Snively, 
Benjamin  Frantz, 
J.  Burns  Amberson, 
John  Ripple, 

A.  H.  8trickler, 
G.  W.  B-teler, 
Ezekiel  Hartzell, 
Henry  K.  Byers, 
William  C.  L:uie, 
Robert  S.  Brow u son 
Eliab  Negley,      . 
D.  F.  Unger, 
Thomas  H.  Walker, 
Frank  Oellig, 
John  S.  Flickinger, 
M.  G.  Alexander, 
John  M.  Van  Tries, 
Robert  W.  Ramsey, 
George  II.  Caufman, 
Charles  H.  Garver, 
J.  C.  Gillaiul,       . 
H.  X.  Bonbrake, 
Hiram  Huhrman, 
Charles  T.  Maclay, 






St.  Thomas. 

Caufman's  Station. 
New  Franklin. 
Mont  Alto. 
Green  village. 

194  IRstorieal  Sketch  of  Franklin 

"iDavid  Maelay,     . 
T.  B.  lleifsnider, 
William  A.  Hunter,  . 
James  M.  Gelwix, 
Hetuy  G.  Chritzaian, 
Williain  P.  Noble,      . 
Joseph  H.  M'Clintic, 
William  A.  Hiiicliman, 
J.  B.  M'Doiiald, 
Samuel  R.  Ickes, 
John  H.  Flickinger,  . 
W.  O.  Skinner,  . 
D    F.  lioyer, 
M.  M.  Gerry,       . 
John  Montgomery,     . 

A.  H.  Senseny,    . 

B.  Rush  Senseny, 
Edgar  N.  Senseny,      . 
Jacob  L.  Suesserott,    . 
Samuel  G.  Lane, 
William  H.  Boyle,     . 
T.  Johnston  AI'Lanahan, 
John  Seibert, 
S.  F.  Reynolds,  (Eclectic) 
B.  Bowman,  (Homeopath 
I.  Y.  Reed, 
J.  F.  Novvell.  " 



Green  village. 


Upper  Strasbui 

Welsh  Run. 


Dry  Run. 

Shady  Grove. 




John  Clark,     . 
Robert  Magaw, 
Thomas  Hartley,    . 
James  Hamilton,    . 
Thomas  Duncan,    . 
Thomas  Smith, 
Ross  Thompson,     . 
Ralph  liowie, 
James  Ross, 
James  Riddle, 
Stephen  Cliambers, 
John  M.  iM'Dowell 
Andrew  Duiilop,     . 
William  Bradford,  Jr. 
James  Carson, 
James  Smith, 

admitted  September  term,  1784 
"         December   term. 



Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

Jasper  Yeatos, 
Samuel  Riddle, 
David  Watts, 
James  Orbison, 
M'Steel  Sample,      . 
*Thomas  Hartley, 
*Thf)mas  Duncan, 
*James  Riddle, 
Andrew  Dun  lop,    . 
William  M.  Brown, 
John  Smith, 
*Sainiiel  Riddle,      . 
George  Smith, 
*John  Clark, 
Richard  Smith,       . 
James  Duncan, 
J<.]in  Cadwallader, 
George  Armstrong, 

William  Claggctt, 

Jonathan  Henderson, 

William  Barber,     . 

James  Crawford,     . 

Parker  Campbell,   . 

William  Clark, 

Paul  INIorrow, 

James  Brotherton, 

Samuel  Hughes,     . 

Thomas  Baily, 

Joseph  Shannon,    . 

George  Jennings,    . 

William  Reynolds, 

John  F.  Jack, 

Josei)h  Paiks, 

Robert  Haselhirst, 

James  Kelly,' 

S.  W.  Culbertson,  . 

Robert  Hays, 

William  Orbison,  . 

William  JNIaxwell, 

Jonatiian  Haight, 

James  Daubins, 

William  D.  Kelly,  (fro 

William  Ross. 

admitted  March 
"         December 

"         March 



term,  1790 










New  Jersey) 


"      1799 


"      ISOl 




"      1802 


"      1803 

*  Those  gentlemen  marked  thus  were  re-sworn  after  the  adoption  of  tha 
Constitution  of  1790. 

J  96 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

Alex,  Lyon,    . 


John  T.  Stull,  (from  Maryland] 

Josiah  Espy, 

James  Carson, 

Thomas  G.  M'Culloh, 

Andrew  Boggs, 

Bamuel  Leeper, 

David  Snively, 

Upton  Lawrence,   . 

George  Chambers, 

Thomas  H.  Crawford, 

James  M.  Russell, 

John  M'Connelly, 

Andrew  Carnthers, 

Elijah  Mendenhall, 

William  L.  Brent, 

Wilson  Elliott, 

Charles  B   Ross,     . 

George  Ross,  . 

Daniel  Hughes, 

George  Metzger, 

Alexander  Mahon, 

M.  St.  Clair  Clarke, 

Richard  W.  Lane, 

John  Larkel, 

James  Buchanan, 

William  IitV'Id, 

John  Johnson, 

William  S.  Fiuley, 

James  Dun  lop, 

Paul  I.  Hetich, 

Bamuel  Liggett, 

James  M'Dowell,    . 

William  Chambers, 

Frederick  .Smith,    . 

Burr  Harrison, 

Samuel  Ramsay,     . 

Hugh  Torrence, 

Samuel  Alexander, 

James  Riddle, 

Robert  M.  M'Dowell, 

John  F.  Denny,      . 

Joseph  Chami)ers, 

Eben^zer  S.  Fin  ley, 

John  Williamson, 

admitted  April  term,  1803 

"      1806 
8th.     " 
"  term,     " 

January       12th,  1807 

November     9th,     " 
10th,     " 

admitted     " 

u  u 



admitted  August        term,     " 
"         October  "        " 

admitted,  1812 


id  milted 



January       term,  1813 
admitted,  1813 



April  term,     " 

admitted,  1819 

.Vugust        term,     " 

admitted,     " 


August         21th,     " 

admitted     " 

Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 


Archibald  I.  Findlay,    . 
George  Augustus  Shryock, 
Jacob  Madeira, 
Richard  Bar(J, 
John  A.  Sterrett,    . 
Andrew  Davison,  . 
William  Miller,  Jr., 
Thomas  Chambers, 
David  R.  Denny,    . 
John  8.  Riddle]      . 
Rbade  Washington, 
Tiiomos  Harbison, 
William  S.  Buchanan, 
Leonard  S.  Johns, 
Michael  Gallaher, 
Jasper  Ewing  Brady, 
William  M.  Greer, 
James  M.  Reynolds, 
Andrew  P.  Wilson, 
James  X.  M'Lanahan, 
James  H.  Hepburn, 
James  Nill, 
John  M  Ginley,      . 
Daniel  Denny. 
Joseph  Minnick,    . 
Robert  M' Lei  land, 
Humphrey  Robison, 
Andrew  Howlett,  . 
Robert  M.  Bard,     . 

A.  J.  Durboraw,     . 
N.  C.  tSnider, 
John  W.  Reges, 

B.  Bordley  Crawford, 
James  W.  Buchanan, 
Wilson  Reilly, 
Robert  Quigley,     •. 

C.  S.  Eyster, 
James  W.  M'Kinstry, 
William  C.  Aughinbaugh, 
William  M'Lellan, 
Joseph  Nil!, 
Experience  Estabrook, 
John  C.  Williamson, 
William  R.  Rankin, 
Theodore  Friend,   . 
George  Chambers,  Jr., 

admitted  April  21st,  1821 

admitted  August        term,  1822 
admitted,  1823 









August         loth,     " 
admitted,  182-t 


August         Uth,     " 
admitted,     " 
January       11th, 1830 

admitted,     " 
April  8th,     " 

admitted     " 

November  15th,     " 
admitted,  1832 

January        Uth,  1834 
admitted,     " 

April  4th,  183^ 

admitted,     " 

October  2d, 





Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

JjuiiPH  C.  Moody,    . 
Isaac  H.  M'C.iiilpy, 
Hugh  W.  Reynolds, 
Jolm  A.  Powell,     . 
E.  Crawford  Washington, 
E.  M.  Biddle, 
Frederiek  Watts,    . 
Samuel  H.  Tate,     . 
Alexander  H.  M'Culloh, 
Cyrus  G.  French,   . 
W.  V.  Davis, 
Edward  F.  Stewart, 
Alexander  F.  Thompson, 
William  Baker,      . 
Hon.  James  Coojier, 
David  F.  Eohlson, 
Jacob  H.  Heyser,   . 
Benjamin  Chambers, 
Lewis  C.  Levin, 
James  S.  Ross, 
Abner  M.  Fuller,    . 
Louis  M.  Hughes, 
Alexander  Thomson,  J 
George  W.  Brewer, 
John  M.  Radebaugh, 
Henry  A.  Mish, 
Robert  P.  M'Clure, 
John  Scott, 
J.  Parker  Fleming, 
Alfred  H.  Smith,    . 
Victorine  N.  Firor, 
Washington  Crooks, 
Frederick  M.  Adams, 
John  C.  Culbertson, 
Frederick  Smith,   . 
John  Cessna, 
Edward  G.  Behm, 
Thomas  B.  Kennedy, 
J.  Randolph  Coffroth, 
Perry  A.  Ri(;e, 
Lyman  S.  Clarke,  , 
Henry  L.  Fisher,   . 
Thomas  M.  Carlisle, 
Thomas  B.  M'Farland 


admitted,  1840 
April  lOtli, 










17th,  1848 
Noveml)er     2d, 

August         17th,  1849 
January       25th,  1850 

dmitted  Auuiist 


Hlslorical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 


John  G.  Lemon,     . 
William  Adams, 
Boliver  B.  Bonner, 
David  R.  B.  Nevin, 
Joiin  Dush, 
J.  M'Dowell  Sharpe, 
A.  R.  Corny  11, 
William  V.'  Davis, 
Andrew  N.  Rankin, 
Frederick  Watts,    . 
Thomas  L.  Fletcher, 
Columbus  F.  Bonner, 
James  Buciianaii  Bog 
Thomas  A.  Boyd,  , 
Geoige  F.  Cain, 
Wiilliain  J.  Baer,  . 
James  P.  M'Cliiitoek, 
J.  W.  Douglas, 
William  Carlisle,    . 
Fretierick  fc?.  Stumbaug 
James  Allison,  Jr., 
George  Eyster, 
Hiram  C.  Keyser, 
A.  J.  Cline,     . 
John  Kyle, 
Piiidp  Hainman,    . 
F.  A.  Tritle,    . 
Michael  B.  Doyle,  , 
David  H.  Wiles,     . 
A.  K.  JNl'Clure, 
Israel  Test, 
James  H.  Bratten, 
George  W.  Welsh, 
John  Robisoii, 
George  Schley, 
A.  K.  Blester, 
H.  J.  Cam  1. bell,      . 
H,  y.  Cassidy, 
J.  C.  Kuiikel, 
W.  H.  Miller, 
William  S.  Everett, 
D.  Watson  Rowe,  . 
Cliarles  HumniM',     . 
J.  D.  W.  Gillelan, 
C.  A.  M'Guigan,    . 
J.  P.  Rhodes, 

admitted  April  10th,  1800 

January       22d,    1851 















January       17th,  1853 
April  12tli,     " 

January        17th,  1854 

April  12th,     " 

June  6th,     " 

August  15th,  " 
November  2d,  '• 
April  9th,  1855 





















9th,  1858 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

John  R.  Orr,   . 

Robert  P.  M'Kibbin, 

Calvin  M.  Duncan, 

Snively  Slrickler,  . 

A.  D.  Furguson,     . 

William  C.  Logan, 

C.  M.  Barton, 

T.  J.  Nill, 

John  VV.  Goettman, 

Charles  H,  Taylor, 

Thomas  X.  Orr, 

William  Kennedy, 

J.  A.  S.  Mitchell,   . 

David  W.  Chambers, 

Henry  G.  Smith,    . 

E.  J.  Bonebrake,    . 

Hiram  M.  White,  . 

George  M.  Stenger, 

Jonathan  C.  Dickson, 

T.  J.  M'Grath, 

Hastings  Gehr, 

Leonard  C.  Pittinos, 

Benjamin  K-  Goodyear 
William  S   Stenger, 
Jeremiah  Cook, 
Ross  Forward, 
George  A.  Smith,  , 
John  Stewart, 
Samuel  Lyon, 
D.  W.  Thrush, 
Amos  Slaymaker,  . 
George  O.  Seilhamer, 
William  Etter, 
J.  Montgomery  Irwin, 
William  H.  Hocken berry, 
Joseph  Douii'las, 
William  M.  Mervin, 
John  W.  Taylor,     . 
Jarrett  T.  Richards, 
K.  Shannon  Taylor, 
J.  Porter  lirown, 
Jacob  S.  Eby, 
S.  J.  Henderson, 
George  Cliami)er3, 
Stephen  W.  Hays, 
Theodore  M'Gowan, 

admitt'-d  April 


12th,  1858 


October        31st,      " 

January       2Sth,  1859 
April  14th,     " 

















24  th, 






































Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 


Claudius  B.  M'Kinstry 
Amos  S.  Smith, 
Joseph  M.  M'Clure, 
John  S.  M'Cuue,  . 
Wm.  M.  Penrose, 
Adam  Keller, 
J.  B.  Cessna, 

A.  D.  MerricI^, 
F.  M.  Darby, 
Wm.  F.  Duffield, 
John  D.  DeGolly, 
Wm.  U.  Brewer, 
John  A.  Hyssong, 
John  M.  McDowell, 
T.  F.  Garver, 
John  A.  Robinson, 
Lewis  W.  Detrich, 
John  C   Zeller,       . 
Ed.  Stake,       . 
John  R.  Miller,     . 

J.  Alexander  Simpson 

B.  Frank  Winger, 
Andrew  M'llwain, 
W\  T.  Cressler.       . 

C.  Watson  M'Keehan 
J.  R.  Gaff,       . 
Josiah  Funck, 
Cyrus  Lantz, 

S.  S.  M'Lanahan, 
B.  M.  Nead, 
Jos.  M'Nulty, 
James  A.  M'Knight, 
A.  G.  Huber, 
T.  H.  Edwards,     . 
H.  B.  Woods, 
M.  Williams, 
Andrew  Gregg  M'Lan 
Dan.  H   Wingerd, 
Wm.  A.  Morrison, 
A.  G.  Miller,  Jr., 
Franklin  Mehaflfey, 
O.  C.  Bowers, 
John  Adams  M'AUen, 
Jacob  D.  Ludwig, 
Joshua  W.  Sharpe, 
W.  S.  Alexander, 
Charles  Suesserott, 

admitted  August         13th,  1867 
16th,     " 
"         November    1st,        " 
January        2nth,  1868 
27th,     ' 

April  14th,  1868 

21st,      " 
August  12th,      " 

October         27th,     " 

"         December     15th,     " 

April  12th,  1869 

"         June  1st,        " 

April  21st,   1870 

August  8th,       " 

"         December  21st,      '• 

24th,     " 
"  January        25th,  1871 

Marcli  12th,  1871 



Februasy      6th,    1872 

7th,       " 
June  4th,    1872 

October  28th,  1872 
January  20th,  1873 
April  14th,    " 

17th,     " 
June  3rd,       " 

August  11th,     " 

November   14th,     " 
17th,     " 
January       19th,  1874 
September  7th,    1875 
April  28th,  1876 

June  26th,  1877 


On  page  38,  among  the  physicians  in  Chanihershurg  in  1786-'88, 
read  George  Clingan,  instead  of  George  Slocni. 



Abraham,  Captain  Noah, 85 

Academies  and  Colleges, 56 

Acreage  of  the  County, 26 

"       State, 7 

Alexander,  Captain  William,  his  company,        .         .        .  105 

Antrim  township,  formation  of, 16, 125 

Armstrong,  Colonel  Joseph, ■  "66 

Arts,  the  lost  in  the  county, 121 

Assembly,  first  members  of,            29 

Associate  Judges,              168 

Attorneys,  in  1786-'88 •  38 

"            general  list  of, 194 

"            to  Poor  Directors, 184 

Baltimore,  Lord,  grant  to, 12 

Banks  in  county, 54 

Baptists,  Seventh  Day,  clergy  of, 190 

Bard,  Captain  Thomas,  his  company, 102 

Blair,  Rev.  Samuel, 74 

Brady,  Captain  Samuel,          .......  66 

Brown  John,  his  raid,     ........  156 

Catholic  Clergy,        .        '. 189 

Chambers,  General  James,     .......  70,  89 

''          his  first  company  roll 71 

Chambersburg,  when  laid  out, 22 

In  1784-'8S, '       .         .  38 

Changes  in  population,  .        .        .     •, 115 

Chaplains  to  Poor  House, 185 

Church  of  God,  clergy  in, 189 

Clergymen  in  county,     .......  187 

Clerks,  of  Commissioners, 178 

of  the  Courts, 172 

of  the  Poor  House, 183 

Colleges  and  Academies, 50 

Commissioners  of  county,  list  of, 30,176 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  Counfi/. 

Commissioners,  Jury,  list  of, 
Common  Schools, 

"  "         Superintendents  of, 

Congressmen,  first  election  of, 

"  list  of, 

Constitutional  Conventions, 
Coroners,  list  of, 
Councillors,  election  of, 
County,  organization  of, 
"         Auditors, 
"        Commissioners, 
"         Coroners, 
"        Courts, 

"         Criminal  history  of, 
"        Lieutenants, 
"        Surveyors, 
"        Treasurers, 
Court  Hoiise,  first  erected. 
Criminal  history  of  county,  . 
Culbertson,  Captain  Saiiiuel  D.,  company 
Cumberland  county,  when  organized, 
Cumberland  Valley,  First  settlement, 
"  "        Division  of. 

In  1730-'60, 
"  "        In  the  Revolution, 

"  -    "        Railroad, 

Deputy  Surveyors,  list  of,        .         .        . 
Directors  of  Poor,  list  of. 
District  Attorneys,  list  of, 
Dunn,  Captain  Samuel  D.,  company  roll, 
Durham,  Jack,  convicted  of  murde;. 
Early  settlements  in  county. 
Election  districts,  old. 

Elections,  first, 

Episcopal  clergy, 

Executive  Couneil,*Supreme, 
Fan  net  township,  erection  of, 
Fenton,  Colonel  James,  his  regiment, 
Findlay,  Captain  John,  company  roll, 

"  "  "     Elected  Colonel, 

First  regiment,  Cumberland  county,    . 
First  township,  Cumberland  county,    . 
Flanagan,  Captain  John,  company  roll, 
Franklin  county,  acreage  in, 

"  "        Area  and  location, 










29, 164 



30, 176 











8,  9,  14 






















*  7 


Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 


Franklin  county,  First  election  in, 

'  "        Geological  features, 

"  "        Organization  of, 

"  ''        Population, 

"  "        Soil,  topography,  &c., 

Franklin  township,  erection  of,     . 
French  and  Indian  wars  of  1744-'o6,    . 
Frontier  forts,  ..... 


Gordon,  Captain  Samuel,  company  roll. 
Grant  to  William  Pen n. 
Green  township,  erection  of, 
Guilford  township,     "  "  .         . 

Hamilton  township,  "  "  .        . 

Hanna  John,  conviction  for  murder,    . 
Harper,  Captain  Michael,  company  roll, 
Hays,  Captain  Patrick, 
Hopewell  township,  formation  of, 
House  of  Representatives,  members  of, 
Independence,  war  for, 
Inn  Keepers  in  1786-'88, 
Irvine,  Colonel  William,  his  regiment, 
Irvvio,  Colonel  Jared,  his  regiment. 
Jail,  old,  .... 

Johnston,  James,  Sr., 

"  John, 

"  Colonel  James, 

"  "        Thomas,     . 

Dr.  Robert,      . 
Judges,  President  and  Associate, 

"      Under  constitution  of  1776, 

"  1790,       . 
Judicial  districts,  .... 

Jury  Commissioners,       .... 
Justices  in  1786-'88,  .... 

Justices  who  were  Judges, 
Land  in  the  county,         .... 
"  "        State",  .... 

Lancaster  county,  organization  of. 
Laws  in  force  in  l784-'88, 
Letterkenny  township,  organization  of. 
Liberty  poles,  erection  of,       . 
Lieutenants  and  Sub  Lieutenants, 

Lost  Arts, 

Lurgan  township,  organization  of, 





16,  50 


37, 135 






















35, 168 



58,  168 














Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 

Lutheran  clergy,  list  of, 
Magavv,  Colonel  Robert, 
Magaw,  Dr.  William, 
Maryland,  Grant  for. 
Mason  &  Dixon's  Line,  history  of, 
M'Cammont,  ISIajor  James,    . 
M'Kean  John,  convicted  of  murder. 
Men  of  mark  in  politics, 
Mennonite  clergy,  list  of. 
Merchants  in  1786-'88,     . 
Metal  township,  erection  of  . 
Methodist  clergy,  list  of, 
Mexican  War,  .         .         .         . 

Military  Record,       .... 
Militia,  lieutenants  of,     . 
Minerals  in  county, 
Montgomery  township,  erection  of, 
Mormonism,  history  of,  . 
Murders,  convictions  for, 
Murtaugh  John,  conviction  for  murder 
New  Castle,  location  of. 
New  England,  extent  of. 
New  Jersey,  grant  for. 
Newspapers  in  Franklin  county, 
Offices,  Public,  location  of  old, 
Paper,  manufuctnre  of, 
Patton,  Captain  Samuel,  company  rol 
Penn,  William,  grant  to, 
•'  "  Landing  of,  . 

Death  of, 
Pennsylvania,  grant  for 

"  Location  and  price  o 

Physicians  in  1786-'88, 

"  1876,  list  of,       . 
Piper,  Colonel  William,  his  regiment, 
Poor  House,  history  of,  .         . 

Population  in  1786  and  since, 

"         Changes  in. 
Post  Offices,  establishment  of. 
Postal  facilities  in  1788, 
Potter,  General  James, 
President  Judges, 
Presbyterian  clergy,  list  of,    . 
Prosecuting  Attorneys,  list  of, 
'Protestant  Episcopal  clergy,  list  of, 

Historical  SkeAch  of  Franklin  Coicnftj. 


Prothonotaries,  list  of,  ... 

Proviucial  Conference  of  177(), 

Public  buildings  and  offices, 

Purviance,  Colonel  John,  his  regiment, 

Quincy  township,  erection  of, 

Raraage,  Josiah,  convection  of  murder, 

Railroads  in  our  county, 

Rebellion,  the  war  of,      .... 

Reformed  clergy,  list  of, 

Reges,  Captain  Henry,  his  company  roll 

Registers  and  Recorders,  list  of,     . 

Representatives,  list  of,  ... 

Rippey,  Captain  William,  his  companj^  rol 

River  Brethren,  clergy  of,      . 

Robison,  Captain  Andrew,  company  roll, 

Route  from  east  to  west. 

Saint  Thomas  township,  erection  of,    . 

Schools,  common,  establishment  of, 

Scotch  Irish,  history  of, 

Senators,  list  of,        ....         . 

Seventh  Day  Baptists,  clergy  of,  . 

Sheriffs,  list  of, 

Slavery,  abolition  of,        ...         . 
Smith,  Captain  Abraham,  liis  company  r 
Smith,  Colonel  Ahnihsxm, 
Smith,  Colonel  James,     .... 
Smith,  Captain  John,  survey  by,  . 
Snider,  Colonel  Jeremiah,  liis  company  an 
Stage  Coaches,  .        .        .        .        . 

Stake,  Captain  Jacob,      .... 
Steele,  i?ei'erencZ  Captain  John,     .        .     * 
Soldiers. .Three  Month's  Men, 

"        Six  Month's  JNIen,    . 

"        Nine  Month's  Men, 

•'        One  Year's  Men,      ... 

"        Three  Year's  Men,  . 

"         Nine  Month's,  drafted,    . 

"        Independent  Batteries,    . 

"        Militia  and  Emergency  Men, 
Southampton  townshiji,  erection  of, 
Steward.sof  the  Poor  House,  list  of. 
Straw  Paper,  manufacture  of. 
Superintendents  of  common  schools,    . 

Supreme  Court, 

Supreme  Executive  (,'ouiicil. 


d  re 




30,  33 





56, 107 




29, 166 



































Jlistorical  Sketch  of  I'ranklin  County. 


Surveyors,  county, 185 

Swedish  colony,        , 12 

Talbott,  Coto?^e^  Jeremiah,  company  rolls,           ...  82 

Taxables  in  county, 50 

Taxes,  early, 15,  36 

Thompson,  Colonel  William, 70,  75 

Towns  and  villages  in  county,       ......  140 

Townships,  formation  of, 15,  37, 124 

Transi^ortation  last  century, 21,51 

Treasurers  of  Poor  House, 183 

Troops  in  Whisky  Insurrection, 49 

Tunkers,  list  of  their  clergymen, 190 

Turnpikes,  list  and  history  of, 52 

United  Brethren  in  Christ,  clergy  of,  .        .        .        .        .  188 

War  for  Independence, -.        .  22 

W^ar  of  1812-'14, 89 

War  with  Mexico, 106 

War  of  the  Rebellion, 107 

War  Losses  in  Rebellion, .  56 

Warren  township,  erection  of,       .....        .  137 

Washington,  General,  visit  of, 47 

Washington  township,  erection  of, 132 

Water  Works,  history  of, 55 

Whisky  Insurrection,  history  of, 47,  89 

Young,  Captiiin  William,  his  company  roll,        .         .         .  105 



The  object  of  this  Appendix  is  to  give  brief  descrii^tive,  and  in  a 
manner  historical,  sketches  of  the  illustrations  contained  in  Mr. 
M'Cauley's  full  and  accurate  History  of  Franklin  County.  The 
pictures  are  from  the  pencil  of  Mr.  Denslow,  and  the  sketches  writ- 
ten by  D.  M.  Kennedy,  with  one  or  two  exceptions.  They  are 
entirely  .istinct  from  Mr.  M'Cauley's  work,  and  are  intended 
only  as  minute  descriptions  which  could  not  have  been  era- 
braced  in  so  general  a  history  as  the  foregoing.  Many  of  the 
buildings  illustrated  have  long  been  prominently  identified  with 
the  local  history  of  the  county.  Some  contrasts  have  been 
embodied  in  the  artist's  work,  such  as  the  old  and  new  Court 
House.  In  the  residence  of  Dr.  J.  L.  Suesserott  we  see  a 
sample  of  the  strong  and  massively  built  Flemish  bond  house,  a 
style  largely  predominant  previous  to  the  M'Causland  raid,  in  1864. 
The  more  modern  system  of  architecture  appears  in  the  neat  and 
attractive  homes  of  Mrs.  Louisa  Ludwig  and  Hon.  W.  S.  Stenger. 
Handsome  mercantile  buildings  are  shown  forth  in  the  drawings  of 
the  houses  of  Brand  &  Speer,  George  A.  Miller  &  Son,  Hoke  &  Co., 
W.  C.  M'Nulty  and  others,  while  such  a  house  as  that  of  Colonel 
B.  F.  Winger  strongly  reminds  us  of  days  lang  syne,  when  orna- 
mentation was  secondary  to  utility.  The  historical  matter  has  been 
very  difficult  to  obtain,  owing  to  the  fact  that  so  many  records  were 
destroyed  by  fire.  We  have  given  all  that  could  be  obtained  from 
the  present  proprietors  of  the  buildings.  We  therefore  commit 
drawings  and  sketches  to  the  public,  resting  assured  that  they  will 
appreciate  our  efforts  to  more  fully  carry  out  Mr.  M'Cauley's  contri- 
bution to  historic  lore  through  the  medium  of  these  illustrations. 
We  feel  certain  that  future  generations  will  be  glad  to  see  how  the 
business  houses,  churches  and  public  buildings  of  old  Franklin 
appeared  in  1877. 

D.    M.    K. 


210  Appendix. 

H.    SHEPL,ER   &   SON,    STEAM    SAW   JMTLL,,    WITH    CoAL    AXD    LUMBER 

In  the  year  1857,  Mr.  Henry  Shepler  and  Rev,  Joseph  Clark,  of 
Chambersburg,  associated  themselves  in  a  co-partnership  for  the 
purpose  of  carrying  on  a  general  cariientrj'  business,  together  with 
all  classes  of  turning  work,  such  as  hubs,  spokes,  screws,  etc.  On 
what  is  now  called  Broad  street  they  had  erected  a  large  frame  mill, 
which  was  fitted  up  with  all  the  new  and  im))roved  machinery 
necessary  for  the  work  purposed  to  be  carried  on.  A  brick  engine 
house  was  added,  with  an  engine  of  thirty  horse  power,  suflicient 
to  drive  the  large  lumber  saws  and  all  the  machinery.  Operations 
were  immediately  commenced,  and  the  Arm  floated  on  the  tide  of 
prosperity.  Some  fifteen  or  twenty  hands  were  continuously  at 
work.  Large  contracts  were  undertaken,  and  the  immediate  neigh- 
borhood soon  became  a  busy  hive  of  unceasing  industry. 

About  1859  Mr.  J.  P.  Culbertson  was  admitted  as  a  partner,  and 
the  firm  name  was  changed  from  Shepler  «&  Clark  to  She^Dler,  Clark 
«fe  Co.  Under  the  new  management  the  business  still  further  in- 
creased, until  as  many  as  forty  workmen  were  employed.  This 
state  of  affairs  kept  up  until  after  the  breaking  out  of  the  war,  when 
rebel  raids  made  it  very  uncertain  wliether  a  large  lumber  mill  of 
one  day  would  not  be  a  large  pile  of  ashes  the  next.  After  the  battle 
of  Gettysburg,  in  1863,  Mr.  J.  P.  Culbertson  was  in  Hagerstown 
and  the  defeated  army  of  Lee  captured  him,  together  with  a  num- 
ber of  our  citizens.  "  On  to  Richmond  "  they  were  taken  and  were 
ushered  into  Libby  prison.  Some  months  later  Mr.  Culbertson  re- 
turned from  his  forced  visit  to  rebel  realms,  and  shortly  after  his 
return,  Rev.  Joseph  Clark  had  his  arm  crushed  while  hauling  logs 
.to  the  mill.  This  accident  resulted  in  the  death  of  Mr.  Clark, 
which  made  a  change  in  the  firm  necessary.  An  incorporated  com- 
pany was  then  formed,  which,  after  several  years  of  existence,  sold 
out  the  entire  works  and  good  will  to  Messrs.  Shepler  &  Myers.  At 
this  time  the  business  had  become  somewhat  reduced,  nece.ssitating 
the  employment  of  a  limited  number  of  workmen.  However,  trade 
brightened,  and  a  ver^'  good  run  of  business  was  the  consequence. 
This  firm  continued  the  work  until  July  1st,  1S77,  when  the  junior 
member  retired,  William  H.  Shepler,  a  son  of  the  senior  partner, 
having  purchased  his  interest.  Messrs.  Shepler  &  Son  are  now 
running  the  mill,  with  every  prospect  of  continued  success. 

The  specialties  to  which  they  pay  particular  attention,  are  lathe 
work,  turning  all  kinds  of  wooden  screws,  every  variety  of  fine 
scroll  sawing  and  carpenter  work  generally.  The  firm  have  also 
added  to  their  business  a  coal  exchange.  It  is  their  purpose  to  sell 
the  different  kinds  of  coal,  and  also,  for  the  benefit  of  farmers,  to 
take  their  lumber  and  logs  in  exchange  for  any  sort  of  coal  or  work 

Appendix.  211 

they  may  desire.  Since  the  erection  of  the  mill,  the  firms  connected 
witli  its  maniigenient  have  had  a  high  standing  in  the  opinions  of 
the  business  men  of  tlie  county.  This  opinion  will  certainly  be 
sustained  by  the  gentlemen  whose  names  stand  at  the  head  of  this 


The  majority  of  the  readers  of  this  sketch  will  remember  the  old- 
fashioned,  two  story  brick  house  which  stood  on  tlie  north-east 
corner  of  the  dianK)nd,  before  the  fire  of  1864.  This  bouse  was 
erected  in  1800  by  a  Mr.  Eberly,  and  was  owned  by  him  and  his 
heirs  until  1855.  At  that  time  it  was  purchased  by  the  present  pro- 
prietors, J.  Hoke  &  Co.  Samuel  Nisely  commenced  business  on 
the  corner  about  1828.  In  1832  James  Kirby  bought  him  out  and 
ran  the  bu  iness  until  1845,  when  David  Oaks  became  the  proprietor, 
and  was  succeeded  in  1848  by  J.  Hoke,  In  1855  Jacob  and  H.  E. 
Hoke  formed  a  partnership  and  continued  business  under  the  pres- 
ent firm  name.  They  dealt  in  a  general  assortment  of  dry  goods, 
notions,  groceries,  &c. 

In  1863  Gen.  R.  E.  Lee,  with  sixty  thousand  of  his  friends,  bought 
out  the  entire  line  of  groceries,  and  paid  for  their  purchase  in  cur- 
rency of  the  Confederate  government.  After  this  bargain  Hoke  & 
Co.  gave  up  the  groceries  and  confined  themselves  to  dry  goods  and 
notions.  In  1864  the  firm  lost  the  house  in  which  their  store  was 
located,  and  all  goods  which  had  not  been  shipped  away.  Shortly 
after  the  fire  the  present  building  was  erected  and  the  business  re- 
sumed. In  1865  Mr.  D.  K.  Appenzeller  went  into  the  store  as  a 
salesman,  and  ten  years  afterward  was  admitted  as  a  member  of  the 
firm.  Mr.  Appenzeller  has  now  the  charge  of  the  active  business  of 
the  house.  The  wholesaling  became  a  feature  of  their  trade  in  1864. 
Hoke  &  Co.  are  among  the  largest  dealers  in  dry  goods  outside  of 
the  cities,  and  are  doing  an  immense  business  at  the  present  time. 


On  South  Main  street,  at  the  corner  of  the  alley  between  Market 
and  Queen,  is  located  one  of  the  oldest  business  stands  in  Cham- 
bersburg.  As  early  as  1785,  Samuel  Calhoun  kept  a  house  of  gen- 
eral merchandize,  and  since  that  time  the  room  has  never  been 
exempt  from  barter  ai)d  trade.  Before  the  great  fire  of  1864,  a  large 
stone  house  occupied  the  position  of  the  present  three  storied  brick 
one.  It  was  for  many  years  the  residence  of  Judge  Thomson,  but 
throughout  his  life  this  room  was  always  used  for  mercantile  pur- 
poses.    The  proprietors,  in  years  gone  by,  were  James  Marshall, 

212  Apxtendix. 

James  Ross,  David  Oaks  and  John  Armstrong,  who  kept  what  are 
now  denominated  "country  stores."  Myers  &  Braud  kept  a  hard- 
ware store,  succeeded  by  Brand  &  Flack,  who  bought  the  property 
and  at  the  time  of  M'Causland's  raid  liad  a  hardware  store.  After 
losing  almost  their  entire  stock,  they  energetically  rebuilt  the 
house  that  now  occupies  the  lot.  George  A.  Miller  succeeded  them 
in  the  business,  and  occujtied  the  rooni  until  April  1st,  1877.  At 
this  time  Messrs.  J.  S.  Brand  and  John  Speer  went  into  a  partner- 
ship to  carry  on  a  wholesale  and  retail  grocery  business.  As  the 
building  was  partially  owned  by  Mr.  Brand,  Mr.  Miller  vacated 
and  the  new  firm  took  possession.  The  store  room,  about  ninety 
feet  in  length,  was  refitted  entirely  with  a  view  to  the  grocery  line, 
and  the  new  firm  are  progressing  very  successfully,  as  they  fully 


Third  street,  through  which  that  which  was  originally  known  as 
the  Franklin  Railroad  runs,  and  wliich,  since  its  absorption  by  the 
Cumberland  Valley  Railroad,  has  extended  to  Martinsburg,  Va., 
at  the  time  of  the  building  of  the  railroad  in  1838,  was  almost  the 
extreme  eastern  boundary  of  the  town.  The  elegant  residences  of 
Messrs.  Nixon,  Sharp,  Duncan,  M'Lellau,  Hoke  and  M'Knight,  to- 
gether with  many  others  that  now  adorn  the  eastern  section  of  this 
borough  did  not  cast  the  faintest  shadow  on  the  misty  future  of  the 
town.  The  now  attractive  yards  and  gardens  were  then  used  as 
pasture  lands  and  for  other  agricultural  purposes,  and  they  who  were 
wont  to  climb  thre  Academy  hill  in  pursuit  of  knowledge,  and  also 
often  in  other  pursuits  not  so  honorable,  could  look  out  all  over  the 
broad  expanse  of  country  and  meditateof  thinj>s  other  than  the  crea- 
tion of  a  town  in  a  few  years.  The  original  settlement  having  been 
in  the  neighborhood  of  the  Woolen  Mill,  the  village  expanded  from 
that  center  in  all  directions,  but  more  rapidlj'^  toward  the  western 
end  of  Market  street,  as  that  was  the  direction  of  the  bulk  of  travel, 
and  by  reference  to  a  map  made  as  late  as  1858,  it  will  be  seen  that 
comparatively  few  houses  of  any  pretension  were  erected  east  of 
Third  street,  on  either  Market,  Queen  or  Washington  streets,  but 
with  the  more  recent  advance  of  the  town  in  an  easterly  direction, 
and  the  rapid  growth  of  the  village  of  StouflTerstown,  the  prediction 
is  not  a  i)reposterous  one  that  within  the  next  decade  the  consolida- 
ted borough  of  Chambersl)urg  will  measure  from  three  to  three  and 
a  half  miles  in  width,  in  the  direction  from  east  to  west. 

The  very  eligible  locations  for  building  purposes  that  can  be 
found  east  and  south-east  of  the  present  borough  limits,  give  prom- 
ise of  a  rapid  extension  of  the  town  in  those  directions.  A  number 
of  lots  that  have  been  laid  out  and  sold  by  Dr.  J.  L.  Suesserott  on 
Washington   street  and  Baltimore  avenue  have  already  been  built 

Appendix.  213 

upon,  and  others  that  have  been  sold,  and  many  more  yet  to  sell  by 
the  same  person,  together  with  the  lands  of  Frederick  Byers,  F.  A. 
Zarman,  Wni.  Huber  and  others,  will  afford  such  a  space  for  im- 
provement that  when  once  occupied  by  houses  that  which  was  orig- 
inally the  center  of  the  town  will  hold  a  position  in  one  extreme, 
for  the  insurmountable  reason  that  the  location  of  the  Cedar  Grove 
<'emetery,  the  natural  condition  of  the  land  west  and  north-west, 
and  other  causes  will  make  building,  to  any  great  extent,  in  any 
other  direction  than  that  indicated  impracticable. 

The  present  generation  has  seen  Chambersburg  extend  itself  to 
more  than  double  its  proportions  of  forty  years  ago,  and  now  with 
its  splendid  water  supplj',  gas  works  and  railroad  facilities,  few 
towns  in  this  State  or  any  other  State  have  a  more  brilliant  future 
before  them,  surrounded  as  this  is  by  one  of  the  most  fertile  agri- 
cultural regions,  which  covers  inexhaustible  deposits  of  iron  and 
other  valuable  ores,  and  bristling  with  timber  that  is  suited  for  al- 
most any  purpose. 


In  the  year  1832  Mr.  A.  Reineman  came  from  Zeigenhein,  Prussia, 
to  this  country.  The  family  came  to  Pennsylvania  and  located  at 
St.  Thomas.  In  1834  Mr  Reineman  came  to  Chambersburg  and  be- 
gan work  on  a  small  scale  in  the  front  room  of  a  log  house  which 
stood  where  the  residence  of  Mr.  Frank  Henninger  now  stands,  on 
south  Main  street,  a  few  doors  north  of  the  Reformed  church.  Af- 
ter living  there  two  or  three  years  he  married  and  moved  across  the 
street  to  a  house  which  he  bought  and  still  owns.  Gradually  getting 
trade  he  bought  out  a  jeweler  by  the  name  of  Holsey,  who  carried 
on  his  business  in  a  one  story  weather-boarded  house  which  occu- 
pied the  site  upon  which  is  now  located  the  residence  of  Mr.  H.  M. 
White,  on  south  Main,  a  few  doors  from  the  Diamond.  A  twn-storj^ 
stone  house  owned  by  Pritts  and  Gilmore  was  next  bought  by  him. 
It  stood  one  door  north  of  his  shop,  where  John  Jeffries,  Esq.,  now 
lives.  In  1849  he  sold  this  house  and  moved  his  store  to  the  corner 
where  Repository  Hall  now  stands.  It  was  then  a  two-.^tory  brick 
house,  and  had  for  many  years  been  in  the  occupancy  of  a  Mr. 
Scott,  who  was  also  a  silversmith.  Thence  he  went  to  the  house 
built  b3'  Sheriff  Hoffnuin  on  south  INIain,  between  Queen  and  Wash- 
ington streets.  Here  he  remained  for  many  years.  His  was  one  of 
the  few  houses  which  were  nf)t  destroyed  by  the  rebels  in  1864.  In 
1869  he  bought  the  property  on  the  corner  of  the  alley  on  south 
Main  street,  between  INIarket  and  Queen  streets,  and  removed  his 
store  there.  In  thesame  year  betook  his  son,  Mr.  A.  V.  Reineman, 
into  partnership  with  him.  Three  years  afterwards  Mr.  A.  V. 
Reinenum  bought  out  his  father's  interest  in  the  store  and  has  been 

214  Appendix. 

carrying  it  on  since.  In  jVovember,  1877,  the  liouse  was  also  bought 
by  the  son  from  the  father,  and  tlie  whole  establishment  is  now  in 
the  possession  of  Mr.  A.  V.  Reineman. 

When  Mr  Augustus  Reineman  came  to  Chambersburg  he  carried 
his  entire  stock  and  tools  in  a  satchel.  Nobody  knew  him,  and  it 
was  an  up-liill  work  to  secure  any  share  of  the  public  patronage.  A 
kind  hearted  gentleman  heard  of  a  clock  which  no  jeweler  had 
been  able  to  put  in  running  order  for  many  years,  and  thinking  it  a 
good  chance  to  test  his  skill  took  Mr.  Reineman  to  see  it.  The 
owner  of  the  clock  was  loth  to  allow  iiim  to  try  his  workmanship, 
but  after  some  talk  the  task  was  given  him  with  the  assurance  that 
if  he  spoiled  the  time-keeper  it  would  go  hard  with  him.  It  is 
needless  to  say  that  the  clock  was  put  in  perfect  order  and  ran  to  the 
entii'e  satisfaction  of  the  owner.  To  this  little  incident,  Mr.  Reine- 
man is  no  doubt  indebted  for  his  success.  Chambersburg  was  a 
small  town  then,  and  when  it  became  known  that  this  stubborn 
clock  was  again  ticking  away  the  hours,  everybody  had  a  clock  to 
be  repaired.  Mr.  Reineman  has  turned  out  many  good  apprentices 
from  his  workshop,  and  there  are  yet  some  of  the  old  buils-eye 
watches  in  the  county  whicii  had  their  origin  from  his  skilful 

The  present  proprietor  is  kept  busily  engaged,  and  also  deals  large- 
ly in  all  kinds  of  silver  ware  and  ornamental  jewelry. 

HARDWARE— GEO.     A.     BIILLER    &    SON. 

The  site,  south-east  corner  of  Main  and  Queen  streets,  Chambers- 
burg, now  occupied  by  George  A.  Miller  &  Son,  is  one  of  tlie  oldest 
hardware  stands  in  the  Cumberland  Valley.  The  lot  was  purchased 
about  the  .>  ear  1815,  by  the  late  Barnard  Wolff,  Esq.,  w^ho  com- 
menced the  general  hardware  business  nearly  fifty  years  ago.  After 
a  long  time,  during  which  the  business  was  conducted  with  con- 
siderable pecuniary  profit  to  its  owner,  it  passed  into  the  hands  of 
his  son  J.G.  Wolff,  and  afterward,  by  him  sold  to  Huber  &  Tolbert, 
who  continued  until  the  fire  in  1864.  In  September,  1876,  arrange- 
ments were  made  by  Geo  A.  Miller  &  Son  with  C.  H.  WolfF  and 
B.  WolfF,  Jr  ,  sons  of  B.  Wolff"  Sr.,  and  present  owners  of  the 
property,  for  the  erection  of  a  building  on  the  old  corner  for  their 
business.  The  drawings  for  the  store  were  made  by  F.  Keagy,  Esq., 
architect,  and  built  by  Henderson  and  Gillespie,  carpenters.  The 
whole  structure  is  106  feet  deep  on  Queen  street,  by  23  feet,  on  Main. 
The  stoie  room  is  I'd  feet  9  inches  by  20  feet  4  inches,  with  a  ware- 
house 26  by  20  feet  4  inches  for  iron,  in  rear,  divided  from  store  by 
a  glass  partition.  The  interior  fixtures  are  of  yellow  pine  and  black 
walnut,  shellacked.  The  shelving  is  made  adjustable.  The  building 
was  completed   by   March,  1877.     Geo.  A.   Miller  commenced   the 

Appendix.  215 

hardware  business  in  Chambersburgin  October,  1870,  by  purchasing 
the  stock  of  Brand  Flack  &  Co.,  occupying  their  old  quarters  until 
he  removed  to  the  present  locatioM.  January  1st,  1876,  he  admitted 
his  son,  Geo.  A  Miller,  Jr.,  into  partnership  with  him,  under  the 
firm  name  of  Geo.  A.  Miller  &  Son.  They  have  now  one  of  the 
best  arranged  stores  in  the  valley,  and  carry  a  large  stock  of  goods, 
embracing  a  very  general  assortment  of  Builder's  Hardware,  Cut- 
lery, Tools,  Coach  Trimmings,  Saddlery  Hardware,  Shoe  Findings, 
Paints,  Oils,  Iron,  Steel,  House  Furnishing  Goods,  Wood  and  Wil- 
low Ware,  Terra  Cotta  Pipe,  Vases,  c&c,  &g.  They  also  have  the 
agency  for  the  following  well  known  manufactories.  Dupont's 
Powder  Works,  of  Wilmington,  Delaware;  Calumet  Sewer  Pipe 
and  Fire  Brick  Works,  of  Ohio  ;  Hall's  Safe  and  Lock  Co.,  of  Cin- 
cinnati;  and  Saluvia  (Fulton  Co.)  Tannery. 

DR.  J.  I..  sup:sserott's  residence. 

The  residence  of  Dr.  J.  L  Suesserott,  the  house  in  which  he  was 
born  almost  50  years  ago,  situated  on  the  south-west  corner  of  Main 
and  Washington  streets,  Chambersburg,  was  erected  by  his  mater- 
nal grandfather,  Jacob  Dechert,  three  or  four  years  after  the  incor- 
poration of  the  town  into  a  borough  in  1803.  Mr.  D.,  was  a  native 
of  Reading,  Pa.,  and  migrated  to  this  county  about  the  year  1796, 
and  established  himself  at  once  on  the  property  where  this  house 
now  stands.  He  was  by  occupation  a  hatter,  for  the  purpose  of 
which  brancb  of  industry  he  erected  the  building  south  of  the 
corner,  now  in  the  occupancy  of  T.  A.  Mohr  as  a  tin  and  stovestDre. 
After  ihe  erection  of  the  corner  liouse  the  intervening  space  was 
used  as  an  open  alley  for  a  number  of  years,  until  the  proprietor  be- 
cause of  his  increased  force  of  workmen,  experiencing  the  want  of 
more  house  room,  caused  the  upper  portion  to  be  closed  with  an 
archway,  leaving  the  lower  part  open  until  early  in  the  year  1818, 
when  he  converted  that  also  into  a  room  for  the  accommodation  of 
the  post  office,  he  having  been  apijointed  Post  Master  April  7th, 
1818,  and  continuing  in  that  capacity  until  March  20th,  1829.  After 
that  the  room  was  occupied  as  a  finishing  room  for  the  hat  estab- 
lishment by  his  brother  Daniel  Dechert,  who  succeeded  him,  and 
who  continued  to  use  it  for  that  purpose  until  April,  1854,  when  it 
was  converted  into  a  physician's  ofiice  by  its  present  occupant. 

Jacob  Dechert's  name  appears  upon  the  list  of  the  first  borough 
council,  which  was  elected  in  1804,  and  although  greatly  disabled 
by  an  injury  to  one  of  his  limbs,  he  continued  to  occupy  a  promi- 
nent position  in  the  affairs  of  the  town  until  the  time  of  his  death, 
which  occurred  March  26th,  1829, 

The  publishers  of  this  work  have  secured  a  sketch  of  this  house, 
not  because  of  its  possessing  any  particular  architectural  merit,  al- 

216  ApiDendix. 

though  being  of  brick,  laid  in  the  old  Flemish  bond,  as  is  the  one 
directly  opposite  as  well  as  the  one  a  few  doors  south,  now  owned 
and  used  as  a  dwelling  by  Mrs.  L.  M'Kesson,  all  of  which  were 
erected  within  a  year  or  two  of  each  other  ;  it  is  one  of  the  most 
substantial  buildings  in  (he  town.  But  it  occupies  another  and 
more  important  position  in  the  history  of  Chambersburg,  it  being 
tlie  point  where  the  fire  that  had  been  kindled  by  rebel  vandals  on 
the  30th  of  July,  1864,  was  arrested. 

The  portion  of  the  town  south  of  this  proi^erty,  which  covers  a 
considerable  space,  with  the  exception  of  the  houses  that  have  been 
erected  since  the  memorable  burning,  are  of  the  old  style  of  archi- 
tecture, and  were,  if  we  except  three  or  four,  all  built  after  the  one 
now  under  consideration,  and  constitute  the  only  section  of  this 
now  beautiful  town  that  will  be  recognized  by  visitors  who  were 
familiar  with  it  prior  to  its  destruction. 

South  Main  street  on  that  eventful  occasion  presented  a  scene  that 
can  scarcely  be  depicted.  The  street  and  houses  were  crowded,  with 
carriages,  women  and  cliildren  who  had  been  driven  from  their 
homes  by  the  fiery  element,  which  in  lambent  flames  licking  each 
other,  had  formed  a  scorching  archway  over  the  streets  north  of 
Washington  street.  The  retreating  mass,  still  unwilling  to  yield 
their  houseliold  gods  without  a  struggle,  with  defiance  on  their 
countenances,  withdrew  inch  by  inch,  as  would  a  well  organized 
army  before  a  relentless  foe.  When  the  refugees  that  had  collected 
into  the  house  represented  by  our  picture  were  about  to  depart,  sat- 
isfied that  it  too  must  fall  before  the  flood  of  destruction,  the  pro- 
prietor at  the  request  of  a  sister  now  deceased,  went  to  his  desk  to 
secure  any  valuable  papers  that  might  have  been  overlooked,  and 
finding  a  traveling  flask  of  whisky,  which  had  been  placed  there 
after  a  former  flight  to  save  his  horses  from  the  raiding  rebels,  and 
feeling  that  he  might  need  some  medicinal  agent,  a-,  he  expected 
to  have  a  large  number  of  helpless  women  and  children  under  his 
care,  jDlaced  it  in  a  side  pocket,  but  it  was  scarcely  there  until  it  be- 
came a  source  of  great  anxiety  to  him,  inasmuch  as  the  rebels  were 
appropriating  the  hats  and  handkerchiefs,  and  all  other  movable 
effects  of  the  citizens,  and  as  his  handkerchief  covered  the  flask,  he 
expected  that  if  it  were  taken  the  flask  would  soon  follow,  and  be 
the  cause  of  much  injury.  ]5y  a  little  extra  care,  however,  he  was 
enabled  to  protect  it  until  his  attention  was  engrossed  by,  to  him,  a 
more  weighty  consideration.  His  surgical  instruments,  which  had 
been  placed  in  a  secret  cupboard  behind  the  hall  door,  had  been  dis- 
covered by  the  rebels,  who  were  then  swarming  in  and  out  of  the 
office  and  hall,  and  in  their  efforts  to  force  the  locks  of  the  cases 
they  had  thrown  them  on  the  floor  near  the  open  door.  Noticing 
an  officer  near  the  front,  on  horseback,  he  accosted  him  as  Colonel, 
and  informed  him  that  if  called  upon  in  the  capacity  of  a  surgeon 

Appendix.  217 

he  would  be  unable  to  render  any  service,  as  /ris  men  were  disabling 
him.  The  officer  ordered  them  to  lay  the  instruments  down  and 
come  out  of  the  house.  This  order  was  hardly  complied  with  and 
the  door  closed  until  he  countermanded  it,  saying  that  llie  instru- 
ments would  be  useful  to  the  Confederacy,  and  in  their  eagerness  to 
recover  them  the  men  were  about  to  break  through  the  door,  when 
the  Doctor,  with  a  dead-latch  key,  opened  the  same.  They  had 
scarcely  begun  to  gather  them  up  when  they  were  again  ordered  to 
lay  them  down  and  come  out,  and  instructions  were  given  to  close 
the  door.  The  proprietor  was  then  called  to  the  side  of  the  olTicer, 
wlio  informed  him  that  there  were  ten  men  with  them  who  did  not 
belong  to  the  army  who  would  save  the  balance  of  the  town  if 
$20,0!J0were  immediately  forthcoming.  He,  the  officer,  was  politely 
informed  that  it  was  cruel  to  mock  a  crippled  foe,  and  that  he  must 
know  that  he  was  demanding  that -which  it  was  impossible  to  fur- 
nisd.  He  then  demanded  $10,000,  then  $5,000,  and  was  informed 
that  not  $5  would  be  paid.  He  then  replied  that  it  would  all  have 
to  go   and  rode  awuy. 

A  man  without  any  military  insignia  was  noticed  near  by,  who, 
during  a  great  portion  of  the  time  that  the  Rebels  had  been  in  the 
occupancy  of  the  town,  was  seen  to  exert  a  great  inftuence  upon  the 
men,  was  interrogated  as  to  who  the  departing  officer  was,  and  he 
replied  that  he  was  Colonel  Dunn.  The  flask  that  had  caused  so 
much  anxiety  was  politely  handed  to  him,  with  a  re(]uest  that  he 
would  share  it  with  Colorrel  Dunn,  and  press  the  petition  that  the 
fire  might  be  stopped.  With  great  alacrity  he  started,  but  soon  re-  ■ 
turneii  with  a  flat  denial  from  Colonel  Dunn.  TJie  whisky  had 
however  niiide  a  fast  lYiend  out  of  the  individual,  who  pi-oved  to  be 
a  John  Callon,  from  Baltimore,  an  independent  aid  on  General 
Johnston's  stafl'.  Colonel  Dunn  soon  returned  to  the  scene  and  was 
again  importuned,  but  as  obdurate  as  evi-r  he  advanced  as  far  in  a 
northward  direction  as  the  flames  and  heat  would  allow,  and  on 
being  driven  back  by  the  same,  said  to  his  petitioner  that  he  might 
now  stop  the  fire  if  he  could.  The  houses  on  the  north->  ast  and 
north-west  corners  of  Main  and  Washington  streets  were  a  mass  of 
flames,  as  was  all  the  northern  portion  of  the  town,  as  f;\r  as  could 
be  judged  from  this  locality ,  and  the  cornices  and  roofs  of  the  houses 
on  the  opi)osite  corners  were  smoking  and  ready  to  ignite  when  the 
present  proprietor  of  the  one  represented  in  our  illustration  hurried 
three  of  his  neighbors,  namely.  Miss  Charlotte  Oyster,  Wm.  H. 
Mong  and  P.  Dock  Frey  through  the  house  to  the  garret  with  buck- 
ets of  water,  who,  by  unsurpassed  agility  and  energy,  quenched 
the  already  developing  flames,  and  with  the  assistance  of  a  friendly 
rebel  he  got  the  only  remaining  fire  engine  to  the  scene  of  conflict. 

After  the  engine  arrived,  on    two  or   three  occasions,  heartless 
rebels  attempttd  to  arrest  its  working,  but  they  were  quickly  dis- 

218  A2:>pendix. 

posed  of  through  the  agency  of  the  whisky-bought  friend,  who  to- 
gether with  some  other  rebels,  who  were  not  entirely  lost  to  all 
feelings  of  humanity,  rendered  valuable  assistance  at  the  engine 
until  the  report  reached  them  of  the  advance  of  General  Averill  by 
way  of  New  Franklin,  four  miles  distant,  when  a  hasty  departure 
of  the  invading  fiends  was  inaugurated.  In  the  midst  of  these 
rapidly  passing  events,  after  the  owner  of  the  property  on  the 
south-west  corner  had  been  sufficiently  assured  so  as  to  venture  to 
open  up  the  rear  of  his  premises  for  the  purpose  of  procuring  water, 
the  other  sources  of  supply  having  been  exhausted,  he  was  accosted 
by  a  young  rebel  \yho  de-ired  his  assistance  in  making  his  escape 
from  his  companions,  and  also  to  secure  a  mare  which  he  represent- 
ed had  been  given  to  him  by  a  sister  in  Mississippi,  who  had  since 
died.  Placing  this  would-be  deserter  as  a  guard  to  protect  his  stable, 
which  had  on  several  occasions  during  the  day  been  saved  from  the 
flames  through  the  exertions  of  his  new-made  friend  Gallon,  he 
secured  the  services  of  a  man  whom  he  knew  would  be  efficient, 
and  at  the  proper  tine  had  the  sentinel  at  the  stable  transformed 
into  a  patit^nt  at  the  hospital,  and  his  mare  wns  furnished  with  a 
secure  abode.  The  disguise  of  the  deserter,  by  the  cropping  of  his 
hair  and  the  donning  of  a  patient's  gown,  was  so  perfect  that  he,  to- 
gether with  regular  occupants  of  the  hospital,  were  on  the  front 
pavement  watching  the  departure  of  his  former  comrades.  He  was 
afterwards  sent  to  General  Couch's  headquaners  at  Harrisburg,  but 
the  mare,  instead  of  reaching  the  custody  of  the  Federal  authori- 
ties, as  cont'aband  of  war,  was  spirited  away  by  one  whose  position 
under  the  government  should  have  elevated  him  above  the  commis- 
sion of  larcenyr  It  is  strongly  surmised  that  she  was  afterwards  re- 
covered by  her  original  owner,  for  very  soon  after  his  discharge  from 
military  control,  at  Harrisburg,  the  animal,  which  had  been  dis- 
posed of  to  a  crippled  laorse  doctor,  a  patient  in  the  hospital,  was 
stolen  from  town  and  her  subst-fpient  history  could  not  be  followed. 


King  street  west  of  Main  was  a  thoroughfare  of  magnificent  dis- 
tances before  the  year  1SG4.  Very  few  houses  were  built  between 
Main  and  Franklin  streets.  The  two  story  frame  house  which  oc- 
cupied the  place  upon  which  Mrs.  Ludwig's  cottage  now  stands  was 
burned  by  the  rebels.  In  1S65  Mr.  Upton  Washabaugh  contracted 
with  Mr.  Samuel  Seibert  for  the  present  edifice,  and  it  was  built 
durJni;  that  year.  The  cottage  is  pleasantly  located  between  the 
Falling  Spring  and  the  Conococheague  creek,  on  the  north  side  of 
the  street.  It  is  built  of  brick,  two  storits  in  height,  with  a  middle 
gable  ill  the  roof.  The  entrance  is  by  accntral  hall,  witha  large  and 
well  lighted  sitting  room  on  one  side  and  a  handsome  parlor  on  the 

Aj:>2jendix.  219 

other.  Tliere  are  t^vo  rooms  in  tlie  front  building  and  one  in  the 
buck  down  stairs,  while  on  the  second  story  there  are  five  rooms  in 
the  front  and  two  in  the  rear  part  of  the  house.  Tlie  whole  build- 
ing has  been  washed  with  a  lead  colored  mixture  and  the  doors 
and  sluitters  painted  to  correspond. 

Its  first  occupant  was  Mr.  Upton  Waslial)augh,  and  after  his  death, 
Mr.  Luther  B.  Kurtz  rented  it  and  resided  there  for  some  years.  In 
1871  the  cottage  was  purchased  from  the  Woolen  Mill  company  by 
Mr.  Martin  Ludwig,  who  occupied  it  with  his  family  until  his 
death,  since  which  time  Mrs.  Louisa  Ludwig,  his  widow,  has  re- 
sided there.  This  residence  is  a  specimen  of  the  style  of  architec- 
ture which  has  been  so  popular  in  Chambersburg  since  the  destruc- 
tion of  so  many  of  the  old  style  houses.  In  the  suburbs  of  town 
there  are  many  of  these  residences  erected,  where  our  business  men 
enjoy  their  leisure  after  work.  Having  been  built  so  soon  after  the 
fire  this  is  among  the  fiist  of  the  cottage  style,  and  can  claim  in 
future  years  to  have  borne  its  share  in  making  the  county  seat  a 
town  of  pleasant  homes. 


In  the  Western  Advertiser,  published  in  Chambersburg  in  1793, 
appeared  an  advertisement  signed  by  James  Ross,  in  which  he  said 
that  if  suitably  encouraged  he  would  open  a  grammar  .-chool, 
"which  promises  to  be  the  foundation  of  a  permanent  seminary  of 
learning."  The  school  was  accordingly  opened  in  a  small  log  house 
on  west  Queen  street,  near  Water.  Here  the  institution  remained 
until  in  1796  Captain  Benjamin  Chambers  gave  two  lots,  now  cor„ 
ner  of  Third  and  Queen  streets,  for  the  purpose  of  establishing  an 
Academy.  On  August  23d,  1797,  a  charter  was  granted,  anil  a  sul)- 
stantial,  thougli  small,  brick  school  house  was  erected  by  (he  Board 
of  Trustees.  James  Ross  moved  his  grammar  school  into  it  and  the 
Academy  became  a  fixed  fact.  Rev.  David  Denny  took  charge  of 
the  school  in  18U0,  and  for  twenty  six  years  was  its  Principal.  In 
1S25  the  old  house,  becoming  too  small  to  accommodate  the  pupils, 
was  removed  and  a  large  two-storied  brick  building  was  erected. 
It  contained  four  large  school  rooms  and  a  basement  story,  the  east- 
ern side  of  which  was  occujiied  by  the  janitor,  and  the  western  as 
a  drill  room  for  the  students  during  the  war.  Rev.  D.  V.  M'Lean 
succeeded  Rev.  Mr.  Denny.  Rev.  Dr.  S.  W.  Crawford  had  charge 
of  the  classical  department  for  several  years  previous  to  1830,  when 
he  was  called  to  a  chair  in  the  University  of  Penn^yIvat)ia.  Mr. 
Van  Lear  Davis,  J.  K.  Shryock  and  Rev.  Gracy  tilled  the  intervals 
from  lS30*to  1850.  Rev.  James  F.  Kennedy  was  Principal  from  1850 
to  1854.  After  this  time  Messrs.  John  Davis,  Van  Lear  Davis,  J.  K. 
Shryock  and  Mr.  Kinney  taught,  but  as  the  building,  with  all  records 

220  Ajjpendix. 

of  teachers  and  pupils,  were  destroyed  by  the  fire  of  1864,  dates 
and  names,  except  those  above  given,  have  been  irrecoverably  lost. 
During  the  interval  between  the  fire  and  the  rebuilding  of  the 
Academy,  Rev.  James  F.  Kennedy,  John  M'Dowell,  Esq.,  Andrew 
M' EI  wain,  Esq.,  and  a  Mr.  Em-cH  taught  select  schools.  In  1867 
measures  were  taken  to  rebuild  the  Academy,  ajid  in  1808  the  pres- 
ent structure,  a  large  three  storied  front  and  two-storied  back  build- 
ing, was  completed.  In  September  of  the  same  year  Dr.  J.  H.  Shu- 
maker,  having  removed  from  Academia,  Juniata  county,  Pa.,  open- 
ed the  school.  In  1871  an  additional  two  storied  brick  building  was 
erected  to  meet  the  growing  wants  of  the  Academy.  From  18G8  to 
1876  three  hundred  and  seventy-three  pupils  were  connected  with 
the  institution.  There  are  now  ample  accommodations  for  thirty- 
six  boarders  and  seventy-five  day  pupils,  with  large  school  room, 
separate  classrooms,  and  every  needed  facility  for  successful  study 
and  instruction.  The  Chambersburg  Academy  under  its  present 
mariagement  has  become  well  known  throughout  this  and  other 
States  as  a  first-class  school  in  every  respect. 


This  well-known  hostelry,  on  South  Main,  between  Queen  and 
Washington  str<-ets,  Chambersburg,  dates  back  to  the  last  century. 
The  first  landlord  whose  name  we  can  trace  was  a  man  by  the  name 
of  Markle,  who  was  located  there  between  1790  and  1800.  Follow- 
ing him  came  Michael  Trout,  in  1800,  who  remained  for  three  or 
four  years.  About  the  time  that  recruiting  was  going  on  for  the 
war  of  1812  this  hotel  was  a  great  resort.  An  incident  in  its  history 
may  not  be  out  Qf  place  here.  The  sign  which  swung  on  a  post  in 
front  of  the  house  had  become  very  much  dilapidated  by  rain,  sun- 
shine and  storm.  The  landlord  knew  an  odd  genius  by  the  name  of 
Frymeyer,  who  lived  along  the  creek,  near  town.  He  asked  Fry- 
meyer,  who  was  a  natural  artist,  whether  he  could  paint  ati  Indian 
Queen,  and  received  an  affirmative  reply.  Frymeyer  asked  who 
would  sit  for  his  drawing,  and  some  one  suggested  Jane  Rolland,  an 
employee  of  the  house,  who  was  gazing  out  of  a  second-story  win- 
dow at  the  time.  The  artist  immediately  went  to  work,  and  Jane's 
portrait,  as  Queen  of  the  Indians,  swung  out  on  the  sign  in  a  few 
days  thereafter.  It  is  said  to  have  been  a  remarkably  correct  like- 
ness. After  Mr.  Trout,  came  David  Radebaugh,  John  Kulin, 
Samuel  Lochbaum,  John  Mish,  John  Kuhn  again,  David  Beaver 
and  John  W.  Taylor.  The  terms  of  their  occupancy  the  writer 
has  been  unable  to  find  record  of.  After  the  destruction  of 
the  hotel,  a  two-storied  brick  building,  by  the  fire'  of  1864, 
measures  were  taken  to  rebuild,  and  in  18(i5  a  part  of  the 
present     large    and     commodious     throe-storied      briitk     building 

Ajipcnd'ix.  221 

was  erected.  David  Taylor  and  Henry  Feldnian  occupied  the 
house  as  a  hotel  until  in  1870,  when  Mr.  George  Ludwig 
bought  the  property.  A  half  lot  directly  south  of  the  building 
was  purchased  and  an  addition  built  to  accommodate  the  increase 
in  custom.  Mr.  John  Fisher  took  the  stand  after  its  purchase  by 
Mr.  Ludwig,  and  is  now  running  a  first-class  house.  On  the  first 
floor  of  the  hotel  is  the  office,  bar  room,  wash  rooms,  sitting 
!■(  om,  dining  rooms,  etc.  On  the  second  floor  is  a  handsome  parlor, 
and  the  remainder  of  this  floor  and  the  whole  of  the  third  is  devoted 
to  bed  rt  ouis,  of  which  there  are  forty.  Bafh  rooms  are  also  in  the 
liouse.  Large  stables  are  in  the  rear  of  the  building,  and  altogether 
it  is  a  model  of  the  successful  hotel  of  1877. 


Previous  to  tlie  fire  of  18G4  there  stood  on  the  Diamond,  next 
door  to  the  /lejDOsitori/  and  Whic/  building,  a  two-storied  brick  house. 
Some  years  before  the  fire  the  store  room  in  the  building  was  occu- 
pied by  a  Mr.  Riddle  as  a  bookstore.  Mr.  William  Cook  purchased 
the  stoie  from  him  and  conducted  the  business  for  some  years.  Just 
preceding  the  fire  Mr.  C.  H.  Bush  had  a  tobacco  store,  and  his  stock 
was  burned.  The  building  was  owned  by  Col.  D.  O.  Gehr  and  INIiss 
Maggie  Denny.  In  186G  or  1867  Messrs.  Austin,  Elder  &  Fletcher 
purchased  the  whole  lot  from  the  ^^arket  Street  corner  to  the  old 
Mansion'  House  lot.  In  1869,  Mr.  Alex.  Martin,  having  purchased 
a  part  of  this  lot,  erected  the  three-storied  brick  building  which  is 
now  located  there.  In  the  store  room  he  opened  a  grocery  store. 
After  some  time  he  sold  out  to  Mr.  Henry  Reilly,  from  whom,  in 
turn,  Mr.  W.  H.  M'Dowell  purchased  in  1871.  Mr.  C.  Burkhart 
bought  the  building,  and  in  1874  opened  a  wholesale  and  retail  store, 
with  Mr.  Lortz  as  a  partner,  under  the  firm  name  of  C.  Burkhart 
&  Co.  In  1876  JNIr.  Burkhart  sold  his  interest  in  the  store,  and  Mr. 
W.  C.  IM'Nulty  went  into  the  business  with  Mr.  Loriz,  under  the 
title  of  Lortz  &  M'NuIty.  Then  in  the  spring  of  1877  Mr.  Lortz 
retired  and  Mr.  M'Nulty  took  the  store  himself.  He  has  since  that 
time  been  carrj'iug  on  the  wholesale  and  retail  line  in  groceries, 
caiidj-,  etc. 


About  the  year  1775  a  man  by  the  name  of  M'Cune  erected  a  (wo- 
story  frame  house  on  the  south-eastern  corner  of  INfain  and  King 
streets,  Chambersburg.  Captain  Owen  Aston  lived  in  it  for  some 
years,  but  all  records  are  lost  which  would  reveal  its  proprietorship 
until  it  came  into  the  possession  of  jNIr.  Peter  Cook.  He  occupied 
the  house  for  many  years,  but,  failing  in  business,  the  property  was 
seized  by  the  Sheriff' and  sold  to  Thomas  G.  M'Culloh,  Esq.    In  1843 

222  Appeiidix. 

Mr.  Georaje  Goettman  bouglit  the  lot,  having  thirty-two  feet  front- 
ai^e  on  Main  street  and  one  hundred  and  eight  on  East  King.  An 
addition  of  a  two  storied  brick  buihling  was  built  at  the  rear  of  the 
frame  house,  along  King  street.  The  frame  building  was  changed 
to  a  rough  cast  one,  Mr.  Goettman  died  about  18oP,  and  his  widow 
continued  her  residence  in  the  house.  The  fire  of  1864  ended  with 
Mrs.  Goettman's  house  on  that  side  of  North  Main  street.  The  corner 
remained  unimproved  until  Mr.  Joseph  Forbes  obtained  a  ground 
lease  for  three  years,  in  April,  1877,  and  erected  thereon  a  fiame  one- 
storied  building  for  the  marble  manufactory  in  which  he  and  Mr. 
Earhart  are  now  located. 

In  1775,  Main  st  eetonly  extended  as  far  as  King  street.  The  road 
ran  Avestwurd,  out  King,  crossing  the  Falling  Spring,  thence  north- 
ward between  the  Conococheague  and  the  Spring.  Passing  along 
by  the  location  of  the  present  brewery,  through  the  lot  now  owned 
by  Benjamin  Chambers  Esq.,  then  called  the  Indian  burial  ground, 
it  passed  through  the  Presbyterian  church  yard,  and  came 
out  directly  in  front  of  the  church  edifice.  This  tortuous  course 
was  occasioned  by  the  fact  that  from  Mrs.  Goettman's  property  the 
land  gradually  sloped  to  the  Spring,  and  on  the  opposite  side  was  a 
large  swamp  extending  along  the  water  course  for  some  distance. 


On  the  corner  of  East  Baltimore  and  Washington  streets,  one 
sijuare  from  the  Diamond,  in  Greencastle,  is  located  the  hotel 
whose  name  heads  this  sketch.  This  house  of  entertain- 
ment was  opened  to  the  traveling  public  in  the  year  1859,  by  J. 
Thomas  Pawling.  This  gentleman  having  emigrated  from  county 
Antrim,  Ireland,  perpetuated  the  name  of  bis  native  land  by  bap- 
tizing his  hostelry  in  its  honor.  Avery  flourisiiing  business  was 
done  at  this  house  during  the  reconstruction  of  the  Cumberland 
Valley,  or  as  it  was  then  known,  Franklin  railroad.  This  change 
brought  many  strangers  to  Greencastle,  the  majority  of  whom 
availed  themselves  of  the  pleasant  surroundings  of  the  Antrim 

Since  that  time  the  house  has  been  always  open.  In  the  spring 
of  1877  Mr.  C.  H.  Shillito  was  granted  a  license  to  keep  a  public 
house  at  this  location,  and  he  had  a  complete  renovation  effected. 
The  house  was  thoroughly  remodeled  and  refitted.  The  only  cattle 
yards  and  scales  in  Greencastle  are  under  the  proprietori^hip  of  Mr. 
Shillito,  thus  making  it  a  resort  for  the  cattle  dealers  and  buyers  of 
the  southern  end  of  the  county.  Ample  stabling  room  is  provided 
for  those  of  the  guests  who  visit  the  town  in  teams,  while  a  livery 
stable  provides  teams  for  those  who  desire  to  hire.  A  restaurant  is 
ftlso  connected  with  the  hotel. 


.^t^"    Alli^lSiii 

J  ^^^^^^^^3 


A2J2^endlx.  223 


A  one  story  fiaine  house  in  1S44  occupied  the  lot  on  south  Main 
street,  between  Mnrket  and  Queen,  upon  which  is  built  the  three- 
storied  iron  front  building  in  which  Mr.  W.  H.  Eyster  carries  on 
the  stove  and  tinware  business.  8ome  years  after  Mr.  Van  Lear 
Davis  bought  the  property,  removed  the  frame  structure  and  erected 
a  two-storied  brick  house  in  wliich  he  kept  a  bookstore.  A  INIr. 
Irvine  succeeded  him  with  a  hiudware  store.  Messrs.  D.  S.  Fahne- 
stock  and  J.  Sliafer  next  j)uri'luised  the  property  and  opened  a  gro- 
cery store.  After  them  Mr.  C.  Burkhart  became  the  owner,  and 
established  an  ice  cream  saloon,  which  was  destroyed  in  the  tire  of 
1864.  In  September,  1804,  Messrs.  L.  B.  Eyster  and  E.  G.  Patter 
bought  the  ground,  erected  the  present  building,  and  engaged  in  the 
stove  and  tinware  trade.  In  1866  this  firm  dissolved,  Mr.  L.  B.  Kys- 
ter  retiring,  and  Mr.  S.  F.  Grennawalt  entered  the  establishment, 
under  tlie  firm  name  of  Etter  &  G^^enawalt.  In  1868  Mr.  Greena- 
walt  left  the  house  and  Mr.  Etter  continued  the  business  alone  until 
187(1.  Mr.  L.  B.  E.vster  then  bou^L'ht  the  stock  and  continued  the 
business  until  October,  1876,  when  his  son,  Mr.  W.  H.  Eyster,  be- 
came the  proprietor,  and  is  now  enjoying  a  fair  share  of  the  public 
patronage.  All  sorts  of  plumbing,  gas  fitting,  slate  mantels,  tin  and 
stove  work  are  the  specialties  of  this  house. 

C.    H.    CRESSLER'S    drug   STORE. 

On  the  20th  of  Juiip,  1775,  Colonel  Benjamin  Chambers,  the 
founder  of  Chamliersburg,  and  Jean  his  wife,  conveyed  the  lot,  (No. 
fi  in  the  plan  f)f  Chambersburg),  situate  at  the  south-west  corner  of 
Main  and  Queen  streets,  64  teet  wide  on  Main  street,  and  256  feet 
deep  on  Queen  street,  to  Captain  Williams  Chambers,  for  the  consid- 
eration of  one  pouJid  ten  shillings,  Pennsi/fvania  currency^  or  three 
dollars  and  fifty  cents  of  our  present  money,  on  condition  that  he 
would  build  a  house  upon  it,  at  least  sixteen  feet  square,  within  two 
years,  and  subject  to  an  annual  quit  rent  of  fifteen  shillings.  Wheth- 
er Captain  Williams  Chambers  ever  built  that  house  is  not  known. 
On  the  7th  of  May,  1778,  Captain  Chambers  conveyed  to  Joseph 
Thorn,  Sr.,  for  the  sum  of  £15.  Joseph  Thorn,  on  the  22d  of  No- 
vember, 17S3,  conveyed  to  Dr.  Alexander  Stewart,  for  the  sum  of 
£36  specie.  Dr.  Stewart,  on  the  12th  of  Ai)ril,  1785,  conveytd  tiie 
western  quarter  of  the  lot  to  James  Caldwell  for  £40  specie,  and  on 
the  7th  of  April,  178n,  sold  the  eastern  threc-foiirfhs  of  the  lot  to 
Patrick  Campbell,  (Merchant),  for  £] 40  specie.  And  on  the  19th  of 
October,  1790,  Patrick  Campbell  sold  tiie  property  to  John  Colhoun, 
(Merchant)  for  £140  specie.  John  Colhoun  owned  the  property'  until 
his  death  in  1822,  and  it  is  believed  that  he  erected  the  substantial 

224  Appendix. 

brick  buildii)g  which  stood  upon  it  prior  to  1864.  Mr.  Colhoun  was 
one  of  the  merchants  in  our  town  in  1784,  when  the  county  of 
Franklin  was  erected,  and  for  many  years  carried  on  the  merchan- 
dizing in  a  room  situated  where  Mr.  Cressler's  druu- store  now  is. 
About  the  year  1815  he  was  succeeded  in  business  by  two  of  his 
sons,  James  Colhoun  and  Andrew  Colhoun.  After  some  time 
Andrew  retired,  and  James  Colhoun  continued  business  alone 
for  a  number  of  years.  He  was  succeeded  by  Michael  Grier  and 
Holmes  Crawford.  About  the  year  1830  or  1832  Alexander  Colhoun 
became  the  owner  of  the  property  under  an  Orphans'  Court  sale, 
and  on  the  12th  December,  1832,  he  sold  it  to  Rev.  James  Culbertson 
for  $6,000,  who  on  the  18th  of  November,  1S34,  sold  to  James  Col- 
houn for  the  same  price,  $6,000.  Elihu  D.  Reed  carried  on  the  Mer- 
cantile business  at  this  corner  from  about  1833  to  1837,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Franklin  Gardner  for  two  or  three  years.  After  Gardner 
quit  business,  Walter  Beatty  and  John  M'Gtehan  carried  on  the 
dry  goods  business  at  this  poiftt  for  a  number  of  years.  Colonel 
M'Geehan  then  retired  and  Mr.  Beatty  continued  until  about  the 
year  1853  or  1854,  when  Wm.  Heyser,  Sr.,  jiurchased  the  property, 
from  James  Colhoun's  administratcn's.  Mr.  Heyser  held  it  until  his 
death  in  1863,  when  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  J.  Allison  Eyster, 
William  Heyser,  Jr  ,  commenced  the  drug  business  at  this  stand  in 
1854,  and  continued  there  in  business  until  September,  1863,  when 
the  firm  of  Heyser  &  Cressler  was  formed,  and  they  were  in  the 
occupancy  of  tlie  stand  as  a  drug  store  when  the  town  was  burned 
by  the  rebels  on  the  30th  of  July,  1864.  The  present  building  was 
erected  by  J.^Allison  Eyster,  in  the  year  1866,  and  Mr.  Charles  H. 
Cressler  has  occupied  the  corner  room  as  a  drug  store  from  Novem- 
ber of  that  year  to  the  present  time  The  business  under  his  man- 
agement has  been  large  and  prosperous,  and  his  well  known  knowl- 
edge and  experience  as  a  pharmaceutist,  and  the  varied  and  exten- 
sive stock  always  liept  on  hand  by  him,  have  made  his  establishment 
the  leading  drug  store  of  the  county,  and  yielded  him  that  generous 
return  which  is  their  legitimate  fruits.  He  is  now  the  owner  of  the 
property,  having  purchased  it  during  the  present  year. 


On  March  30th,  1734,  Benjamin  Chambers  took  out  a  license  from 
the  Penn  proprietary  for  four  hundred  acres  of  land  at  the  Falling 
Spring's  mouth,  and  on  both  sides  of  the  Conococheague,  the  pres- 
ent site  of  the  town  of  Chambersburg.  Benjamin  Chambers,  on 
July  12th,  1777,  conveyed  the  lot,  bounded  now  on  the  north  by  lot 
of  Miss  Susan  Chambers,  on  the  east  by  a  sixteen  foot  alley,  on  the 
south  by  a  sixteen  foot  alley,  and  on  the  west  by  North  JSIain  street, 
to  Nicholas  Snyder.     The  price  iniid  was  £1,  10s.,  currency,  equal  to 

Apiyendix.  225 

about  four  dollars  of  our  present  money,  and  the  provisions  of  the 
sale  were  that  within  two  years  Mr.  Snider  should  erect  a  substan- 
tial dwelling  house,  at  least  sixteen  feet  square,  and  forever  after 
pay  an  annual  quit  rent  of  los.,  to  said  Benjamin  Chambers,  his 
heirs  or  assigns,  on  the  28th  day  of  June  of  each  j'ear.  Mr.  Snider, 
who  lived  in  a  stone  house  on  the  corner  now  owned  by  George 
Ludwig,  opposite  the  Central  Presbyterian  church  on  the  Diamond, 
erected  a  two-storied  stone  building  on  the  site  now  occupied  by  the 
National  Hotel  At  the  death  of  Nicholas  Snider,  his  son  Jacob 
took  the  house  at  its  appraised  value,  and  kept  a  hotel  known  as 
the  "White  Horse  Tavern."  He  had  the  building  rough-cast,  and 
at  his  death  Mr.  Barnard  Wolff,  his  executor,  sold  the  property  to 
John  W.  Taylor,  on  November  18th,  1851,  for  $2,265,  who  changed 
the  name  to  the  "White  Swan  Hotel,"  and  bought  out  the  annual 
quit  rent  on  March  3d,  1854.  On  March  21st,  1855,  John  Miller  be- 
came the  owner  of  the  stand.  He  added  to  his  purchase  a  small  lot 
immediately  to  the  east  of  the  hotel  grounds,  across  the  alley  and 
opposite  to  Colonel  Gehr's  stable.  An  addition  of  a  brick  building 
was  made  by  Mr.  Miller  during  his  occupancy  of  the  premises. 
April  2d,  1860,  Mr.  Miller  sold  to  Michael  M.  Grove  and  John  R. 
Weist,  W^eist  selling  his  interest  to  Grove  on  April  1st,  1861.  Two 
years  afterwards,  March  31st,  1863,  Mr.  Grove  retired,  Mr.  Daniel 
Tro<tle  becoming  the  owner.  On  July  30th,  1864,  the  hotel  went  in 
the  general  conflagration,  but  nothing  daunted,  Mr.  Trostle  imme- 
diately began  rebuilding.  In  the  Spring  of  1865  the  house  was 
opened  under  the  name  of  the  "National  Hotel."  February  20th, 
1875,  Mr.  Trostle  died,  and  since  that  time  the  hotel  has  been  under 
the  management  of  his  widow,  Mrs.  Martha  Trostle.  The  building, 
a  three-storied  brick,  contains  forty-four  sleei^iug  rooms,  besides  the 
office,  reading  room,  dining  room,  parlor  and  sample  rooms.  The 
list  of  landlords  since  the  hotel  was  first  opened  is  as  follows : — 
Jacob  Snider,  John  W.  Taylor,  John  Miller,  James  Montgomery, 
Thomas  Grey,  Weist  &  Grove,  Michael  Grove,  Daniel  Trostle 
and  Mrs.  Martha  Trostle.  Just  previous  to  the  burning  of 
the  town  this  hotel  was  a  great  resort  for  the  army  officers 
stationed  here.  There  is  quite  a  romantic  story  told  about  it, 
and  vouched  for  by  an  officer.  About  the  time  that  the  hotel  was 
made  headquarters  a  young  woman  applied  for  employment  as  a 
waiter.  Whenever  the  officers  went  to  their  meals  this  girl  al\va3'3 
waited  on  them.  After  the  army  left  Chambersburg  she  followed 
it  to  Hagerstown,  and  obtained  employment  in  the  same  capacity 
at  a  hotel  there  which  the  officers  frequented.  By  some  means  a 
great  deal  of  information  was  carried  to  the  rebel  lines,  and  finally 
this  girl  was  caught  in  the  act  by  a  Lieutenant,  whose  suspicions 
had  been  directed  towards  her. 
The  hotel  at  present  is  one  of  the  best  known  houses  in  the  Cum- 

226  Appendix. 

berland  Valley  and  sustains  a  reputation  second   to   none,  amonj? 
travelinor  men  who  come  to  Chainbersburj?. 

DIAMOND    NOTION    HOUSE — J.    &   G.    WATSON. 

On  April  1st,  1848,  the  executors  of  Dr.  Andrew  M'Dowell  sold 
to  David  Oaks  the  property  now  owned  by  Mrs.  Watson,  located  on 
the  north-western  side  of  the  Diamond,  Chamhersburg.  A  two- 
storied  brick  house  then  stood  there.  Mr.  Oaks  only  held  the  prop- 
erty three  days,  and  on  April  3d,  1848,  sold  it  to  Benjamin  Trexler. 
For  six  years  Mr.  Trexler  retained  it.  when  he,  in  turn,  on  January 
17th,  1854,  sold  out  to  John  Reasner.  Mr.  Reasner,  on  March  15th, 
1857,  sold  to  Alex.  K.  IN^'Clure,  from  whom  Mrs.  Charlotte  Watson 
bought  it  on  April  3d,  1858,  and  it  has  remained  in  her  jiossession 
ever  since.  This  is  its  connected  history  from  the  year  1848  until 
the  present  time.  From  whom  Dr.  M'Dowell  bought  I  cannot  say. 
The  deed  was  not  recorded,  and  therefore  it  is  almost  an  impossi- 
bility to  trace  its  history  any  further  back  than  the  ,year  above  men- 

The  "Diamond  Notion  Store"  was  established  in  1861  by  James 
Watson  &  Son  on  the  same  spot  it  now  occupies.  The  assortment 
was  not  large,  consi^sting  of  wall  paper  and  notions.  In  January, 
1864,  Mr.  James  Watson  retired,  his  son  George  having  purchased 
his  interest.  Then  the  firm  name  was  changed  to  J.  &  G.  Watson, 
and  thus  it  has  been  ever  since.  After  Mr.  George  Watson's  en- 
trance into  business  the  store  room  was  enlarged  and  improved  by 
the  construction  of  bulk  windows.  Just  at  the  termination  of  these 
improvements  came  the  raid  of  M'Causland  and  its  consequences. 
After  the  fireihe  firm,  with  its  well  known  energy,  opened  out  in  a 
hastily  thrown  together  frame  building  on  south  Main  street,  be- 
tween Queen  and  Washington.  In  1865  and  the  spring  of  1866  the 
three-storied  brick  building  now  located  on  the  ground  was 
erected.  In  March  or  April,  1806,  the  firm  re-occupied  their  old 
position,  though  in  a  much  neater  room,  and  better  adapted  to  their 
particular  line  of  trade.  Business  moved  along  slowly,  their  sales 
averaging  from  three  to  four  thousand  dollars  a  year.  In  1867  a 
"New  York  Store,"  in  the  ^ame  style,  opened  out,  and  the  Watson 
Brothers  came  before  the  public  by  means  of  printer's  ink,  and  ran 
their  sales  up  to  thirty  or  forty  thousand  dollars  per  year.  Since 
that  time  they  have  enjoyed  a  first  rate  run  of  custom,  both  in  their 
wholesale  and  retail  departments. 


On  the  9th  day  of  June,  1868,  the  Presb3'tery  of  Carlisle,  in  accord- 
ance with  a  request  of  certain  members  of  the  Falling  Spring  Pres- 


226  Apjyendix. 

berland  Valley  and  sustains  a  reputation  second   to   none,  amonj? 
traveling  men  who  come  to  Chambersburu;. 

DIAMOND    NOTION    HOUSK — J.    &   G.    WATSON. 

On  April  1st,  1848,  the  executors  of  Dr.  Andrew  M'Dowell  sold 
to  David  Oaks  the  property  now  owned  by  Mrs.  Watson,  located  on 
the  north-western  side  of  the  Diamond,  Chaml)ersbur<^.  A  two- 
storied  brick  house  then  stood  there.  Mr.  Oaks  only  held  the  prop- 
erty three  days,  and  on  April  3d,  1848,  sold  it  to  Benjamin  Trexler. 
For  six  years  Mr.  Trexler  retained  it,  when  he,  in  turn,  on  January 
17th,  1854,  sold  out  to  John  Reasner.  Mr.  Reasner,  on  March  15th, 
1857,  sold  to  Alex.  K.  M'Clure,  from  whom  Mrs.  Charlotte  Watson 
bought  it  on  April  3d,  1858,  and  it  has  remained  in  her  j^ossession 
ever  since.  This  is  its  connected  history  from  the  year  1848  until 
the  present  time.  From  whom  Dr.  M'Dowell  bought  I  cannot  say. 
The  deed  was  not  recorded,  and  therefore  it  is  almost  an  imj)ossi- 
bility  to  trace  its  history  any  further  back  than  the  year  above  men- 

The  "Diamond  Notion  Store"  was  established  in  1861  by  James 
Watson  &  Son  on  the  same  spot  it  now  occupies.  The  assortment 
was  not  large,  consisting  of  wall  paper  and  notions.  In  January, 
1864,  Mr.  James  Watson  retired,  his  son  George  having  purchased 
his  interest.  Then  the  firm  name  was  changed  to  J.  &  G.  Watson, 
and  thus  it  has  been  ever  since.  After  Mr.  George  Watson's  en- 
trance into  business  the  store  room  was  enlarged  and  improved  by 
the  construction  of  bulk  windows.  Just  at  the  termination  of  these 
improvements  came  the  raid  of  M'Causiand  and  its  consequences. 
After  the  fire  the  firm,  with  its  well  known  energy,  opened  out  in  a 
hastily  thrown  together  frame  building  on  south  Main  street,  be- 
tween Queen  and  Washington.  In  1865  and  the  spring  of  1866  the 
three-storied  brick  building  now  located  on  the  ground  was 
erected.  In  March  or  April,  1866,  the  firm  re-occupied  their  old 
position,  though  in  a  much  neater  room,  and  better  adapted  to  their 
particular  line  of  trade.  Business  moved  along  slowly,  their  sales 
averaging  from  three  to  four  thousand  dollars  a  year.  In  1867  a 
"New  York  Store,"  in  the  ^-ame  style,  opened  out,  and  the  Watson 
Brothers  came  before  the  public  by  means  of  printer's  ink,  and  ran 
their  sales  up  to  thirty  or  forty  thousand  dollars  per  year.  Since 
that  time  they  have  enjoyed  a  first  rate  run  of  cusiom,  both  in  their 
wholesale  and  retail  departments. 


On  the  9th  day  of  June,  1868,  the  Presbytery  of  Carlisle,  in  accord- 
ance with  a  request  of  certain  members  of  the  Falling  Spring  Pres- 

Apioendlx.  227 

bj'terian  Church,  appointed  a  coniniittee  to  visit  Cham bersburg and 
inquire  into  the  expediency  of  organizing  a  second  Presbyterian 
church.  This  committee  met  in  the  Falling  Spring  church  on  the 
15th  day  of  August  following,  and  after  a  careful  investigation  of 
the  circumstances  determined,  and  proceeded  to  organize  what  was 
at  first  called  the  Second  Presbyterian  Church  of  Chambersburg. 
Twenty-eight  persons,  twenty  women  and  eight  men,  presented 
certificates  of  membership  in  tine  Falling  Spring  Church,  and  were 
organized  into  the  new  congregation.  An  election  for  elders  was 
then  held,  which  resulted  in  the  unanimous  choice  of  C. 
Austin  and  James  A.  Reside. 

The  Commissioners  of  the  county  very  generously,  and  without 
solicitation,  oflfered  the  free  use  of  the  Court  House  to  the  new  or- 
ganization as  a  place  of  public  worship.  On  the  morning  of  the 
24th  of  August,  the  Church  held  its  first  religious  service,  when  the 
Rev.  James  F.  Kennedy,  D.  D.,  preached.  A  Sabbath  School  was 
soon  put  into  operation,  and  has  been  continued  to  the  present  time 
wiihout  intermission. 

After  hearing  several  ministers  as  candidates,  the  Rev.  I.  N.  Hays, 
then  serving  the  Middle  Spring  Church,  received  and  accepted  a 
call  to  the  pastorate  of  the  congregation.  Mr.  Hays  soon  entered 
on  his  duties,  and  was  formally  installed  by  a  committee  of  the 
Presbytery  on  the  11th  day  of  December,  1868. 

Immediately  after  the  organization  the  purpose  was  formed  to 
secure  a  permanent  home  for  the  congregation.  A  committee,  pre- 
viously appointed,  reported  on  December  12th  that  they  had  pur- 
chased the  lot  on  which  the  Franklin  Hotel  had  stood  before  the 
burning  of  the  town.  As  soon  as  possible,  plans  for  a  church  build- 
ing were  secured  and  adopted.  A  Building  Committee,  consisting 
of  James  C.  Austin,  James  A.  Reside  and  Col.  O.  N.  Lull,  were 
chosen,  and  proceeded  at  once  to  prepare  the  foundation.  These 
men  faithfully  and  vigorously  pushed  on  the  work.  On  the  25th 
day  of  May,  1869,  the  corner  stone  was  laid  with  appropriate  and 
solemn  ceremonies. 

On  Sabbath,  December  12th,  1869,  just  one  year  after  the  purchase 
of  the  lot,  the  congregation  met  for  the  first  time  in  the  new  lecture 
room,  to  worship  and  praise  the  Lord,  at  which  time  the  sacrament 
of  the  Lord's  Supper  was  administered,.  The  membershii^  had  by 
this  time  increased  to  the  number  of  seventy. 

Early  in  1870  the  work  of  completing  the  large  audience  room 
was  undertaken.  In  1874  it  was  finished  and  was  dedicated  to  the 
service  of  Almighty  God  on  Thursday,  the  twenty -first  of  Septem- 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Hays  labored  as  pastor  of  the  church  till  May  24th, 
1875,  when  he  preached  his  farewell  sermon,  and  soon  started  for  his 
newly-adopted  home  in  Junction  City,  Kansas. 

228  Appendix. 

The  church  was  without  a  pastor  for  a  period  of  about  three 
months,  when  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Caldwell,  then  of  the  Lycoming 
Church,  of  Williamsport,  Pa.,  was  called.  He  eiitered  on  his  duties 
on  the  13th  of  September,  1875,  and  was  installed  as  pastor  on  the 
23d  day  of  October  following. 

The  church  is  now  in  a  very  prosperous  condition  ;  has  but  a  com- 
paratively small  debt,  and  owns  property  worth  about  fifty  thousand 
dollars.  It  has  a  membership  of  about  two  hundred  in  number  and 
is  steadily  growing. 

COL.  winger's  residence— greencastle. 

This  house,  located  on  the  Square  in  Greencastle,  was  built  in  the 
year  1812,  by  Mr.  John  M'Lanahan,  and  was  at  that  time  considered 
a  fine  mansion  property.  Fashions  change,  however,  and  the  resi- 
dence so  stylish  in  those  days  is  now  pointed  out  as  a  good,  old- 
fashioned  house.  It  is  the  oldest  mercantile  stand  in  the  town,  and 
has  always  been  held  in  high  esteem  as  a  first-class  business  location. 

The  "Farmer's  Bank  of  Greencastle"  occupied  a  portion  of  the 
house  previous  to  ISIS.  The  part  allotted  to  trade  is  now  occupied 
by  a  general  store,  the  "Valley  Echo''  printing  establishment,  bar- 
ber shops  and  law  olfices.  It  has  belonged  to  its  present  owner, 
Col.  Benjamin  Franklin  Winger,  for  several  years. 


Prior  to  theyear  1822  the  tlioroughfare  now  called  Market  street, 
in  Chambersburg,  had  but  few  buildings  built  along  its  westward 
course.  At  the  corner  of  the  Diamond,  where  the  Central  church 
is,  stood  the  old  hostelry  known  from  Philadelphia  to  Pitts- 
burg as  the  "Green  Tree  Tavern."  Westward  there  was  a  small 
weatherboarded  house  and  the  hotel  stable  between  Main  street  and 
the  alley.  From  the  alley  to  the  Conococheague  there  was  a  ravine, 
its  western  side  sloping  to  the  creek.  Of  the  history  of  the  marble 
yard  property  the  writer  has  been  able  to  gather  but  little.  The 
first  mention  found  in  the  deed  records  reveals  the  fact  that  the 
Court  of  Common  Pleas  confirmed  a  sale  made  by  Sheriff  J.  M. 
Maclay  to  Alexander  M'Donald.  of  Baltimore,  of  the  lot  upon 
which  the  marble  yard  is  now  loca'ed,  in  the  year  1822. 
By  the  death  of  M'Donald  the  property  passed  into  the 
hands  of  a  Robert  Lemmon,  whonj  M'Donald  had  ap- 
pointed a  trustee  of  this  land.  On  December  27th,  1850, 
Wm.  M'Lellan,  Esq.,  became  the  owner,  through  a  deed  given  by 
Lemmon  and  the  other  trustees.  Mr.  M'Lellan  only  held  it  three 
years,  and  on  August  13th,  1853,  sold  the  "part  known  as  the  "King 
Marble  Yard"  property  to  James  King,     There  was  a  two-storied 

A2J2^endix.  229 

brick  dwelling  house  ami  a  frame  shop  on  the  land  at  the  time  of 
the  fire,  and  they  were  both  burned.  After  the  fire  some  time 
elapsed  before  Mr.  King  rebuilt.  A  three-storied,  rough-cast  brick 
house  now  stands  on  the  property,  together  with  a  two-storied  frame 
work-shop.  After  being  proprietor  for  almost  a  generation,  Mr. 
King  traded  with  Mr.  James  R.  Brewster,  of  Newville,  for  some 
property  near  Fannettsburgh.  On  March  6th,  1874,  Mr.  Brewster 
took  possession  and  held  it  uniil  1877.  After  Mr.  King's  departure 
Mr.  Samuel  P.  Shull  rented  the  shop  and  carried  on  the  marble 
cutting.  Succeeding  in  the  trade  better  than  he  expected,  Mr. 
Shull,  on  March  24th,  1877,  purchased  the  lot  from  Mr.  Brewster, 
together  with  the  dwelling  house  to  the  west  of  the  marble  yard. 
An  experienced  marble  worker,  Mr.  Shull  is  kept  constantly  busy 
supplying  memorial  stones  and  monuments  for  the  little  hillocks 
which  are  consequent  to  the  growth  of  the  village  of  1777  into  a 
large  and  beautiful  town  a  century  after.  During  the  war  of  the 
rebellion,  those  noble  men,  the  Home  Guards,  heard  that  Stewart 
was  coming  on  a  raid.  Just  opposite  Mi-.  Shull's  yard  they  con- 
structed a  barricade  of  sand  bags.  Down  New  England  hill  the 
rebels  came,  but  the  barricade  belched  no  deadly  fire  in  their  faces. 
The  guards  had  skedaddled  and  the  sand  bags  were  disgusted. 


Chambersburgh,  in  olden  times,  was  a  noisy,  bustling  post  town 
on  the  through  route  between  Philadelphia  and  Pittsburg.  Lines  of 
stages  lumbered  out  daily  for  Baltimore  and  the  two  cities  above 
mentioned.  About  the  year  1815  the  Harrisburg  and  Chambersburg 
turnpike  company  came  into  existence,  and  the  present  piked  tho- 
roughfare was  taken  in  charge.  The  stages  from  Harrisburg  did  not 
get  into  Chambersburg  until  they  came  to  the  Falling  Spring  church. 
To  the  North  of  the  church  edifice,  as  late  as  1841,  there  were  only 
the  following  named  houses  built:  Mr.  \V.  S.  Chambers'  stone  resi- 
dence stood,  as  it  were,  in  the  country.  Following  the  turnpike,  the 
frame  house  owned  by  Mr.  John  Trostle  was  then  a  new  house.  At 
the  Point  stood  an  old  log  tavern,  which  has,  since  that  time,  been 
modernized  and  changed  to  a  dwelling  house.  Beyond  the  Point 
was  a  hill,  which  has  been  removed  ;  going  still  northward,  the 
frame  house  on  this  side  of  the  school  house  was  built,  and  that 
neighborhood  was  slightly  swampy.  The  old  gate-house,  kept  by 
Mrs.  Shiyock,  stood  across  the  road,  at  the  line  between  Mr.  C.  H. 
Taylor's  and  Rev.  J.  A.  Crawford's  residences.  Here  was  quite  a 
hill,  which,  under  the  direction  of  J.  Allison  Eyster,  was  removed. 
Mr.  Eyster  bought  the  property  at  sheriff's  sale,  April  1st,  1861.  It 
was  then  partially  a  field  and  partially'  a  garden  for  the  gate-house 
keeper.     In  accordance  with  ideas  of  improvement,  Mr.  Eyster  pro- 

230  Appendix. 

cured  the  removal  of  the  gate-house  to  a  situation  one  mile  further 
north,  and  set  a  force  of  men  at  work  blasting  and  digging  down  the 
hill.  After  the  tire  of  1864  he  began  to  build  the  present  building. 
The  residence  is  a  handsome  two-storied  frame  house,  built  in  with 
brick,  and  presents  an  attractive  api^earance  from  the  street.  It 
contains  in  the  front  building,  down  stairs,  four  rooms,  up  stairs, 
nine  rooms;  in  the  rear  part  there  is  one  room  on  the  first  floor  and 
three  up  stairs,  one  of  which  is  a  bath  room.  On  December  9th, 
1871,  Mr.  J.  A.  Eyster  conveyed  to  W.  B.  Brown,  M.  D.,  who  estab- 
lished a  Water  Cure  establishment.  This  project  was  unsuccessful, 
and  the  house  was  rented  out.  Hon.  W.  S.  Stenger,  on  September 
4th,  1875,  purchased  from  Dr.  Brown,  and  now  owns  it.  Well  loca- 
ted, with  very  pretty  front  and  side  lawns,  it  is  one  of  the  most  at- 
tractive homes  in  our  town. 


[The  following  sketch,  though  not  pertaining  to  the  drawings,  is 
of  a  historical  character.  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  S.  H.  Eby,  of 
Greencastle,  for  it.— d.  m.  k.] 

In  compliance  with  a  request  made  by  you,  I  shall  endeavor  to 
furnish  a  brief  history  of  the  foul  murder  of  a  teacher  and  all  his 
pupils,  with  one  exception,  which  was  perpetrated  by  the  Indians, 
on  the  morning  of  the  26th  of  July,  1764.  The  region  in  which  this 
brutal  murder  was  committed  was  then  in  Cumberland  county, 
(now  Fi-anklin),  about  three  miles  north  of  Gieencas'le,  and  ten 
miles  south-west  of  Chambersburg.  Enoch  Brown  was  the  school- 
master of  the  settlement.  He  is  said  to  have  been  a  man  of  liberal 
culture,  particularly  noted  and  respected  for  his  truthfulness,  integ- 
rity and  christian  character,  in  short,  he  was  an  exemplary  teacher 
of  his  day.  On  the  morning  above  named,  he  proceeded  as  usual  to 
the  log  school  house,  which  was  a  structure  of  the  rudest  character, 
opened  it,  and  doubtless  performed  the  various  duties  attendant 
upon  the  teacher  to  put  things  generally  in  readiness  for  the  open- 
ing of  the  school.  Tradition  says  that  on  the  above  named  day  tlie 
children  were  generally  loath  to  go  to  school,  even  those  that  were 
particularly  fond  of  going  at  otiier  times,  disliked  very  much  to 
start  on  that  inorning.  One  boy,  after  leaving  home,  decided  he 
would  not  go  to  school,  but  loiter  in  the  woods,  and  hence  he  escaped 
the  sad  fate  which  befel  his  schoolmates.  One  by  one  the  boys  and 
girls  came  dropping  in  with  dinner  basket  in  hand,  little  thinking 
that  this  would  be  their  last  day  of  school.  When  the  hour  for 
opening  school  had  arrived,  they  were  told  by  the  teacher  to  take 
their  respective  places  in  the  room  ;  the  roll  being  called  only  ten 
responded  to  their  names,  eight  boys  and  two  girls.     The  school  had 

A2)2^€ndix.  231 

been  mucli  larger  in  the  early  part  of  the  summer,  but  the  warm 
weather  and  seasonal  duties  had  very  much  decreased  the  number 
of  scholars.  I  have  not  been  able  to  ascertain  the  name?^  of  all  the 
scholars,  but  have  learned  from  a  reliable  source  that  no  two  were  from 
the  same  family,  so  that  there  were  ten  families  from  the  settlement 
represented  in  this  school.  Eben  Taylor,  a  lad  about  15  years  old, 
was  said  to  have  been  the  largest  boy,  Georjje  Dunstan  was  some- 
what younger  than  Taylor,  and  Archie  M'Cullough,  the  boy  who 
survived  his  injuries,  was  the  youngest  child  of  the  school.  The 
names  of  the  two  girls  were  Ruth  Hart  and  Ruth  Hale.  The  ac- 
count given  by  A.  M'Cullough  is,  that  when  the  master  and  schol- 
ars met  at  the  school  house,  two  of  the  scholars  informed  him  that 
on  their  way  to  school  they  had  seen  in  the  bushes  what  they  sup- 
posed to  be  Indians.  But  the  teacher,  being  a  man  of  courage,  at- 
tributed this  report  to  the  timidity  of  the  children,  as  such  rumors 
had  frequently,  on  former  occasions,  been  in  circulation  on  the  fron- 
tier when  no  Indians  were  near.  Shortly  after  the  opening  exer- 
cises of  the  school,  a  noise  at  the  door  attracted  the  attention  of  the 
teacher,  when  it  was  thrown  open,  and  to  his  astonishment  three 
Indians  stood  upon  its  threshold.  Knowing  that  there  was  no 
means  of  escape,  and  hoping  to  spare  the  lives  of  the  children,  he 
instantly  stepped  to  the  door,  and  in  imploring  tones  besought  them 
to  kill  him,  to  torture  him,  or  to  dispose  of  him  as  they  deemed 
proper,  but  to  spare  the  lives  of  the  innocent  children.  One  of  the 
Indians  replied,  that  in  order  to  avoid  detection  they  would  be  ne- 
cessitated to  kill  the  children  also,  and  instantly  one  of  the  three 
Indians  sprang  through  the  door,  and  fiercely  attacked  the  teacher 
with  a  wooden  mallet.  The  teacher  had  nothing  with  which  to  de 
fend  himself  but  his  hands;  these  were  soon  disabled  or  broken, 
after  which  a  few  severe  blows  about  the  head  felled  him  to  the  floor 
in  a  dying  condition.  During  the  time  the  savage  was  brutally 
murdering  Mr.  Brown,  the  children  were  almost  frantic,  running 
to  and  fro  through  the  house,  and  possibly  some  of  them  would  have 
made  their  escape  into  the  undergrowth  which  surrounded  the 
house,  but  for  the  two  Indians  who  remained  on  the  outside  to 
guard  the  door  and  give  timely  notice  to  the  wretch  within  in  case 
they  were  discovered.  One  by  one  the  little  urchins  were  stricken 
down  by  furious  blows  from  the  heavy  mallet  of  the  Indian,  until 
all  but  little  Archie  were  stretched  upon  the  floor,  dead  or  dying. 
As  no  time  was  to  be  lost,  the  savage  monster  went  hurriedly  from 
one  to  another  tearing  off  their  scalps.  Little  Archie,  who  had 
tlius  far  avoided  discovery,  was  concealed  behind  some  wilted 
boughs,  which  i^reviously  had  been  placed  in  the  great  chimney, 
from  which  place  of  concealment  he  could  see  the  horrible  slaugh- 
ter of  his  schoolmates.  The  Indians,  now  supposing  their  work 
completed,  were  about  leaving  the  school  house,  when  one  of  them, 

232  Appendix. 

looking  back,  observed  Archie  secreted  in  the  chimney  corner,  and 
rushing  upon  liini,  dealt  him  a  single  but  fearful  blow,  and  tearing 
off  his  scalp,  left  him  for  dead.  Some  hours  after  this  bloody  trag- 
edy had  been  committed,  one  of  the  settlers  happened  to  come  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  school  house,  and  observing  the  unusual  quiet- 
ness about  the  house  at  that  hour  of  the  day,  it  being  about  noon, 
his  curiosity  led  him  to  the  door,  when  behold!  the  horrible  scene 
was  presented  to  him.  Ten  lifeless  bodies  stretched  upon  the  floor, 
weltering  in  their  own  blood,  and  little  Archie,  who  was  not  dead, 
but  blind  from  the  blow  he  had  received,  moaning  and  crawling 
about  among  his  dead  companions,  smooth'ng  his  hands  over  their 
faces,  and  running  his  fingers  tlu'ough  their  hnir,  as  if  trying  to 
distinguish  one  from  another  by  the  touch.  Archie  M'Cullough 
recovered  from  his  injuries  and  lived  to  an  old  age.  but  his  mind 
was  never  quite  right  again.  A  few  days  after  this  dreadful  massa- 
cre *he  whole  neighborhood  gathered  to  participate  in  the  funeral 
obsequies.  The  teacher  and  scholars  were  all  buried  in  the  same 
grave,  being  put  into  a  large,  rudely-constructed  box,  with  their 
clothing  on,  as  they  were  found  after  being  murdered. 


Directly  across  the  alley  from  the  National  House,  on  north  Main 
street,  Chambersburg,  stands  the  Montgomery  House.  When 
Nicholas  Snider  bouglit  the  National  House  property  he  also  bought 
this  one,  and  in  course  of  time  it  came  into  the  hands  of  Jacob  Sni- 
der, who  in  March,  1794,  sold  to  his  brother,  Jeremiah  Snider,  father 
of  our  townsman,  Mr.  Nicholas  Snider,  to  whom  the  writer  is  under 
obligations  for  many  historical  facts  otherwise  unattainable.  Jere- 
miah Snider  had  been  keeping  a  hotel  on  west  Queen  street,  oppo- 
site the  property  now  occupied  by  H,  Sierer  &  Co.,  called  the  Harp 
and  Crown.  On  the  newly  acquired  land  he  built  a  three-story 
brick  tavern  stand,  brick  back  building,  brick  stable,  one-story  stone 
blacksmith  shop  on  the  corner  of  the  alley,  and  other  buildings. 
The  hotel  was  known  as  "The  Eagle,"  and  had  a  large  spread  eagle 
for  a  sign.  In  1823  Mr.  Nicholas  Snider  was  informed  by  his  father 
that  he  might  have  the  stone  blacksmith  shop,  and  in  consequence 
of  the  gift  Mr.  Snider  added  another  story  to  the  shop  and  convert- 
ed it  into  a  dwelling  house.  David  Snider  followed  Jeremiah  Sni- 
der as  landlord  of  the  Eagle.  Though  of  the  same  name  they  were 
not  related.  John  Aughinbaugh  was  landlord  for  a  year  or  two 
previous  to  1833,  when  Jeremiah  Snider,  of  Bedford,  rented  the  house. 

In  1836  Mr.  Nicholas  Snider  became  "mine  host."  The  same 
year  the  Cumberland  Valley  railroad  was  opened  for  trade,  and  the 
first  train  which  came  through  had  on  board  all  the  volunteers  from 
the  Carlisle  barracks,  who  were  entertained  by  Mr.  Snider.     Mr, 

Appendix.  233 

Nicholas  Snider  was  suoceeded  by  his  brother,  Geo.  W.,  about  the 
year  1838,  and  he  kept  the  hotel  until  September,  1844.  Jannes 
Montgomery,  father  of  Dr.  John  Montgomery,  rented  from  Mr. 
Jeremiah  Snider  in  September,  1844.  From  April,  1846,  to  April,  1847, 
Thomas  Gray  was  the  proprietor,  who  was  followed  by  Mr.  Mont- 
fiomery  again.  In  1848  Mr.  Snider  died,  and  Mr.  Montgomery,  on 
March  29th,  1848,  became  the  owner,  purchasing  from  the  adminis- 
trators of  Jeremiah  Snider.  In  1856  the  building  was  leased  to 
Charles  Gibbs,  who  only  remained  one  year,  to  be  followed  by  Mr. 
Montgomery  once  more.  From  this  period  until  his  death.  Mr. 
Montgomery  continued  running  the  business.  After  his  death  his 
widow,  Mrs.  Margaretta  Montgomery,  was  the  proprietress,  until 
the  invasion  and  fire  of  July  30th,  1864.  Immediately  after  the 
fire  the  present  building,  four-storied  brick,  having  its  offices,  read- 
ing room,  dining  room,  etc.,  on  the  first  floor,  the  parlor  on  the 
second,  and  the  remainder  of  the  house  devoted  to  bed  rooms,  of 
which  there  are  forty-two,  was  erected.  The  northern  part  of  the 
house  was,  and  is,  occupied  by  Dr.  Montgomery  as  a  private  resi- 
dence.    Mrs.  M.  Montgomery  continued  the  business  until  1866  or 

1867,  when  Mr.  W.  C.  M'Nulty  leased  the  property.     In  September, 

1868,  Daniel  Miller  went  into  the  house,  but  shortly  after  sold  his 
lease  to  Ephraim  S.  Shank.  This  lease  expired  September  21st, 
1871,  when  Elliott  &  Shenafield,  afterwards  Elliott  &  M'Call,  kept 
until  April,  187r5.  Since  that  time  it  has  been  under  the  manage- 
ment of  Wm.  H.  M'Kinlej',  who  has  lively  competition  with  his 
rival  across  the  allej'. 

CROWEI.L   &   go's   shops -GREENCASTLE. 

[The  following  sketch  from  the  pen  of  J.  M.  Cooper,  Esq.,  in  the 
Chambersburg  Valley  Spirit  of  August  loth,  1877,  gives  the  full  his- 
tory' of  the  Willoughby  Grain  Drill  Works,  at  Greencastle,  Pa.] 

"We  spent  a  day  in  the  fine  old  town  of  Greencastle  latelj^  and 
put  in  most  of  the  time  looking  through  the  establishment  of  J.  B. 
Crowell  &  Co.,  which  we  found  to  be  a  hive  of  industry,  and  which 
we  think  it  worth  while  to  write  the  history  of. 

Bradley  and  Chappel  started  a  Foundry  on  South  Carlisle  street, 
in  Greencastle,  in  1845,  and  J.  B.  Crowell  bought  out  Chappel  in 
1850.  The  business  was  conducted  hy  Bradley  &  Crowell  from  this 
date  till  1857,  when  Franklin  Keller  was  admitted  to  the  firm.  In 
this  year  the  manufacture  of  Grain  Drills  and  Hay  Rakes  was  ad- 
ded to  the  ordinary  business  of  the  Foundry.  This  establishment 
was  burned  down  in  1861,  when  a  temporary  structure  was  erected, 
in  which  the  business  was  carried  on. 

In  1860,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Emerson,  at  that  time  pastor  of  the  Pres- 
byterian church  at  Greencastle,  in  connection  with  General  Detrich 

234  Aiopendix. 

and  Wm.  H.  Davison,  started  a  Steara  Saw  Mill  and  Sash,  Door 
and  Blind  Factory.  In  1861,  James  C.  Austin  bought  out  Messrs. 
Emerson  and  Detrich,  and  he  and  Mr.  Davison  conducted  the  saw- 
mill and  sash  factory  till  the  succeeding  year. 

Bradley,  Crowell  and  Keller  dissolved  partnership  near  the  close 
of  1861,  and  in  1862  Mr.  Crowell  bought  out  Mr.  Austin  and  entered 
into  partnership  with  Mr.  Davison,  adding  the  Grain  Drill  and  Hay 
Rake  manufacture  to  the  business  previously  done  by  Austin  &  Da- 
vison. In  1870  the  firm  of  Crowell  &  Davison  was  dissolved,  and 
W.  H.  Davison's  half  interest  was  purchased  by  J.  B.  Crowell  and 
Jacob  Deardorff,  the  latter  having  been  in  the  employment  of  the 
old  firm  as  clerk.  In  1874  Joseph  E.  Crowell,  of  Ohio,  a  nephew  of 
J.  B.  Crowell,  purchased  of  him  a  quarter  interest,  the  firm  name 
making  no  change,  but  has  continued  since  187(1  under  the  title  of 
J.  B.  Crovvell  &  Co! 

The  present  establishnipnt  is  the  result  of  a  union  of  the  two  con- 
cerns whose  history  we  have  briefiy  given. 

The  Works,  which  were  of  wood  and  quite  extensive,  were  de- 
stroyed by  fire  i!i  1875.  Fortunately  the  Patterns  had  shortly  before 
been  removed  to  a  building  constructed  for  their  reception  and  were 
saved  from  the  general  wreck.  Temporary  buildings  were  put  up, 
in  which  the  work  was  carried  on  without  serious  interruption,  and 
preparations  made  for  rebuilding  on  a  more  extensive  scale  than 

The  new  buildings,  which  are  of  brick,  were  finished  some  time 
ago  and  are  now  fully  occupied.  The  main  shop  is  nearly  square— 
60  by  66  feet— three  stories  high,  with  a  metallic  roof,  surmounted 
with  -an  observatory,  from  which  a  magnificent  view  of  the  town 
and  country  and  distant  mountains  is  obtained  The  foundry  and 
machine  shops  are  in  a  building  9»)  by  50  feet  in  extent.  The  cupola 
is  outside  of  the  walls  of  the  foundry,  a  capital  arrangement  for 
keeping  the  foundry  clean  and  free  from  heat,  and  the  fires  of  the 
smith  shops  are  blown  by  the  same  steam  machinery  that  supplies 
the  blast  to  the  foundry.  The  boiler  and  engine  are  in  a  building 
detached  from  the  rest,  in  the  construction  of  which  every  possible 
precaution  against  fire  luis  been  taken. 

The  gruund,  covered  by  buildings  and  piled  up  with  lumber,  com- 
prises about  two  acres.  Crowell  &  Co.  supply  themselves  with  all 
the  lumber  they  use  except  the  pine.  Their  hickory,  oak  and  wal- 
nut lumber  comes  from  land  owned  or  leased  by  them  in  their  owb 
section,  and  is  cut  on  their  own  mill. 

Since  the  1st  of  January  last  their  carpenter  shop  has  turned  out 
over  700  window  and  door  frames,  and  over  5!)0  pairs  of  shutters  and 
blinds,  made  to  order,  and  not  including  sales  from  the  stock  of 
frames  and  shutters  kept  on  hand  for  sale.  A  good  deal  of  this 
work  has  come  to  Chambersburg. 

Apjjendix.  235 

They  built  one  hundred  Wind  Engines  for  the  Stover  Company 
last  year,  and  also  made  and  sold  a  large  number  of  Hay  Rakes, 
Fans  and  other  agricultural  implements. 

They  give,  at  the  present  date,  employment  to  more  than  eighty 
hands,  and  usually  run  without  stoppage,  except  at  the  Christmas 
holidays,  during  the  entire  year. 

But  J.  B.  Crovvell  &  Co's  leading  line  of  manufacture  is  Grain 
Drills,  and  we  do  them  no  more  than  justice  when  we  say  that  they 
make  the  best  Drill  that  we  have  any  knowledge  of.  They  cut  and 
bend  their  own  Rims  and  make  their  own  Spokes  out  of  their  own 
selected  lumber,  and  season  them  on  their  own  premises,  and  make 
their  own  Castings  out  of  iron  selected  for  its  adapiability  to  this 
purpose.  Their  wheels,  at  the  t-ame  time  that  they  are  made  with 
an  eye  to  neatness,  have  the  weight  and  strength  re(]uired  to  carry 
the  Drill  over  rough  ground  without  giving  way,  and  the  whole 
machine  is  both  neat  and  durable  — handsome  to  look  at  and  certain 
to  last  long.  Tliese  Drills  have  the  improved  Willoughby  gum 
springs,  and  also  corrugated  rubber  rollers  which  form  n  force  feed 
that  insures  a  constant  and  regular  flow  of  seed. 

Crowell  &  Co.  make  drills  that  sow  grain  alone,  or  grain  and  grass 
seed,  or  grain  and  fertilizers,  or  grain  and  grass  seed  and  fertilizers. 
The  purchaser  can  have  his  choice.  The  grass  seeder  is  detachable 
and  can  be  taken  off  at  pleasure.  Or  if  a  farmer  purchases  a  Drill 
without  the  grass  seeder,  he  can  at  any  time  a.^terward  order  the 
seeder  and  put  it  on  himself.  Ordinarily  they  make  the  Drill  with 
eight  hoes  eight  inches  apart,  but  in  some  instances  they  have  made 
them  wider  and  with  shafts,  so  as  to  be  drawn  by  three  horses,  one 
inside  the  shafts  and  the  others  outside.  Numerous  experiments 
have  been  made  with  hoes  closer  together  or  farther  apart,  but  these 
have  only  resulted  in  establishing  eight  inches  as  the  best  distance. 

The  Crowell  Drill  is  so  constructed  that  it  may  be  used  with  the 
hoes  in  a  straight  line,  or  zigzag,  or  alt'^rnatel.y  oscillating.  Where 
there  are  large  clods  or  rubbish  on  a  field,  the  zigzag  hoes,  as  is  well 
known,  clean  much  more  readily  than  the  straight;  but  here  is  an 
improvement  that  goes  far  ahead  of  the  stationary  zigzag  The 
hoes  alternately  move  forward  and  backward.  While  the  odd  num- 
bered hoes  are  going  forward  the  even  numbered  hoes  move  back- 
ward. The  motion  is  slow,  and  the  distance  traversed  by  each  hoe 
is  only  seven  inches  ;  that  is,  the  hoe  goes  forward  of  the  central  line 
8i  inches  and  back  of  it  the  same  distance.  This  motion  greatly 
facilitates  the  cleaning  process.  At  first  it  occurred  to  us  that  this 
oscillatory  motion  of  the  hoes  might  cause  an  irregular  deposit  of 
grain,  but  this  thought  was  dissipated  when  we  noted  carefully  how 
slow  were  the  advance  and  retreat  of  the  hoes  compared  with  the 
progress  of  the  drill  over  the  ground.  Besides,  Crowell  &  Co.  in- 
formed us  that  they  had  tested  this  matter  carefully  and  thoroughly, 

236  Appendix. 

and  had  found  by  actual  measurement  and  count  that  the  variation 
did  not  exceed  one  grain  in  five  inclies  on  the  ground.  The  motion 
given  to  the  hoes  renders  the  tubes  less  liable  to  choke  than  in  the 
old  zigzag  Drill.     In  fact  they  cannot  choke  at  all. 

This  Drill  seems  to  be  perfect  in  all  its  parts  and  combinations, 
and  it  is  called  for  from  distant  parts  of  the  country.  Three  car- 
loads have  already  been  shipped  to  Kansas  this  season,  and  some 
are  doing  duty  away  in  Texas. 

The  season  for  buying  and  selling  Grain  Drills  had  just  opened 
when  we  were  at  Crowell  &  Go's,  week  before  last,  and  it  promised 
to  be  a  good  one.  During  the  three  days  of  the  week  that  had  gone 
by,  they  had  shipped  fifty-tive  Drills,  and  they  expected  to  ship 
more  in  the  three  days  that  remained  of  the  same  week.  We  be- 
lieve they  are  the  heaviest  receivers  of  freight  on  the  line  of  the 
Cumberland  Valley  Railroad,  and  we  learn  that  in  the  year  ending 
June  1st,  1877,  they  paid  the  companj^  over  $5,700. 

In  exploring  Crowell  &  Co's  shops  we  were  surprised  to  find  a 
man  at  work  in  a  branch  of  manufacture  entirely  new  to  this  part 
of  our  State.  He  was  making  a  Pipe  Organ,  and  had  previously 
made  a  Reed  Organ,  which  was  pronounced  a  good  instrument. 
His  name  is  Miller  and  he  is  a  native  of  Denmark,  where  he  learned 
his  trade.  He  informed  us  ihat  he  had  worked  at  this  business  in 
Philadelphia  and  Erie.  He  does  not  possess  the  necessary  means  to 
establish  an  Organ  manufactory  here,  but  Mr.  Crowell  informed  us 
that  there  was  some  probability  that  a  company'  might  be  formed  at 
Greencastle,  and  the  manufaciure  established.  We  hope  that  this 
will  be  done,  and  that  success  will  reward  the  enterprise  And  we 
wish  Franklin  county  had  a  few  dozen  more  such  men  as  J.  B. 
Crowell,  whose  (juiet  energy  and  enterprise  have  made  his  fine  es- 
tablishment what  it  is— a  credit  to  the  town  of  Greencastle,  and  a 
benefit  to  the  surrounding  country. 


BY  J.   C.  BCRNS. 

This  murder,  the  last  that  was  committed  by  the  Indians  in  this 
region  of  the  country,  occurred  on  what  is  now  the  farm  of  Mr. 
Peter  Fahnestock,  near  Waynesboro',  Pa.  The  year  in  which  the 
murder  took  place,  cannot  now  be  ascertained,  but  I  have  repeated- 
ly heard  my  father  state  that  it  was  the  very  last  murder  committed 
by  the  Indians  in  this  section  of  the  State.  I  may  add  that  I  under- 
stand it  to  be  the  last  committed  by  them  in  this  valley,  and  so  oc- 

Appendix.  237 

curring- after  the  murder  of  the  teacherand  children  nearGreencastle. 

The  small  loi>:  house  in  which  the  young  women  lived,  was  situ- 
ated near  the  mill  now  owned  hy  Mr.  Fahnestock,  and  was  standing 
until  within  a  f^w  years.  I  have  often  seen  it  myself,  and  many 
others  remember  it  well.  Traditionary  accounts  differ  a  little  in 
regard  to  one  or  two  particulars  in  connection  with  their  death. 
Mrs.  Royer,  as  I  understand,  stated  that  an  alarm  having  been  giv- 
en that  Indians  were  about,  the  two  girls  in  question  had  each  a 
horse  nearly  ready  for  the  purpose  of  escaping  on  horseback,  when 
an  Irishman  came  hurrying  past  and  told  them  to  be  in  haste,  as 
Indians  were  near  ;  that  shortly  after  he  had  passed  they  were  shot. 

The  account  as  given  by  my  father  is  as  follows  :  that  the  girls 
in  question  were  wa-hing  clothes  that  day,  when  the  Indians  came 
upon  them  and  shot  and  scalped  them.  The  savages  at  once  left, 
going  westward.  Two  experienced  huntersliving  in  the  neighbor- 
hood, one  of  whom  had  lived  with  Indians,  gave  pursuit.  It  ap- 
pears there  were  but  two  of  the  Indians.  The  hunters  followed  the 
trail  towards  Bedford,  and  on  the  second  day,  somewhere  among  the 
mountains,  the  pursuers,  deeming  by  the  freshness  of  the  trail  that 
they  were  drawing  near  the  Indians,  became  more  cautious;  and 
noticing  a  small  opening  among  the  trees  ahead,  they  carefully  drew 
near,  and  there,  in  a  small,  open  glade,  where  were  several  wild  plum 
trees,  stood  the  two  Indians  under  the  trees  eating  wild  plums. 
The  extreme  caution  exercised  by  the  savages  while  eating  was 
curious.  They  were  perfectly  quiet,  and  each  would  cautiously 
r  ach  up  for  a  plum,  pull  it  oflf,  aiid  then  glance  around  the  opeti 
area,  at  tlie  came  time  listening,  and  then  eat  the  plum. 

The  huniers  in  a  whisper  arranged  their  plan.  They  agreed  not 
to  fire  until  nearenougn  to  see  theplum  seed  drop  from  the  mouth  of 
each  savage.  Then  stealthily  creeping  on  the  ground  they  advanc- 
ed near  enough,  when,  at  a  signal  agreed  upon,  they  both  fired,  and 
springing  up  they  rushed  forward  to  complete  the  work,  if  need  be, 
with  their  kni>  es.  But  it  needed  no  completion.  Each  bullet  had 
sped  with  <leadly  aim,  and  the  two  savages  were  still  in  death. 

The  men  obtained  the  scalps  of  the  two  sisters  slain  near  Waynes- 
boro', and  scalping  the  two  Indians,  they  rapidly  retraced  their 
steps  with  the  four  scalps,  and  reached  the  house  where  the  Miss 
Renfrews  had  lived,  just  as  the  funeral  train  was  about  to  leave  for 
the  place  of  burial.  The  hunters  approaching  the  cofBn,  quietly 
laid  down  by  the  corpses  the  two  scalps  taken  from  them,  and  then 
laid  down  along  side  of  those  the  other  two— the  Indian  scalps. 
This  told  the  story. 

The  remains  of  these  two  young  women  were  buried  on  a  quiet 
hill-side  in  view  of  the  historic  stream,  Antietam.  The  grave  can 
still  be  identified,  and  is  within  an  enclosure  now  used  as  a  burying 
ground  by   the   Burns   family,  and  near  the  grave  of  Miss   Sarah 

238  Appendix. 

Burns.     A  flat  stone,  set  edgewise,  marks  the  grave  itself;  but  there 
is  no  tombstone  or  inscription  to  tell  whose  remains  lie  beneath. 

The  only  information  as  to  the  names  of  these  two  sisters,  is 
simply  their  family  name — Renfrew. 


Franklin  Furnace,  located  in  St.  Thomas  township,  three  miles 
due  north  of  the  town  of  St.  Thomas,  and  at  the  foot  of  the'moun 
tains,  was  built  in  the  year  1S28  by  Peter  and  George  Housum. 
These  men  can^e  from  Berks  county  and  put  into  active  operation 
their  knowledge  of  the  iron  business,  learned  in  that  section  of  the 
country.  Their  driginal  purchase  was  the  furnace  property  and 
thirteen  hundred  acres  of  land.  The  ore  necessary  to  the  running 
of  the  furnace  was  taken  from  the  land  which  they  had  purchased, 
and  mixed  with  other  varieties,  taken  from  the  Shearer  bank,  near 
Loudon,  and  from  banks  near  Greenvillage.  From  some  cause  or 
other,  success  did  not  attend  their  efforts,  and  about  the  year  1845 
they  leased  the  property  to  Brine,  Filson  &  Lowe.  In  1848,  an  as- 
signment having  been  made  by  the  Bousums,  the  Furnace  passed 
into  the  hands  of  B.  &  W.  Phreaner,  from  Lebanon  county.  They 
operated  the  works  until  the  year  1855,  when  B.  Phreaner  was 
killed  while  engaged  in  raising  a  building.  After  his  death,  and 
while  in  the  possession  of  W.  Phreaner  and  the  heirs  of  B.  Phrean- 
er, W.  Phreaner  and  Elmira  Phreaner,  his  sister,  continued  the 
business  for  several  years.  The  heirs  of  B.  Phreaner  eventually  sold 
their  interest  to  Elmira,  daughter  of  B.  Phreaner,  who  intermarried 
with  Charles  Molly.  A  new  firm  was  organized  under  the  name  of 
Molly  &  Phreaner.  William  Phreaner  then  sold  his  interest  to 
Peter  C.  Hollar,  and  the  firm  name  changed  to  Molly  &  Hollar. 

This  firm  was  succeeded  by  M'Hose,  Hunter  &  Co.,  and  thesenior 
member  retiring  shortly  afterwards,  the  preseut  proprietors  became 
the  owners,  and  have  held  it  ever  since  that  time.  At  the  time  of 
the  purchase  by  M'Hose,  Hunter  &  Co.,  the  connected  tract  consist- 
ed of  about  1500  acres,  but  by  subsequent  purchases,  has,  from  time 
to  time  been  increased  until  at  the  present  time  it  contains  about 
5000  acres,  of  which,  a  tract  contaiuing  400  acres  is  farming  land, 
and  the  remainder  timber. 

At  the  present  time  the  ores  used  are  obtained  from  the  Cressler 
ore-bank,  near  Shippensburg,  and  a  small  amount  from  the  Neikirk 
bank,  on  the  adjoining  farm.  It  is  brought  by  rail  to  Chambers- 
burg,  and  from  tiiat  point  hauled  by  wagons  to  the  furnace.  The 
fuel  is  all  made  from  wood  cut  on  the  furnace  lands,  about  250  acres 
being  annually  cut  over  for  that  purpose.  The  timber  is  felled  by 
workmen  constantly  engaged  in  chopping  on  the  lands  of  the  fur- 
nace, and  after  culling  out  all  that  is  valuable  as  lumber,  the  i-emain- 


A2yx>encLix.  .      239 

der  is  cut  into  four  foot  cord  wood  and  burned  into  charcoal.  About 
7500  cords  are  thus  annually  burned  into  charcoal  and  used  in  the 
furnace.  The  amount  of  iron  manufactured  frora  this  use  of  fuel  is 
about  1400  tons,  although  there  has  been  over  16ii0  tons  made 
at  the  furnace  in  one  year.  About  75  men  are  constantly  employed 
in  the  various  departments  of  the  furnace,  and  the  land,  with  the 
exception  of  100  acres  of  the  farming  lands,  are  managed  by  the 
proprietors,  and  a  store  is  carried  on  in  the  same  connection,  at 
which  quite  a  trade  is  done  with  the  surrounding  farmers.  Most  of 
the  men  employed  by  the  proprietors  live  in  the  houses  belonging 
to  the  property,  of  which  there  are  about  30  on  the  lands.  A  steam 
saw-mill  is  in  constant  use  in  the  timber  lands  of  the  property,  and 
also  one  run  by  water  does  a  large  amount  of  business.  The  iron 
made  here  commands  the  highest  market  price,  being  made  cold- 
blast,  and  no  higher  tribute  can  be  paid  the  furnace  and  its  proi^rie- 
tors  than  the  statement  that  with  iron  of  similar  makes  from  other 
furnaces,  selling  in  the  market  at  $26.00,  the  iron  made  at  Franklin 
Furnace  is  finding  a  ready  sale  at  $31.00.  The  business  is  in  a  very 
prosperous  condition  at  present. 

The  firm  now  consistsof  Messrs.  John  Hunterand  Levi  L.  Spring- 
er. Both  gentlemen  aie  first  class  men,  and  have  the  highest 
standing,  both  as  regards  the  management  of  their  works,  and  in 
their  business  relations. 


A  century  ago,  on  the  banks  of  the  Antietam,  three  miles  east  of 
Waynesboro',  Pa.,  stood  a  little  blacksmith's  shop  Here,  in  1775, 
worked  honest  John  Bourns,  who  swung  the  hammer,  and  with 
lusty  blows  shaped  the  heated  iron  into  implements  fit  for  tilling 
the  soil.  The  war  alarum  rang  over  tlie  country,  and  to  John 
Bourns  it  brought  the  tidings  that  he  too  must  do  his  share  to  free 
his  fair  land  from  the  tyrant's  yoke.  After  casting  about  for  some 
means  of  contributing  his  share  to  the  common  cause,  he  deter- 
mined ti)  try  his  skill  on  a  wrought  iron  cannon.  An  extra  pair  of 
bellows  was  set  up,  and  his  brother,  James  Bourns,  together  with 
some  neighbors,  called  upon  to  give  ail  necessary  aid  in  keeping  up 
a  continuous  hot  fire  for  the  purpose  of  welding.  A  core  of  iron, 
with  a  small  bore,  was  first  prepared,  and  bars  of  iron  were  welded 
one  by  one,  longitudinally  on  this  core.  The  welding  having  been 
accomplished  successfully,  a  new  drilling  was  made,  and  the  bore 
brought  to  as  perfect  a  degree  of  smoothness  and  circularity  as  was 
possible  with  the  tools  accessible. 

This  small  cannon  was  taken  to  the  army  and  doubtless  gave  no 
uncertain  voice  in  freedom's  favor.  On  the  eleventh  of  September, 
1777,   the  battle  of  Braudywine  was  fought,  and  our  cannon  was 

240  Appendix. 

captured  and  taken  to  England.  John  Bourns  was  afterwards  draft- 
ed into  the  army,  previous  to  the  battle  of  Brandywine,  and  no 
doubt  felt  very  badly  when  he  found  that  his  pet  had  fallen  into  the 
hands  of  the  enemy.  On  account  of  his  great  skill  he  was  detached 
from  active  service  and  detailed  to  repair  gun  locks  and  make  bayo- 
nets for  the  use  of  the  army.  I  have  no  recollection  of  reading  of 
the  manufacture  of  cannon  for  the  Revolutionary  army  earlier  than 
the  Franklin  county  one. 

John  Bourns  was  the  father  of  the  late  General  James  Burns,  of 
Waynesboro',  and  he  and  William  Burns,  his  brother,  have  related 
frequently  the  story  heretofore  given,  to  many  persons.  Readers 
will  notice  the  change  in  the  orthography  of  the  names  of  the 
father  and  son.  Mr.  J.  C.  Burns,  of  Gettysburg,  furnished  the  writer 
with  the  facts  contained  in  this  article. 


In  order  to  give  a  history  of  the  village  of  Shady  Grove,  situated 
three  miles  east  of  Greencastle,  on  the  pike  leading  from  Baltimore 
to  Pittsburg,  it  is  necessary  to  give  a  history  of  the  Suively  families 
who  were  the  first  settlers  of  this  location.  John  Jacob  Schnebele, 
from  Switzerland,  emigrated  to  the  United  States  of  America  and 
settled  in  Lancaster  county,  Pennsylvania,  between  the  years  A.  D, 
1707  and  1718,  and  was  naturalized  in  liie  city  of  Philadelphia  on 
the  4th  day  of  October,  A.  1).  1729,  and  died  at  the  age  of  eighty- 
four  years,  leaving  an  offspring  of  several  children.  One  of  these 
children  was  Jacob  Schnebele,  who  was  born  A.  D.  1694,  and  died 
August  24th,  1766,  in  the  seventy-second  year  of  his  age,  leaving  an 
otfspring  of  seventeen  children,  whence  the  numerous  families,  now 
universally  known  as  the  Snivelys,  have  descended.  Some  of  these 
families  located  in  Antrim  township.  Many  also  emigrated  to  other 
parts.  As  Shady  Grove's  origin  and  history  is  solicited,  I  shall  en- 
deavor to  follow  the  generations  down  to  the  present  day,  by  com- 
mencing with  Joseph  Snively,  Sen.  About  this  time  the  name  was 
changed  to  Snively.  I  refer  first  to  the  old  Patent  Deed  from  Rich- 
ard and  Thomas  Penn,  for  a  tract  of  laud  called  "Punk,"  which  was 
entered  in  a  land  warrant,  bearing  date  January  8th,  A.  D.  1753, 
by  Samuel  Menoch,  who  conveyed  the  same  to  Jacob  Schnebele  by 
deed  dated  1756,  Jacob  Schnebele,  by  his  last  will  and  testament, 
gave  the  property  to  his  son,  Joseph  Snively,  Sen  ,  whoattained  the 
age  of  87  years.  Joseph  Snively,  Sr.,  died  on  the  farm  he  first  settled 
on,  leaving  it  to  his  son  Joseph  Snively,  Jr.,  who  also  reached  the 
age  of  86  or  87  years.  Joseph  Snively,  Jr.,  left  the  farm  to  his  son, 
Samuel  B.  Snively.  These  lands  have  been  handed  down  from  one 
generation  to  another  until  the  present  time,  a  period  of  about  130 
years,  and  that  tract  of  land  called  Punck,  was  added  to  the  origin- 


t„ct  tl,e  village  ^JX%     Z,:lTlZ 

,ievised  them  to  h.s  son,  «"'"='"  ^"'"^V)  1837.  time  no 
whicl.  the  first  building  was  erected  '"  ^-  D-J^"'-  ;„  igig 

,,ea  was  entertained  that  it  ever  J  "  ^^  ^  y  wlXilt.  After 
U,e  present  residence  and  »t„,e  °    *  ^.^^^^^^y^^  ^^^^^  ^  ^.^^  ^^  ^ 

doing  !'"'*''«''»  ^.f*-::^ -"7"  f"„Tce  which  was  obtained.  The 
warrant  an  appUcat.on  ^-^  P-'J^"-'  :,„„,  ,,,,,  ,,,,,  bas  become 
place  was  called  Shady  l'™ve  r^  Frederick  B.  Snlvely 

a  village  of  about  80  houses  ''"'^  ^  °l  ;  f  g/,  The  avocation  of 
„„,  been  Postmaster  and  '^"tlTZZlvtlomUmtei  in  agrl- 
,„eS..lvely  famihes  ?■•«'"  "''f.^.'/^tinettion  with  stock  feeding 
;;rr;:t,:  r;rrXL' ar:  so  ...ely  amed  to  the  pros- 
perity of  agriculturists  that  they  are  inseparable. 

,,..„>   ..«.N.   ..OBOt.B,..VO,tKS-K..CK  .  CO.,  W.V.E.BOBO.. 

onntivP  liistorv  of  the  well-known  Steam  En- 

In  l>'--^"^^"^g  r""     V    ™    it  s  ?ound  somewhat  difficult  to  gather 

gine  Works  at  Waynesboro  ,  it  is  to""^^  so  developments 

the  correct  dataand  %^^^::^:^:;^ent  writing  is 
from  the  begnin^"^-     ^  ^^  ^^^/^j^^^J.^.l^^^  J^  ^,^^  ^.^der  and 

the  General  Superiute^^^^^^^^  ^^ ^^^  biography  is  so  inti- 

constantconductoi  of    he  bu    n^^^^^^  it  is  necessary  to  use  it  in 

mately  connected  -^tl    -i  sub  e  ^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^  ,^  ^^^^^  ^^      .^ 

this  ^-«"^^^  733,'^  f,\ther  settled  in  this  county,  in  the  vicinity 
the  spring  of  1838  ^^'^  ^  ^;^  ,^^^.,  „f  age,  about  1843.  George  Frick 
of  Waynesboro  .     ^t  eighteen  >ea  »     commenced  business  in 

went  to  the  -^^^--^''^  ^^^^'^he  p  ac^e  x  ow  in  possession  of  Henry 
a  small  way  for  ^^^  'J^  ^.C  of  Quincy,  in  Quincy  town- 
Good,  about  one  ^'^^^.^^'fj^'l^^l^^,  years,  and  then  moved  to  the 
ship,  where  he  continued  about  ^^'J^^^^\^^^^  ^^^^^h  of  Waynes- 
.iil  PVopertyontheA.tietam^^^^^^  ^^^  ^^^,,„^ 

boro,  now  ^^^^^  ^^^'X^t  commenced  business 
«rain  drills.     ^""^CVToleu  factory  for  a  shop,  and  manufactur- 
of  Quincy,  occupying  a  woolen  .^     j^^„,^^i  implements.     It  was 

ingthresbing  -^^^^^^^^^ ^'^'"^L  built  his  first  steam  en- 

gme,  a  ^f '«-^^"\^"  ^'^Jfonowing  year  he  again  removed  to  a  country 
own  patterns      In  the  follow     .y^^^  ^^  ^^^^  ^.^^^^^  of  Ringgold, 

shop,  about  one-half  nue  Mason  &  Dixons  Line.     Here 

^hn;t:^vniCS  to  ran.them^.ni.  sh^- t^ 
=^rCSth:G^=X^:tTLe  increase 

242  Appendix. 

the  business  now  necessitated  better  facilities,  and  in  the  follow! nty 
year,  tlie  entire  business  was  removed  to  Waynesboro',  and  the 
manufacture  of  steam  engines  and  grain  separators  continued  on  a 
larger  scale.  In  1865  he  sold  out  the  Grain  Separator  business  to 
the  Geiser  Manufacturing  Company.  He  immediately  erected  the 
present  commodious  buildings  just  opposite  the  old  works,  and  made 
Steam  Engines  and  Boilers  of  all  kinds  ix.  specialty.  In  1870  he 
took  C.  F.  Bowman,  of  Lancaster,  into  co-partnership,  who  died  in 
the  fall  of  1872.  In  February,  1873,  a  company  was  organized  with 
a  capital  of  $100,000,  and  facilities  were  largely  increased,  in  order 
to  supply  the  pressing  demands  of  the  trade. 

The  works  comprise  two  commodious  finishing  shops,  well  fur- 
nished with  all  the  machinery,  tools  and  appliances,  usually  kept 
in  a  first-class,  well-conducted  establishment  of  this  character;  a 
large  boiler  shop,  with  ever3'  thing  necessary  to  produce  work  of  all 
kinds  and  styles  in  this  line;  also  steam  forge  shop,  smith  shop, 
iron  foundry,  brass  foundry,  paint  shop,  warehouse,  pattern  shop, 
and  pattern  house,  with  a  very  large  collection  of  imtterns  used  in 
manufacturing,  and  to  which  constant  additions  are  being  made. 

Eight  years  ago  fifty  workmen  were  employed,  now  the  company 
has  about  one  hundred  employees.  One  moral  feature  is  not  out  of 
place  in  this  connection.  The  company  employs  only  sober  men, 
and  when  any  of  the  workmen  are  ijersistent  in  the  use  of  intoxi- 
cating drinks,  such  are  suspended  or  dismissed. 

The  manufactures  produced  by  this  company  are  the  "Eclipse" 
Farm,  "Eclipse"  Portable,  and  "Eclipse"  Stationary  Steam  En- 
gines, Horizontal  and  Vertical  Stationary  Engines,  Steam  Boilers  of 
various  styles.  Circular  Saw-Mills,  Mill  Machinery,  and  general 
machinist  work.  Their  manufactures  are  shipped  to  almost  every 
State  in  the  Union,  and  even  to  the  West  India  Islands.  They  en- 
joy the  enviable  reputation  of  making  superior  machinery  in  their 
line.  In  the  short  period  of  three  years  past  they  have  sold  nearly 
500  of  their  Eclipse  Engines  alone,  and  of  the  great  number  of 
boilers  constructed,  they  have  yet  to  hear  of  the  first  explosion. 
Their  prospects  are  most  promising,  and  bid  fair  for  a  very  success- 
ful future. 

J.    K.    ANDREWS'    FARM. 

The  tract  of  land  now  belonging  to  Mr.  James  K.  Andrews,  of 
which  I  write,  is  located  in  Hamilton  township,  along  the  Warm 
Spring  road,  and  five  miles  south-east  of  Chambersburg.  It  con- 
tains about  one  hundred  and  twenty-seven  acres  of  gravel  land,  of 
which  twenty-seven  are  in  timber  and  the  remainder  in  farming 
order.  On  the  property  there  are  erected  a  two-storied  frame  dwell- 
ing bouse,  large  stone  and  frame  barn,  and  all  the  necessary  out- 
buildings.    It  is  bounded  by  lands  of  John  N.  Snider,  Andrew  Bard, 

Appendix.  243 

Israel  Faust,  Isaac  Allison,  Israel  Faust,  Jacob  Picking  and  others. 
The  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania,  in  1804,  granted  a  patent  to 
Andrew  Dunlop,  for  a  large  body  of  land,  of  which  this  farm  was  a 
constituent  part.  A  few  years  after,  Dunlop  sold  the  Andrews  tract 
to  James  Speer.  Speer  was  notable  to  pay  for  it,  and  an  execution 
of  judgment  was  issued.  Jacob  Merkle,  High  Sheriff  of  Franklin 
county,  on  April  14th,  1810,  sold  the  farm  to  Thomas  Poe,  Esq. 
James  Speer,  Jr.,  purchased  it  from  Poe,  but  only  retained  it  until 
April  4th,  1812,  when  Frederick  Wallick  became  the  owner.  For 
seven  years  it  was  in  the  possession  of  Wallick,  when  he  sold,  on 
March  24th,  1S19  to  Jacob  Hatler.  Hatler  remained  there  for  nearly 
half  a  generation,  but  sold  to  Michael  Etter  on  March  21st,  1833. 
Two  years  afterwards,  Etter  became  involved,  and  conveyed  the 
farm  on  February  28th,  1835,  to  John  Gird  and  Henry  Bender  to  sell 
for  the  benefit  of  his  creditors.  No  sale  was  made;  however,  and 
the  property  was  re-conveyed  to  Etter.  On  April  2d,  185-5,  James  J. 
Kennedy  and  James  Nill  became  the  owners,  and  on  April  2d,  1858 
Judge  Kennedy  purchased  Mr.  Nill's  interest,  thus  becoming  sole 
proprietor.  In  the  spring  of  1860  Mrs.  Sarah  Andrews  moved  from 
New  Village,  Warren  county.  New  Jersey,  to  our  county,  and  on 
the  sixth  day  of  April,  1860,  bought  this  property  from  Judge  Ken- 
nedy. The  frame  house  was  then  standing,  but  has  since  that  time 
been  thoroughly  remodeled.  In  March,  1866,  Mr.  James  Andrews, 
husband  of  Mrs.  Sarah  Andrews,  died.  Mrs.  Andrews  retained  the 
farm  until  January  1st,  1876,  when  she  sold  to  her  sons,  T.  M.  and 
J.  K.  Andrews.  During  the  summer  of  1875  the  present  large  barn 
was  built  by  the  proprietors,  the  work  being  done  by  Frank  M. 
Andrews.  Mr.  James  K.  Andrews  bought  out  his  brother's  half 
interest  on  July  1st,  1877,  and  made  extensive  alterations  in  the 
dwelling  house. 

The  present  proprietor  is  a  thorough,  go-ahead  young  merchant. 
At  present  he  is  engaged  i'  the  dry  goods  business,  with  E.  Van 
Volkenburg  &  Co.,  importing  and  jobbing,  384  and  386  Broadway, 
New  York  City.  In  consequence  of  his  business  relations,  he  is 
necessarily,  for  the  greatest  part  of  the  time,  ^way  from  the  county. 
His  brother,  Mr.  F.  M.  Andrews,  manages  the  farm. 

o.  w.  good's  registered  distillery. 

This  property  is  situated  in  Washington  township,  three  miles 
east  of  Waynesboro,  on  the  Waynesboro  and  Monterey  turnpike. 
It's  location  is  just  at  the  foot  of  the  South  Mountain,  on  the  Red 
Run,  and  a  mile  and  a-half  from  the  Waynesboro'  Station,  on  the 
Western  Maryland  railroad.  John  Downin  began  the  manufacture 
of  liquor  in  the  present  building,  about  the  year  1858,  and  the  name 
of  Downin  liquors  is  a  guarantee  of  purity.     A  distillery  was  in  op- 

244  Appendix. 

eration  as  early  as  1812,  and  a  point  not  more  tlian  one  luiiidred  feet 
east  of  the  present  otflce,  where  the  waj^on  house  of  Abrarn  .Shockey 
now  stands.  It  is  probable  that  this  location  was  early  selected  on 
account  of  the  jDure  water  of  a  spring,  which  then  as  now.  was  used 
in  the  manufacture  of  liquor.  This  spring  is  located  near  the  turn- 
pike, at  the  foot  of  the  mountain,  whence  it  tlows  in  a  clear  and 
limpid  stream.  During  tlie  heaviest  drouth  there  was  always  suttl- 
cient  water  to  fill  a  four  inch  pipe.  It  is  said,  with  how  mucii  mccu- 
racy  I  cannot  say,  that  the  Indians  held  these  waters  in  high  esteem, 
believing  them  to  be  medicinal  in  quality. 

Mr.  G.  is  running  the  establishment  steadily',  using  twenty-four 
bushels  of  grain  per  day.  He  fattens  and  ships  six  hundred  hogs  in 
each  year.  The  distillery  produces  about  six  hundred  and  tifty  bar- 
rels of  pure  liquors  per  annum,  and  there  is  a  great  demand  for  it  on 
account  of  its  »eputation  for  purity.  The  short  distance  to  the  (ail- 
road  gives  facilities  for  reaching  marke-t  not  enjoyed  by  those  who 
owned  this  property  previous  to  the  completion  of  the  present  enter- 


Mr.  Shockey  purchased  this  ])roperty,  on  which  his  homestead 
now  stands,  in  1862.  The  first  purchase  was  al)Out  sixty-two  acres, 
located  in  Washington  township,  near  the  South  Mountain.  In 
1863,  Lee's  army,  while  retreating  from  Gettysburg,  encamped  in 
that  region  of  country.  The  damage  resulting  from  this  visit  to 
Mr.  Shockey  he  estimates  at  five  thousand  dollars.  Since  its  pur- 
chase the  present  owner  has  Ijullt  the  warehouse  occupied  hy  Mr. 
O.  W.  Good,  a  wagon  house,  the  rear  part  of  the  present  house,  the 
barn  and  all  other  buildings  now  standing,  except  the  dwelling 
house  and  mill.  Scarcely  a  fence  or  outside  improvement  was  then 
in  existence,  where  now  are  cultivated  fields  and  commodious  build- 
ings, making  a  tasty,  convenient  and  valuable  homestead.  About 
1865,  Mr.  Shockey  purchased  twenty-four  acres  from  the  farm  of 
Jacob  Hoover,  deceased.  This  piece  of  land  was  not  the  onlj-  addi- 
tion, as,  in  1868,  a  second  tract  of  twenty-four  acres,  directly  south 
of  the  first,  was  purchased  from  Jacob  Stouffer.  At  that  time  there 
was  a  school  house  erected  on  this  land.  At  his  own  expense,  the 
l^roprietor  lias  erected  a  church  for  the  use  of  the  German  Dunkards, 
and  with  the  church  has  given  them  au  acre  as  a  burial  ground. 
These  purchases  have  increased  the  farm  to  110  acres,  in  1877,  and 
has  made  one  of  the  finest  properties  in  the  valley,  having  on  it  a 
church,  school  house,  distillery,  feed  mill,  warehouse,  together  with 
the  water  right  to  the  spring  mentioned  in  another  article,  and  from 
which  a  new  line  of  pipes  has  been  laid.  Mr.  Shockey  owns  an- 
other fine  farm,  of  181  acres,  located  southwest  of  his  homestead, 
and  immediately  adjoining  a  tract  of  86  acres  of  fine  timber.     This 


Apjjendiz.  245 

timber  land  is  on  the  mountain  side,  and,  being  for  the  most  part 
pine,  is  very  valuable.  The  mill,  under  his  ownership,  has  been 
extensively  remodeled  and  new  machinery  introduced. 


In  Antrim  township  about  two  miles  from  Greencastle  is  located 
the  farm  of  Mr.  Eshleman.  This  property  was  originally  a  part  of 
the  Crunkleton  tract  and  contains  about  one  hundred  and  fifty-one 
acres,  of  which  fifteen  are  in  timber.  The  first  owner  on  record 
was  Joseph  Crunkleton,  who  took  out  his  license  in  1734.  The  tract 
then  contained  the  lands  now  owned  by  Benjamin  Snively  and  the 
farm  under  consideration.  In  1853  Peter  Eshleman  and  Jonas  ReifF 
purchased  it  of  the  heirs  of  Jacob  Snively.  Peter  Eshleman,  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1860,  purchased  the  undivided  half  of  ReifFand  became  the  sole 
owner.  David  Eshleman,  on  June  28th,  1869,  bought  from  Peter 
Eshleman,  his  father,  and  now  owns  it.  The  dwelling  house  is  built 
of  stone  and  contains  nine  rooms.  It  was  built  about  1801  by  a  Mr. 
Byers.  whose  first  name  I  have  been  unable  to  learn.  In  the  pres- 
ent year  Mr.  Eshleman  has  entirely  remodeled  the  house.  There 
are  several  verj'  fine  springs  on  the  farm,  and  it  is  well  known  as 
one  of  the  oldest  and  most  productive  in  the  valley. 

Mr,  Eshleman  devotes  his  attention  to  grain  raising,  although  he 
has  quite  a  large  amount  of  stock  on  the  farm.  The  land  is  at 
present  in  very  fine  condition.  More  than  18000  bushels  of  lime, 
burned  on  the  place,  have  been  used  since  it  came  into  the  posses- 
sion of  the  present  owner.  With  fine  buildings,  good  fencing,  and 
land  in  the  best  condition,  this  tract  is  one  of  the  most  valuable  in 
the  county. 


The  manufacturing  business  was  initiated  on  this  site  in  the  year 
1860  by  George  Frick,  in  a  small  frame  shoj),  foundry  and  black* 
smith  shop.  The  trade  was  almost  entirely  confined  to  a  few  steam 
engines,  mill  gearing,  Geiser  separators  and  horse  powers.  After  a 
period  of  six  years  the  demand  for  the  Geiser  separator  became  so 
much  greater  that  Daniel  Geiser,  B.  E.  Piice,  Josiah  Fahrney  and 
J.  F.  Oiler  associated  themselves  in  co-partnership  under  the  firm 
name  of  Geiser,  Price  &  Co.  With  a  capitalof  about  $20,000,  they 
leased  the  real  estate,  buildings  and  machinery  from  George  Frick. 
In  August,  1866,  they  begati  business  and  were  so  successful  that  in 
1867  they  bought  the  entire  works.  In  1868  the  firm  was  increased 
by  the  admission  of  three  new  members,  Daniel  Hoover,  John  Phil- 
lips and  J,  S.  Oiler.     The  business  increased  until  they  are  doing  a 

246  Appendix. 

trade  now  of  400  machines  a  year,  amounting  to  about  $185,000. 
On  January  1st,  1809,  the  firm  became  an  incorporated  organization, 
under  the  title  of  the  Geiser  Manufacturing  Company,  and  with  a 
capital  of  $134,600,  new  buildiui^s  were  erected,  until  at  present  the 
works  cover  nearly  two  acres  of  ground,  with  a  capacity  of  four  ma- 
chines a  day.  The  highest  number  of  hands  employed  at  one  time 
was  175. 

The  names  of  the  stockholders  in  December,  1877,  are  D.  Geiser, 
B.  E.  Price,  Josiah  Fahrney,  J.  F.  Oiler,  Daniel  Hoover,  John 
Phillips,  A.  D.  Morganthall,  A.  E.  Price,  Joseph  Price,  Samuel 
Hoeflich,  John  L.  Loyd,  Stover  &  WolfT,  D.  B.  Mentzer,  Fink  & 
Bro.,  Daniel  Hollinger,  Samuel  Newcomer  and  J.  F.  Emert.  The 
company  is  doing  a  very  large  business.  Their  work  is  all  of  the 
best  material  and  put  up  by  the  most  skillful  mechanics  and  it  has 
attained  a  reputation  second  to  none  in  agricultural  machines. 
This  company  is  the  only  one  authorized  to  manufacture  the  Geiser 


The  Renfrew  family,  one  branch  of  which  now  owns  the  above 
named  property,  is  one  of  the  oldest  in  Franklin  county.  John 
Renfrew  came  to  America  during  the  latter  part  of  the  last  century, 
and  having  heard  of  the  wonderful  beauty  of  the  Cumberland  Valley, 
came  to  it,  settled  first  near  the  present  village  of  Scotland,  and  even- 
tually settled  on  the  Boyne  farm.  Thomas  and  John  Penn,  Esqs.,  on 
the  10th  da^'  of  June,  1762,  issued  a  warrant  for  the  survey  of  a  certain 
tract  of  laud  called  "Boyne,"  situated  in  Guilford  township,  Cum- 
berland county.  On  April  2d,  1774,  this  tract  was  surveyed  for  James 
Crawford,  who,  upon  the  lOtli  day  of  January  previous,  had  conveyed 
it  to  Patrick  Alexander.  The  proprietaries,  on  April  13th,  1774,  for- 
ever released  Patrick  Alexander,  his  heirs  or  assigns,  from  the  pay- 
ment of  an  annual  quit  rent  in  consideration  of  the  sum  of  £25,  7s. 
After  Patrick  Alexander's  death,  his  son  Joseph  took  the  property  at 
its  appraised  value,  and  he  on  April  29th,  1784,  conveyed  to  John 
Renfrew.  This  gentleman  had  been  a  soldier  in  the  Revolution  and 
bore  to  his  grave  marks  of  wounds  obtained  in  the  great  struggle 
for  liberty.  He  had  one  wound  in  his  foot  which  caused  a  perma- 
nent lameness.  About  the  year  1807  John  Renfrew  purchased  of 
Jacob  Gsell  an  additional  tract  containing  six  acres  and  thirty-two 
perches.  Mr.  Renfrew  lived  in  the  enjoyment  of  his  possessions 
until  the  fall  of  the  year  of  1844.  By  the  will  of  his  father,  John 
Renfrew  became  the  next  proprietor,  and  lived  there  until  his  death, 
which  occurred  in  September  of  the  year  1863.  At  his  demise  the 
whole  estate  was  divided,  but  the  old  mansion  remained  and  still  is 
in  the  ownership  of  sHannah  and  Sarah  E.  Renfrew,  his  daughters. 

The  Boyne  farm  is  located  at  Turkey  Foot,  about  seven  miles 

Appendix,  247 

from  Chambersbnrg  and  two  miles  south  of  Fayetteville.  It  lies  in 
a  beautiful  region  of  country  and  contains  about  one  hundred  and 
thirty  acres  of  the  best  quality  of  land.  There  are  erected  upon  the 
place,  a  large  two  storied  brick  house,  large  bank  barn,  together 
with  all  the  necessary  outbuildings.  At  the  homestead  they  have 
all  the  old  deeds  back  even  to  the  original  patent  granted  by  the 
Penn  proprietary  government.  It  will  thus  be  seen  that  this  prop- 
erty has  been  in  the  uninterrupted  possession  of  the  Renfrew  family 
for  nearly  one  hundred  years,  and  since  it  was  patented  has  had  but 
very  few  changes. 


This  piece  of  property  lies  in  Montgomery  township.  The  land 
warrant  for  it  was  taken  out  by  Patrick  and  Hannah  Maxwell.  On 
March  24th,  1846,  Mr.  James  Boyd  went  to  this  place.  Mr.  William 
Boyd,  father  of  the  present  proprietor,  moved  from  Dauphin  to 
Cumberland  county  in  the  year  1807,  and  James  Boyd  was  born 
near  Newville  in  1811,  where  he  resided  until  1846,  when  he  moved 
to  this  county,  where  he  has  resided  ever  since.  The  first  orchard 
was  set  out  in  1846,  and  the  barn,  which  is  seen  in  the  sketch,  was 
built  A.  D.  1851.  In  the  year  1852  the  tenant  house  w»s  built  and 
in  1859  the  orchard  was  re-^et.  The  mansion  house  was  erected  in 
1860.  All  the  buildings  now  standing  were  erected  and  the  im- 
provements made  by  the  present  proprietor. 


On  the  Greencastle  and  Williamsport  turnpike,  two  miles  south 
of  Greencastle,  is  the  farm,  mill  and  distillery  of  Mr.  Robert  John- 
son. The  farm  contains  124  acres  of  good  land  and  the  mill  and 
distillery  are  well  known  throughout  the  surrounding  country. 
Dr.  Johnson,  who  report  says  was  blessed  with  four  hundred  and 
fifty  pounds  of  a  wife,  was  the  first  settler,  and  he  took  out  a  patent 
for  all  the  country  surrounding.  About  1810  Dr.  Johnson  sold  to 
Samuel  Hunter,  who  twenty-five  years  later  sold  to  Philip  Weaver. 
Ten  years  afterwards  Mr.  Weaver  sold  to  Joseph  Whitmore,  who, 
after  owning  it  for  seven  years,  sold  to  Michael  Zellers.  Henry 
Miller,  two  years  later,  purchased  it  and  kept  it  for  five  years,  when 
Jolin  H.  Hartle  became  the  owner.  On  October  29th,  1866,  the  pres- 
ent owner  purchased  from  Hartle.  The  grist  mill  located  on  the 
property  is  a  very  old  one,  and  Mr.  Johnson  has  had  it  remodeled 
and  steam  ix)wer  introduced.  The  distillery  was  built  by  Philip 
Weaver  in  1838  and  the  mansion  house  in  1867.  An  addition  of  a 
bonded  warehouse  was  made  in  1867  and  in  1872  the  barn  was 
erected.     The  distillery  is  known  by  the  name  of  Spring  Grove. 

248  Appendiai. 

Mr.  RobertJohnson  was  born  in  Washington  township,  Frank- 
lin county,  Pa.,  on  .June  22d,  1825.  In  1853  he  was  married  to 
Margaret  Stoops,  of  Quincy  township,  who  was  born  January  15th, 
1835.  By  tliis  marriage  Mr.  Johnson  has  had  seven  children  born 
to  him,  five  boys,  one  of  whom  is  dead,  and  two  girls.  In  a  pleasant 
country  and  a  beautiful  valley,  Mr.  Johnson  has  everything  he 
could  desire  to  enjoy  life,  which  he  no  doubt  does. 


The  early  history  of  the  factory  now  owned  by  Mr.  White,  and 
a  view  of  which  appears  in  this  volume,  is  unattainable.  Prior  to 
1847  a  small  factory  occupied  the  site  of  the  present  one.  It  was 
operated  by  a  firm  styled  Carr  &  Crossley  and  owned  by  David 
Bigham.  In  1846  this  little  concern  was  burned  and  Mr.  Bighani 
erected  the  present  well  known  building.  Il  is  forty-five  by  sixty 
feet  in  dimensions  and  three  stories  in  height,  and  is  fitted  up  with 
the  most  approved  machinery  for  the  manufacture  of  goods.  Isaac 
Hawn  was  the  first  lessee,  followed  l)y  Wm.  Megary,  who  remained 
until  1855.  In  that  year  Messrs.  Roberr  Black  and  Samuel  E, 
White  purchased  the  property  and  operated  it  until  1860,  under  the 
somewhat  -unusual  firm  name  of  Black  &  White.  In  1860  Mr. 
White  purchased  the  entire  interest  and  remained  sole  owner  until 
his  death,  which  occurred  in  1871.  Mr  J.  Burns  White,  his  son, 
then  leased  the  property  from  the  heirs  and  continued  the  manufac- 
ture of  goods  until  1873.  At  this  time  he  became  the  owner,  hav- 
ing purchased  the  shares  of  the  other  heirs,  and  the  factory  has  been 
in  constant  operation  ever  since  with  a  steadily  increasing  demand 
for  the  goods.  Connected  with  it  are  some  one  hundred  and  fifty 
acres  of  ground  much  of  which  is  still,  covered  with  valuable  tim- 
ber. The  dwelling  is  one  of  the  most  commodious  and  tasty  private 
residences  in  the  valley.  It  is  built  of  stone  and  was  erected  many 
years  ago  by  David  Bigham,  and  entirely  remodeled  in  1867  by  Mr, 
Samuel  E.  White.  There  is  a  fall  of  over  nine  feet,  which  can  be 
increased  to  over  eleven  feet,  and  an  average  run  equal  to  fifteen 
horse-power.  The  goods  made  here  command  a  ready  sale  and  are 
well  and  favorably  known  both  at  home  and  abroad.  The  principal 
articles  manufactured  are  all  kinds  of  knitting  yarn,  blankets,  fian- 
nels,  carpets,  cassimeres  and  satinets. 

J.    B.    COOK'S   FARM. 

George  Adam  Cook,  about  the  year  1745,  emigrated  to  what  is  now 
known  as  Franklin  county  from  York  county.  He  took  up,  by 
warrant  dated  May  20th,  1776,  a  tract  containing  the  farm  at  present 
owned  by  Jacob  B.  Cook.     Mr.  Cook  settled  upon  this  tract  imme- 

Apj^endix.  249 

diately  upon  his  entering  the  vallej',  and  built  where  the  present 
building  stands,  but  the  warrant  was  not  granted  until  thirty-one 
years  later.  At  thai  time  there  were  but  few  residents  throughout 
what  is  now  known  as  Quincy  township.  The  settlers  were  few, 
and  their  bitter  foes,  the  Indians,  many.  Numerous  were  the  in- 
cursions made  by  the  redskins,  and  at  one  time  Mr.  Cook  was  way- 
laid on  the  farm  now  owned  by  Peter  Whitmore.  He  was  driving 
his  cows  home,  but  the  animals  gave  warning  of  the  presence  of  the 
wily  savage,  and  he  escaped.  Afterwards  he  lost  a  horse,  the  In- 
dians shooting  it  in  twelve  places.  This  locality  was  a  favorite 
camping  place  of  the  aborigines,  especially  adjacent  to  the  place 
where  the  spring  crosses  the  road.  This  fact  is  evidenced  by  the 
great  numbers  of  arrowheads  picked  up  in  years  pa«t,  and  even  yet 
turned  up  by  the  plow  as  it  turns  the  furrows  in  the  field  below. 
There  can  still  be  seen  on  the  farm,  in  full  bearing,  apple  trees 
which  were  biought  while  saplings  from  York  county,  over  130 
years  ago. 

The  family  name  at  that  time  was  spelled  Koch,  but  lias  since 
been  changed  to  Cook.  Upon  the  deatla  of  George  Adam  Cook,  the 
property  descended  by  will  to  hisson, Peter  Cook,  who  was  born  in  the 
present  mansion  house.  This  house  was  built  about  1746,  by  G.  A. 
Koch,  remodeled  in  1807  by  Peter  Cook,  and  again  in  1861  by  J.  B. 
Cook.  He  raised  a  family  of  six  sons  and  four  daughters,  and  died 
at  the  ripe  old  age  of  87  years.  Two  sons  and  two  daughters  are  yet 
living.  For  over  130  years  this  farm  has  been  in  the  possession  of 
this  family.  Where,  in  1745,  George  Adam  Koch  built  his  humble 
log  cabin  amidst  the  primeval  forest,  are  now  to  be  found  cultivated 
fields,  commodious  houses,  and  all  the  comforts  and  conveniences 
brought  by  civilization  in  its  onward  march. 

The  survey  of  the  proposed  Baltimore  and  Cumberland  Valley 
Raih'oad  jDasses  near  the  buildings. 


This  property  is  located  one  mile  southeast  of  Fayetteville  and 
six  miles  from  Chambersburg.  Its  early  history  is  embodied  in  the 
original  grant  made  to  the  Crawfords  and  mentioned  elsewhere  in  this 
work.  John  Crawford  came  into  possession  of  the  farm  in  question 
about  the  year  1796,  having  purchased  a  portion  of  it  from  his  brother, 
and  continued  to  own  it  until  his  death,  which  occurred  about  the 
year  1827,  when  it  went  into  the  hands  of  his  son,  Joseph  Crawford, 
who  has  ever  since  made  it  his  home.  He  is  the  youngest  of  twelve 
children,  only  one  of  whom,  Mrs.  M'Kee,  of  Chambersburg,  beside 
himself,  is  still  living.  Mr.  Crawford  is  one  of  the  few  men  who 
can  point  to  an  uninterrupted  residence  on  the  same  place  for  over 
half  a  century,  during  which  time  he  has  raised  a  family  of  five 

250  Apj^endix. 

children,  all  of  whom  are  now  living.  Four  of  those  are  at  homo, 
viz.  :  John,  James,  Mary  and  Agnes,  and  one  (Ann)  resides  in  Iowa. 
All  of  the  hiiildings  now  on  the  farm  were  erected  by  its  present 
proprietor.  The  house  was  built  in  1847  and  the  barn  in  1841.  There 
are  about  230  acres  included  in  tills  tract,  and  from  the  dwelling  a 
beautiful  view  can  be  obtained  of  the  surrounding  country.  In  ad- 
dition to  the  buildings  represented  in  our  picture,  there  is  a  com- 
fortable tenant  house  on  the  place.  A  fine  well  of  water  close  to  the 
house  and  runnins:  water  in  the  fields.  The  Mont  Alto  Railroad 
passes  through  the  farm,  and  as  a  desirable  residence  it  is  among  the 
foremost  in  the  county. 


This  attractive  and  healthful  resort,  located  five  miles  south-east 
of  Waynesboro'  and  two  and  a-half  miles  from  Blue  Ridge  Summit 
on  the  W.  M.  R.  R.,  has  been  made  what  it  is  by  its  present  pro- 
prietor, Mr.  V.  B.  Gilbert,  a  man  of  varied  experience  and  grent 
adaptability  to  the  business  in  which  he  is  now  engaged.  Having 
disposed  of  various  enterprises  upon  which  he  had  expended  a 
number  of  years  of  his  very  active  career,  which  began  March  17th, 
1825,  and  after  effecting  a  sale  of  the  Waynesboro'  hotel  in  the  year 
18G7,  he  purchased  the  locality  represented  in  our  engraving,  with 
the  intention  of  living  a  private  and  retired  life.  Very  much  out  of 
repair  and  dilapidated  was  the  old  wagon  stand  on  the  mountain 
when  it  passed  into  his  hands,  but  fortunately  for  the  comfort  and 
enjoyment  of  its  now  frequent  guests,  both  from  city  and  country, 
it  had  Ibund  a  proprietor,  whose  fondness  for  improvement  would 
not  let  it  continue  in  its  antiquated  condition,  and  the  teamster  of 
former  days  who  was  wont  to  crack  his  wliip  and  jokes  in  front  of 
the  old  hostelry  would  fail  to  recognize  his  former  stamping  ground. 
Renewed  and  renovated,  even  to  the  old  mansion  house,  which  had 
also  to  submit  to  the  remodeling  and  improving  ))rocess,  he  has 
made  this  elevated  point  on  the  South  mountain,  which  commands 
a  delightful  prosjject  across  the  Cumberland  Valley  to  the  extent  of 
30  miles,  together  with  a  view  of  all  the  different  Mountain  ranges 
as  far  as  the  eye  can  reach,  one  of  the  most  attractive  summer  re- 
sorts in  the  State.  This  present  delightful  abode  is  surrounded  with 
mineral  springs,  and  is  also  provided  with  an  abundance  of  the 
purest  mountain  water  which  supplies  the  hotel  and  bath  houses. 
Provided  with  a  profusion  of  the  choicest  fruit  trees  and  grape 
vines  and  more  than  enough  of  land  under  the  higliest  cultivation, 
mine  host  is  at  all  times  enabled  to  provide  his  tables  with  the  best 
of  viands.  Very  near  to  the  mansion,  on  Red  run  stream,  which 
abounds  in  speckled  trout,  is  erected  a  very  fine  saw  mill.    The 

Appendix.  251 

park,  which  includes  hill  and  dale,  is  made  attractive  by  nu- 
merous springs,  many  of  which  contain  iron,  magnesia  and  sulpluir, 
and  its  greatest  attraction  is  one,  unfailing  in  its  character,  which 
has  a  fall  of  150  feet  in  less  than  that  many  yards.  Mr.  Gilbert, 
tired  of  frequent  changes,  has  determined  to  make  Buena  Vista  his 
permanent  home,  atid  with  that  ambition  that  belongs  to  those  de- 
scended from  an  honorable  ancestry,  his  constant  aim  is  to  preserve 
a  reputation  well  earned,  and  one  which  he  hopes  to  transmit  un- 
sullied to  those  who  may  follow  him. 

Valentine  B,  Gilbert  is  a  son  of  the  late  John  Gilbert,  well  known 
to  the  residents  of  the  lower  part  of  the  county,  who  died,  full  of 
years  and  honors,  whilst  on  a  visit  to  his  son  Snmuel  in  Ohio.  His 
remains  were  brought  back  to  Waynesboro'  and  safely  placed  at 
rest  in  the  burial  grounds  of  the  German  Reformed  Church.  The 
venerated  mother  of  Mr.  Gilbert  still  resides  in  Waynesboro'. 


[The  following  article  from  the  Franklin  Repository  ot  May  2d, 
18G(),  written  by  the  late  G.  A.  Shryock,  Esq.,  \vill  possess  an  al- 
most incalculable  interest  to  those  interested  in  the  straw  board 
manufacture  in  not  only  Franklin  county,  but  elsewhere  as  well, 
being  undoubtedly  a  full  and  authentic  history  of  that  branch  of 
industry  from  its  first  conception.  Comments  are  unnecessary  and 
we  copy  verbatim.] 

The  following  article  was  written  some  time  since,  at  the  earnest 
solicitation  of  a  number  of  friends  of  the  author  : 

The  manufacture  of  paper  from  raw  vegetable  matter  has  much 
agitated  the  public  n)ind,  both  in  our  country  and  Europe,  since 
the  scarcity  of  rags  has  rendered  it  impossible  to  keep  pace  with 
the  consumption  of  paper  in  the  various  departments  developed  by 
literature  and  commerce  Scores,  if  not  hundreds,  of  persons  claim 
to  be  the  originators  of  the  manufacture  of  paper  from  straw,  wood, 
grass,  corn  husks,  cane,  &c.  As  I  am  one  of  this  large  family  of 
claimants,  I  wish,  through  the  medium  of  your  paper,  to  give  a 
history  of  the  origin  of  this  now  indispensable  article.  I  think  its 
first  introduction  a^  a  staple  article  originated  in  Chambersburg  in 
1820,  as  follows  : 

Col.  Wm.  Magaw,  of  Meadville,  Pa.,  was  extensively  engaged  in 
the  manufacluie  of  potash,  about  1827-'28.  As  was  customary,  the 
ash  hoppers  were  lined  witli  long  straw  before  the  ashes  were  intro- 
duced. Magaw  was  in  the  habit  of  chewing  the  straw  taken  from 
the  hoppers  and  pressing  it  on  his  hands,  thus  discovering  that  it 
produced  a  substance  united  and  fibrous,  closely  resembling  the  pulp 
out  of  which  is  made  the  ordinary  wrapping  paper.     He  concluded 

'-'^-^  Appendix. 

that  the  material  was  adapted  to  the  manufacture  of  paper.     As  T 
was  as  that  time  en<,'a<?ed   in  tlie  manufacture  of  ra<?  papr-r  hy  tlie 
ohl   method,  at  Hollywell  Paper  Mill,  one  and  a  half  miles  " 
of  Chambersburg,  Magaw  wrote  to  me  on  the  subject  of  his  discov- 
ery.    I  encouraged  him  to  visit  Chamhersburtr,  in  July  or  August 
1829,  to  fairly   test  the  matter  at  Hollywell  Pajier  Mill.     The  ex- 
periment was  at  that  time  and  place  made,  and  proved  a  decided 
success.     I  was  so  well  satisfied  of  its  practicability  that  I  bouo-ht  a 
large  east-iron  kettle  of  John  V.  Kelley,  in  Chambersburg,  crilbed 
It  with  wood  staves  so  that  I  could  boil  from  seven  hundred  to  one 
thousand  pounds  of  straw  at  one  filling,  and  made,  for  some  weeks 
from  twenty  to  thirty  reams  per  day.     I  was,  at  that  time,  intimate 
with  John   Jay  Smith,    Esq.,   Librarian   to   the  Philadelphia  Li- 
brary, and  sent  him  quite  a  quantity  of  the  straw  paper  as  samples 
Mr.  Smith  edited,  I  think,  the  Saturday/  BuUetin.     His  position 
as  editor  enabled  him  to  give  extensive  circulation  to  the  discovery 
Not  one  claim  was  made  to  priority.     The  world  was  silent  on  the 
subject.     The  straw  paper  was  distributed  over  this  entire  country 
and  in  Europe  in  pieces  of  from  two  inches  square  to  a  full  sheet, 
and  excited  the  astonishment  of  the  paper  manufacturers  of  the 
world.     Mr.  Smith  had  part  of  one  issue  of  the  Bulletm  printed  on 
straw  paper  ;  also  a  small  lot  manufiictured  into  wall  paper  l)y  Mr 
Longstreth,  in  Third  street,  above  Market,  and  had  the  hall  of  his 
residence,   in   Arch    street,    below   Fifth,  papered   with   the  same. 
Both  ground  work  and  figure  looked  remarkably  well.     Mr.  Smith 
then  predicted  that  it  would  become  one  of  the  staple  articles  of  the 
world,  in  opposition  to  those  who  laughed  at  the  idea  of  straw  tak- 
ing the  place  of  rags. 

The  material  used  at  that  time  in  the  preparation  of  the  straw  was 
potash,  exclusively,  the  sii^^ply  of  which  was  obtained  by  Mr.Smith 
from  Grant  &  Stone,  of  Boston.  I  abandoned  the  manufacture  of 
rag  paper,  and  devoted  my  mill  exclusively  to  the  manufacture  of 
straw  paper  for  some  months.  In  November,  1829,  I  visited  the 
East  to  see  a  cylinder  machine  then  in  operation  in  Springfield, 
Mass.,  by  Messrs.  Ames.  On  my  way  I  accidentally  met  with  Mr! 
Lafflin,  of  Lee,  Mass.,  at  Hays'  Pearl  Street  House,  New  York,  and 
engaged  him  to  build  for  me  a  small  cylinder  machine  at  Hollywell 
Paper  Mill,  near  Chambersburg,  Pennsylvania.  This  was  cer- 
tainly the  first  machine  that  ever  operated  on  that  nmteriaf.  Within 
the  first  year  I  introduced  the  grooved  wood  roll  for  the  maoufac- 
ture  of  binders'  and  box  boards,  &c.  These  two  manufactures  were 
(as  far  as  has  been  ascertained)  the  very  first  use  of  straw  paper  as  a 
staple  article  in  our  world. 

In  the  winter  of  lS29-'30  I  purchased  a  steam  boiler  from  Rush 
&  Muhlenburg,  of  Philadelphia,  of  about  fifteen  horse-power,  to 
cook  the  straw.     The  purchase   was   made   by   J.  J.  Smith,  Esq. 

Appendix.  253 

With  the  new  boiler  machine  I  was  enabled  to  make  about  from 
one  hundred  and  fifty  to  two  hundred  reams  of  crown  wrapping 
paper  in  twenty-four  hours.  I  soon  discovered  that  when  the  paper 
broi<e  between  the  press  rolt  and  lay  boy  it  accumulated  in  (some- 
times) six  or  eight  lamina  round  the  press  roll,  and  formed  a  solid 
and  beautiful  binders'  board.  I  waK-thus  led  to  introduce  a  gum- 
wood  roll,  instead  of  the  top  press  roll,  with  a  longitudinal  groove, 
in  which  the  pulp  was  not  pressed.  This  soft  pulp  being  removed 
with  a  piece  of  wood  to  suit,  the  board  was  stripped  off  the  roll. 
Thus  board  after  board  was  made  and  laid  in  packs  ;  then  hung  on 
poles,  or  spread  out  to  dry.  I  bought  a  rolling  mill  from  M.  W. 
Baldwin,  of  Piiiladelphia,  a  very  superior  one,  and  then  introduced 
straw  boards,  by  the  efficient  aid  of  J.  J.  Smith,  into  the  Philadel- 
phia market,  and  it  was  alone  by  his  energy  that  they  superseded, 
in  a  limited  degree,  the  junk  or  rope  board. 

John  Jay  Smitii,  and  many  others,  predicted  that  in  a  short  time 
they  would  become  (wiuit  they  now  are)  one  of  the  indispensable 
products  of  the  wnrld  ;  others  said  they  were  not  worth  as  much  as 
the  stones  in  the  street.  I  thus  toiled  and  labored  amidst  adverse 
opinions,  often  almost  brought  to  the  pointof  abandoning  the  man- 
ufacture. By  observing  the  effect  produced  in  removing  the  silex 
from  the  straw,  by  the  use  of  potash,  I  experimented  with  lime,  and 
found,  by  a  judicious  use  of  that  material,  that  it  answered  every 
jiurpose.  I  was  then  encouraged  to  extend  my  manufactures.  I 
built  a  new  mill-dam,  widened  the  head  race  for  nearly  half  a  mile, 
built  a  new  drying  house,  built  additions  to  old  Hollywell  about 
ninety  feet  long  by  forty  wide,  three  stories  high  ;  four  pulp  en- 
gines; fitted  all  the  second  and  third  stories  and  attic  for  drying; 
new  steam  house  with  three  tubs,  eleven  by  eight  feet.  All  this  at 
an  expenditure  of  about  thirty-five  thousand  dollars. 

At  the  time  under  consideration  M'Donald  &  Ridgley,  of  Balti- 
more, were  theowners  of  Hollywell  Paper  Miil.  Nicholas  B.  Ridg- 
ley visited  Chambersburg  in  the  winter  of  1829-'30,  and  was  so  im- 
pressed with  the  manufacture  of  straw  paper  and  boards,  that  he 
constituted  me  his  agent  to  purchase  from  Wm.  Magaw,  of  Mead- 
ville,  the  exclusive  righttothe  manufacture  for  all  the  United  States 
east  of  the  Allegheny  mountains.  Magaw  sent  to  Chambersburg, 
as  his  agent,  Mr.  Potter,  a  lawyer,  then  practicing  in  Meadville. 
He  agreed  on  twenty-six  thousand  dollars  for  the  above  right.  N. 
G.  Ridgley  arranged,  in  connection  with  the  subscriber,  to  put  Hol- 
lywell Paper  Mill  in  the  best  possible  condition,  to  fairly  test  the 
operation,  and,  when  satisfied  of  its  practicability,  to  build  four 
mills,  one  at  Rochester,  N.  Y.  ;  one  at  Patterson,  N.  J.,  one  at  Old 
Chester,  Pa.,  and  one  at  Chambersburg. 

Encouraged  at  this  time  by  the  friendship  of  Mr.  Ridgley  and  his 
vast  means,  I  commenced  and   finished   tlie   improvements  above 

254  Appendix. 

mentioned.  When  they  were  completed,  Mr.  Rid^Iey  died  of  apo- 
plexy, and  there  being  no  written  contract,  I  had  to  bear  all  the 
loss,  and  had  everything  swept  away  by  M'Donald  and  the  execu- 
tors of  Ridgley.  All  the  machinery  connected  with  the  manufac- 
tory at  Hollywell  Paper  Mill  was  made,  under  my  direction,  by  the 
superior  skill  of  John  and  Hiilip  Nitterhou*^',  .  Chambersburg, 
the  former  of  w'  m.  now  living  in  Chambt'rsbi  rg.  is  a  witness 
to  the  truth  of  t  ''  above  statements.  Also,  Hon.  G.  Chambers,  B. 
Wolf,  Esq.,  D.  Ward,  E.  L.  Shryock  and  many  others.  In  1881  I 
received  a  proposition  from  Thos  Chambers,  Esq.,  to  form  a  part- 
nership for  the  manufacture  of  straw  paper  and  boards,  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Falling  Spring,  where  it  empties  into  the  Conococheague 
creek.  He  deputed  me  to  ascertain  from  T.  G.  M'Culloh,  Esq.,  Ex- 
ecutor of  the  estate  of  Samuel  Purviance,  tlie  price  of  the  old  paper 
mill  site,  adjoining  mills  belonging  to  the  Chambers'  estate. 

The  purchase  was  made.  Thos.  Cliambers  tiien  concluded  to  build 
a  furnace  near  Shii:)pensburg,  and  handed  over  the  old  paper  mill 
site,  and  partnership  with  me  (by  my  consent)  to  S.  D.  Culbertson. 
The  new  firm  was  composed  of  S.  D.  Culbertson,  Reade  Washing- 
ton, Alex.  Calhoun  and  G.  A.  Shryock.  I  to  have  one-third  the  oth- 
ers two-ninths  each.  The  mill  (the  ruins  of  which  now  only  re- 
main) was  builton  a  much  larger  scale  than  contemi)lated  by  Cham- 
bers and  Shryock.  The  new  firm  was  G.  A.  Shryock  &,  Co.  In 
order  to  secure  the  entire  water-right,  the  new  firm  leased  all  the 
mills  on  the  bank  for  ten  years,  at  twenty-four  hundred  dollars  per 
annum.  The  driving  part  of  the  machinery  was  built  by  Donald 
Watson,  of  Baltimore,  and  ihe  making  portion  by  John  and  Philip 
Nitterliouse,  of  Chambersburg.  The  mill  had  eight  pulp  engines 
and  eight  machines,  easily  making  one  thousand  pounds  per  hour. 
The  building  was  one  hundred  and  fifty  by  fifty  feet  and  fivestories 
high,  had  one  hundred  and  two  miles  of  drying  poles,  seventeen 
large  dry  presses,  and  every  facility  for  the  manwfacture  of  boards 
and  paper.  The  machinery  was  so  perfect  that  the  annual  expense 
for  repairs  (except  wire  cloth  and  felts)  did  not  exceed  two  hundred 

It  is  notdifTicult  to  tell  the  origin  and  progress  of  the  manufac- 
ture of  straw  paper  and  boards,  but  who  can  tell  the  toil,  labor,  anxi- 
ety and  mental  agony  emlured  for  the  first  four  or  live  years.  As  I 
am  a  christian  man,  I  would  not  passsucli  another,  though  it  were 
to  buy  a  world  of  happier  days.  The  single  article  of  felting  cost 
me  over  four  thousand  dollars  before  I  ascertained  what  would  best 
answer  the  purjwse.  In  my  life  of  experiments  I  made  paper  of 
every  description  of  straw — wheat,  rye,  barley,  oat  and  buckwheat 
— corn  blade,  ail  the  grasses,  corn  husks,  white  i)ine  shavings,  wil- 
low wood,  refuse  tan,  aLso  bleached  straw,  to  resemble  printing 
pai)er.     But  as  rags  of  the  best  quality  could  tlien   be  bouglit  from 

Appendix.  255 

two  and  a  half  to  four  and  a  half  cents  per  pound,  it  would  not  pay 
to  bleacli  straw.  I  have  also  experimented  on  nearly  all  the  veget- 
able growth  of  Texas,  and  liad  it  not  been  for  the  Rebellion  would 
now  be  manufacturing  on  Trinity  River,  in  Texas,  in  connection 
with  Colonel  Hamilton  Washington  and  Captain  C.  Washington, 
killed  at  VicksL     g. 

Remember,  Mi).  Etitor,  I  only  claim  priority  a"  one  of  the  family 
of  moderns,  and  do  not  pretend  to  occupy  a  plac."  de  by  side  with 
an  old  gentleman  called  Ptolemy  Philadelphus,  and  Eumenes,  of 
Pergumus,  and  their  antecedents,  neither  Chinese  or  Japanese.  But 
as  to  the  introduction  of  straw  paper  and  boards  as  a  staple  article, 
and  operating  by  machineri/,  I  claim  to  be  the  first,  to  which  asser- 
tion let  the  living  bear  witness. 

Yours,  respectfully, 

G.  A.  Shbyock, 
No.  1213  Green  street,  Philadelphia. 


The  little  murmuring  brook  which  has  its  origin  on  Kasey's 
Knob,  a  spur  of  the  North  mountain,  and  which  now  bears  the 
name  of  Welsh  Run,  carrying  its  waters  in  a  north-easterly  direc- 
tion, to  be  emptied  into  the  more  turbid  stream  known  as  the' West 
Branch  of  the  Conouocheague,  had  no  special  designation  to  dis- 
tinguish it  from  other  rivulets  of  smaller  size  in  the  same  south- 
western section  of  the  county,  prior  to  the  year  1730.  But  about  that 
time  a  body  of  emigrants  from  Wales  made  this  locality  their  abode, 
and  the  stream  acquired  its  name  from  their  nationality. 

They  were  a  church  loving  people,  and  in  1741  they  organized  the 
Lower  West  Conococheague  Church,  and  built  a  rude  log  structure 
as  a  place  of  worship.  This  house  stood  at  the  bend  of  the  creek, 
near  the  present  residence  of  George  Elliott,  and  was  burned  by  the 
Indians  in  1760.  The  next  house  of  worship  was  built  in  1774  on 
the  ground  where  the  present  church  building  stands.  It  was  a 
substantial  edifice  which  stood  for  one  hundred  years,  and  was 
known  as  the  "White  Church,"  and  the  "Tent  Meeting  House." 

The  present  church  was  erected  in  1871,  and  is  a  monumentof  the 
liberality  of  Elias  D.  Kennedy,  of  Philadelphia.  In  1872  the  con- 
gi-egation  built,  convenient  to  the  church,  a  comfortable  parsonage. 
Tlie  congregation  having  increased  in  numbers  they  erected  in  1875 
a  building  for  school  purposes,  which  is  named  Kennedy  Academy. 
To  this  new  and  excellent  enterprise  Mr.  Kennedy  also  rendered 
material  aid.     The  following  are  the  names  of  the   ministers  who 

256  Appendix. 

have  preached  in  the  church  since  its  organization.  Rev.  James 
Campbell,  from  Scotland,  was  the  first  minister,  and  continued  to 
preach  15  years  ;  Rev.  Bunlap  followed,  and  supplied  the  church  for 
a  few  years  about  the  time  of  the  Indian  War.  Tiien,  Rev  Thomas 
M'Pherrin  took  charge  of  the  church  from  1774  till  1799.  His  death 
took  place  February  3d,  1802,  at  the  age  of  51,  and  hs  remains  He 
in  the  graveyard  near  the  church.  Rev.  Robert  Kennedy  a  man 
and  minister  who  exerted  a  great  and  lasting  influence  for  good  in 
the  community,  preached  regularly  one  tliird  of  his  time  from  1802 
until  1811,  when  he  resigned.  Returning  after  9  years,  he  contin- 
ued to  supply  the  church  until  near  the  time  of  his  death,  which 
took  place  in  October,  1843,  at  the  age  of  66.  Rev.  John  K.  Cramer 
was  stated  supply  of  (he  church  from  1855  to  1859.  In  1870  Rev,  A. 
8.  Thorne  took  charge  of  the  congregation,  but  continued  only  about 
one  year.  Rev.  T.  Creigh,  1).  D.,  pastor  of  the  church  at  Mercers- 
burg,  Pa.,  preached  frequently  at  Welsh  Run  during  the  many 
years  that  the  church  was  without  a  pastor.  In  the  spring  of  1873 
the  congregation  gave  Rev.  J.  H.Fleming  a  call  to  become  their 
pastor,  which  was  accepted,  and  he  was  installed  pastor  of  the 
church  by  a  committee  of  the  Presbytery  of  Carlisle  on  October 
31st,  1873.  Rev.  F.,  still  continues  to  fill  the  position,  and  the  mem- 
bership of  the  church,  which  five  years  ago  numbered  14,  has  now 
reached  that  of  65.  The  present  elders  of  the  church  are  Hugh  B. 
Craig  and  John  K.  Keyser 

The  original  owner  of  the  lands,  i\Ir  David  Davis,  gave  to  the 
church  a  farm  wiiicii  was  sold  years  after,  and  the  proceeds  of  that 
sale  have  long  since  disappeared.  The  ground  now  held  and  occu- 
pied by  the  church  as  graveyard  and  church  lot  was  bequeathed 
by  Robert  Smith  about  the  year  1774.  Said  Robert  Smith, 
having  obtained  a  patent  for  a  large  tract  of  land,  ootitaiuing  300 
acres,  and  known  as  "Double  Trouble,"  did,  at  his  death  will  to  the 
chunih  three  acres  of  ground.  In  1795,  Samuel,  Oliver  and  Isaac 
Smith,  sons  of  Robert  Smith,  rleeded,  for  the  sum  of  five  pound.s 
specie,  to  John  Rhea,  Josiah  Price  and  Robert  Chambers,  trusteeu 
of  the  churcli,  and  to  their  successors  forever,  tlie  above  named 
three  acres  of  ground,  which  is  yet  occupied  by  the  church.  This 
deed,  dated  October  25th,  1795,  is  still  in  the  possession  of  the  Ses- 
si(m  of  the  church,  is  well  and  plainly  written,  and  is  justly  regard- 
ed as  an  interesting  relic  of  the  early  history  of  the  cliurch.  The 
lot  on  which  the  Academy  stands  was  donated  by  Henry  B.  Angle. 
The  name  of  the  church  was  changed  by  a  resolution  of  the  con- 
gregation to  "The  Robert  Kennedy  Memorial  Cliurch."  This  was 
done  in  recognition  of  the  kindness  of  Mr.  E.  D.  Kennedy,  who 
built  the  church,  as  well  as  in  honor  of  Rev.  Robert  Kennedy  who 
HO  long  and  faithfully  proclaimed  the  gospel  in  the  old  "Welsh  Run 
Presbyterian  Church." 

A})2iendix.  257 


Of  the  many  fascinating  summer  resorts  that  adorn  the  great  south- 
eastern boundary  of  the  fertile  Cumberland  Valley,  namely,  the 
South  Mountain,  none  promise  to  furnish  greater  attractions  than 
the  one  in  our  sketch.  Ready  of  access  from  Harrisburg,  Hagers- 
tovvn,  Frederick,  Baltimore  and  Washington,  it  would  seem  as 
though  even  the  stringent  crampings  of  hard  times  would  be  unable 
to  operate  against  the  prosperity  of  this  delightful  resort.  Pleasure 
seekers,  and  those  in  quest  of  that  greater  boon,  good  health,  can  not 
go  amiss  in  selecting  the  Blue  Ridge  Summit.  Monterey,  Clermont 
and  Buena  Vista  vie  with  each  other  to  afford  the  best  of  accommo- 
dations, and  it  rests  with  the  proprietors  of  each  to  demonstrate 
which  shall  take  the  lead.  The  location  occupied  by  the  stately 
building  represented  in  our  picture  was  selected  by  David  Miller, 
the  father  of  the  present  occupant,  in  the  year  1S61.  He  was  born  in 
Lebanon  county,  in  the  year  1797.  After  his  removal  to  this  county 
he  conducted  the  Monterey  House  for  the  period  of  five  years,  at  the 
end  of  which  time  he  purchased  from  Mrs.  Gordon  the  site  on 
which  he  erected  the  Clermont  House  in  the  years  1867  and  1868. 
He  died  December  8th,  1870,  and  the  i)roperty  has  passed  into  the 
hands  of  David  Miller,  Jr.,  and  his  three  sisters.  Misses  Sarah  and 
Caroline,  and  Mrs.  Catherine  Waddell.  The  house,  which,  as  will 
be  seen,  is  three  stories  high,  contains  about  seventy  rooms  and  has 
accommodations  for  one  hundred  and  fifty  guests,  and  during  the 
summer  season  the  proprietors  are  overpressed  with  ajiplicants  for 
rooms.  There  are  about  170  acres  of  land  attached  to  this  property, 
whose  broad  pastures,  added  to  the  mountain  scenery,  will  ever 
make  the  Clermont  House  a  favorite  resort. 


The  house  which  we  represent  is  located  on  east  Baltimore  street, 
about  100  yards  from  the  public  square,  and  is  built  upon  what  is 
known  on  tlie  town  plot  as  lot  No.  42.  John  Allison,  the  original 
proprietor,  sold  this  lot  to  Wm.  Scott  in  1783,  and  from  him  it  passed 
to  John  Rodeman  in  1791,  who  erected  the  front  house  now  under 
consideration,  in  the  year  1792.  In  1797  he  sold  it  to  Robert  McLan- 
ahan,  and  in  1801  Jacob  Krejis  became  its  owner.  He  continued  to 
use  it  as  a  residence  and  hatter  shop  until  the  year  1829,  when,  on  a 
sheriff's  writ,  it  was  sold  to  Polly  and  Sarah  Weaver,  who  retained 
possession  of  it  until  1842,  when  they  disposed  of  it  to  Rudolph 
Heichert,  who  in  the  same  year  sold  it  to  the  Trustees  of  the  German 
Reformed  Church,  who  continued  to  use  it  as  a  parsonage  until  1870, 
when  it  was  purchased  by  its  present  occupant.  Jacob  Kreps  erected 
the  back  building  in  1818.     This  house,  which  has  suffered  but  little 

258  Appendix. 

from  the  ravages  of  time,  is  built  of  logs,  and  is  weatherboarded.  It 
is  48  by  24  feet,  and  the  back  building  is  17  by  30  feet.  Joseph  H. 
Beeler  is  a  native  of  Lancaster  county,  and  moved  to  Greencastle  in 
1859.  He  is  of  German  origin.  His  great-grandfather  migrated  to 
Berks  county  from  Germany  in  the  year  1758.  His  grandfather, 
John  Beeler,  was  born  on  his  father's  farm  in  Berks  county,  in  1776. 
And  John  Beeler,  the  father  of  Joseph  H.,  was  born  on  the  same 
place  in  1798.  In  the  face  of  opposition  and  with  a  limited  capital, 
Mr.  B.  opened  his  shop  in  Greencastle  in  1859,  making  some  head- 
way under  these  adverse  circumstances,  he  had  the  greater  misfor- 
tune, in  1866,  to  have  his  entire  establishment  destroyed  by  fire. 
Still  undaunted,  he  redoubled  his  energies,  and  can  now  bear  testi- 
mony to  the  fact  that  liberal  advertising,  honest  perseverance  and 
strict  economy  in  business  must  win  in  the  end.  He  is  now  engaged 
in  turning  out  work  to  the  amount  of  from  five  to  eight  hundred 
dollars  per  month,  at  times  employing  as  many  as  seven  first-class 
workmen.  Much  of  his  work  finds  its  way  to  the  far  west,  whilst 
his  reputation  at  home  is  such  as  to  enable  him  to  effect  satisfactory 
sales.  His  wife,  formerly  Miss  Ann  Maria  Stotler,  is  a  native  of 
this  county.  They  were  married  in  1871,  and  are  surrounded  by  a 
family  of  four  bright  little  ones. 


This  very  attractive  place  is  located  in  Peters  township,  two  and 
a  half  miles  southwest  of  Mercersburg  and  a  short  mile  from  Leh- 
master's  Station,  on  the  S.  P.  R.  R.,  at  which  place  there  is  a  post 
office.  This  railroad  runs  within  200  yards  of  the  mansion  house, 
and  the  farm  is  bounded  on  the  southwest  by  the  West  Conoco- 
cheague  Creek,  The  springs  which  supply  the  trout  pools  were 
formerly  known  as  Dobbins'  Springs.  The  land  was  first  taken  uj) 
by  Robert  Newell,  in  the  year  1742.  It  passed  into  the  hands  of 
General  Thomas  Waddle  about  the  jear  1800.  In  1829  Thomas  C. 
Lane  became  its  owner,  and  in  1837  it  was  sold  to  Isaac  Wanner, 
and  in  1859,  at  public  outcry,  to  George  Etter,  the  father  of  the 
present  proprietor,  who  received  his  deed  in  1862,  having  resided  on 
the  farm  already  for  two  years.  The  house  and  barn  were  built  by 
General  Waddle  in  the  year  1812.  If  a  Putnam  and  a  Muhlenberg 
have  made  their  names  immortal  by  their  prompt  responses  to  their 
country's  call,  so  also  should  the  name  of  General  Thomas  Waddle 
pass  down  upon  the  page  of  historj'  as  one  equally  worthy  of  a 
country's  gratitude  and  honor.  Whilst  this  house,  which  has  been 
remodeled  by  its  present  owner,  in  the  year  1871,  was  being  built, 
the  nation  called  upon  her  brave  yoemen  to  defend  Baltimore. 
Hastily  boarding  up  the  windows  of  his  unfinished  house,  General 
W.  took  up  his  trusty  sword  and  marched  to  tlie  front  of  the  fray. 

Appendix.  y.Tlt 

The  foe  liad  invaded  his  native  land  and  to  protect  it  was  also  ati'i)rding 
protection  to  his  own  fireside.  Tlie  barn  on  this  place  was  also  built  by 
Generiil  Waddle,  but  it,  too,  underwent  a  renewing  process  at  the  hands 
of  Mr.  Etter,  in  the  year  1872.  The  house,  which  is  buiJt  of  stone  is  04 
feet  on  the  northern  front  and  o2  feet  deep.  The  barn  is  02  feet  long  and 
r»0  feet  wide.  Tlie  farm  which  is  chietiy  of  limestone,  contains  217  acres 
about  25  of  which  are  very  choice  limber.  It  Is  very  productive,  having, 
during  the  proprietorship  of  Gen.  Waddle,  at  one  time  produced  as  much 
as  42  bushels  of  wheat  per  acre.  There  is  a  fine  orchard,  and  a  vineyard 
of  Gr)0  grape  vines  in  bearing  order  on  this  place.  But  the  enterprise 
which  Mr.  Etter  has  inaugurated,  that  of  brook  trout  cultivation,  is  the 
most  attractive  to  the  lover  of  nature,  or  the  casual  visitor.  His  ponds, 
which  are  live  in  number,  occupy  a  space  of  100  feet  in  length  by  75  feet 
in  width.  They  average  about  4  feet  in  depth,  and  are  supplied  by  two 
fine  springs,  that  flow  at  the  rate  of  400  gallons  per  minute.  They  con- 
tain at  this  time  about  three  thousand  fine  brook  trout,  but  Mr.  E. 
estimates  their  capacity  as  far  as  oxygen  and  water  supply  is 
concerned,  sufficient  for  the  proper  sustenance  and  full  development 
of  10,000  trout  in  t^eir  different  stages  of  growth.  The  food  which 
he  provides  for  this  numerous  family,  per  week,  amounts  to  about  50 
pounds  of  beef  scraps,  and  8  gallons  of  thick  milk  to  each  1,000  two  year 
old  trout.  As  will  be  noticed  the  expense  of  feeding  is  no  small  item, 
but  up  to  this  time  Mr.  E.  has  readily  secured  50  cents  per  pound  in  the 
New  York  market,  which  he  has  supplied  with  500  pounds  for  the  last 
two  seasons,  and  he  expects  to  be  able  to  furnish  this  spring  (1878)  about 
700  pounds,  at  a  cost  of  |50  for  feed.  He  has  kindly  furnished  us  his 
mode  of  procedure  in  propagating. 

The  great  grandfather  of  Mr.  Etter,  emigrated  from  Prussia,  about  the 
year  1750,  to  Dauphin  county,  where  the  grandfather  of  Mr.  Etter,  Henry 
Etter,  was  born  in  17G7.  He  died  m  Franklin  County  in  1828,  having 
migrated  from  Dauphin  County,  in  1792,  and  is  said  to  have  been  one  of 
the  first  three  persons  of  German  descent  who  located  in  this  county.  He 
established  himself  in  Guilford  Township,  and  lived  in  an  old  fort  which 
was  erected  as  a  defence  against  the  Indians.  At  this  place  George  Etter, 
father  of  Geo.  W.  Etter.  was  born  in  the  year  1799.  He  died  in  Peters 
Township  in  18G4. 

In  early  times,  what  is  now  called  Etter's  Cemetery,  situated  within 
200  yards  of  the  house,  was  known  far  and  wide  as  Dobbin's  Grave  Yard, 
and  within  its  enclosure  lie  the  remains  of  many  a  sturdy  settler,  whose 
descendants  have  scattered  far  and  wide,  and  perhaps  forgotten  the  hardy 
pioneer,  to  whose  labors  and  privations  they  are  indebted  for  the  com- 
forts they  now  enjoy.  It  is  said  that  in  the  dark  days  of  Indian  warfare, 
the  burial  services  were  held  with  atmed  outposts  guarding  the  mourners 
from  the  ambuscade  of  the  dreaded  savage.  At  one  time  it  was  contem- 
plated to  erect  a  church  at  this  point,  but  from  some  unknown  cause  tlie 
intention  was  abandoned,  and  Church  Hill  chosen  instead.  But  the 
edifice  there  erected  has  long  since  yielded  to  the  devastating  march  of 
time,  and  its  name  and  location  only  exist  in  tradition. 

Mr.  Etter  was  married  to  Mary  Clapaaddle,  Nov.  1859;  they  are  enjoy- 
ing this  delightful  home  surrounded  by  a  family  of  five  children,  three 
sons  and  two  daughters,  who  are  all  endeavoring  to  earn  the  content- 
ment that  comes  from  a  life  well  spent. 


Mercersburg  College  is  the  result  of  forces  which  date  far  back  in  the 
history  of  the  Reformed   Church  in  the  United  States,  and   Its  life  and 

260  Appendix. 

growth  are  intimately  connected  with  her  educational  movements.  It's 
tirst  beginning  was  about  1880,  as  a  High  School,  at  York,  Pa.,  in  con- 
nection with  the  Reformed  Theological  Seminary,  recently  removed 
thither  from  Carlisle.  Rev.  Daniel  Young,  was  the  first  High  School 
Professor.  He  was  an  able  and  excellent  man,  but  was  in  delicate  health, 
and  died  within  two  years  after  his  appointment.  His  successor  was 
Rev.  Fred.  Aug.  Ranch,  D.  D.,  a  man  of  remarkable  talent  and  earnest- 
ness. He  came  to  tliis  country  in  1831,  at  the  age  of  twenty-five,  having 
already  filled  the  position  of  Professor  Extraordinary  at  the  University 
of  Geissen,  in  Germany,  received  an  appointment  as  regular  professor  at 
Heidelberg,  and  published  various  classical,  philosophical,  and  theologi- 
cal works,  in  Latin  and  in  German.  In  1835,  by  order  of  the  Synoid  of 
Chambersburg,  the  Theological  Seminary  and  High  School  were  removed 
to  Mercersburg,  the  latter  was  then  erected  into  a  college,  with  Dr.  Ranch 
as  Its  first  president,  and  Samuel  A.  Budd,  A.  M,  as  professor  of  Mathe- 

The  State  Legislature,  in  the  session  of  183.")-6,  granted  a  college  char- 
ter, under  the  name  of  Marshall  College.  The  Board  of  Trustees,  rep- 
resentatives of  Mercersburg,  Zion's,  Maryland  and  Virginia  Classis, 
pushed  the  cause  of  the  College  with  such  vigor  that  in  183G,  the  present 
College  building  was  erected,  and  houses  for  the  professors  were  soon 
after  built.  The  Goethean  and  Diagnothean  Societies  also  erected  beauti- 
ful halls,  which  are  still  standing. 

In  1850  Rev.  J.  Williamson  Nevin,  then  professor  in  the  Western  The- 
ological Seminary,  at  Alleghany,  Pa,,  was  elected  Professor  of  Dogmatic 
Theology  in  the  Seminary,  and,  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Ranch,  in  1841,  suc- 
ceeded him  as  President  of  the  College.  Dr.  Nevin  received  his  early 
training  in  the  Presbyterian  Church,  was  a  graduate  of  Union  College, 
and  studied  theology  at  Princeton,  under  the  venerable  Dr.  Hodge,  being 
thoroughly  indoctrinated  in  the  tenets  of  the  Presbyterian  fathers.  His 
association  with  Dr.  Rauch  brought  him  into  contact  with  German  phil- 
osophy, opening  to  him,  as  he  has  said,  "a  new  world  of  thought."  The 
"Church  Question,"  as  it  was  styled,  received  at  that  time  much  atten- 
tion from  the  tUinUere  of  the  Church.  To  it,  Dr.  Nevin  applied  his  clear 
and  massive  intellect,  and  the  result  has  been  whai  is  called  "Mercersburg 
Theology."  Thus  the  quiet  village  of  Mercersburg,  lying  among  the 
foot-hills  of  the  Tuscarora  range,  in  the  south-western  part  of  Franklin 
County,  has  become  known  wherever  theology  is  taught  or  studied. 
From  its  Seminary  came  forth,  as  by  inspiration,  a  stream  of  historical, 
christological  theology,  which,  forcing  its  way  through  many  obstacles, 
has  spread  out  at  length  over  the  extent  of  Christendom. 

The  "Mercersburg  Theology"  is  as  significant  a  term  as  the  Augsburg, 
or  the  Westminster.  It's  promulgator  and  chief  defender,  Dr.  J.  W. 
Nevin,  ranks  with  the  great  masters  in  the  church,  and  is  held  one  of  the 
foremost  thinkers  of  the  age.  Through  the  controversies  to  which  he  has 
been  challenged  by  men  of  fame  here  and  abroad,  the  name  of  Mercers- 
burg has  become  imperishable. 

The  work  of  the  college  was  carried  forward  steadily,  though  at  times 
under  financial  pressure,  until  1853,  when  Marshall  College  was  removed 
to  Lancaster,  and  consolidated  with  Franklin  College,  under  the  title  of 
Franklin  and  Marshall  College,  the  Theological  Seminarv  remaining  at 
Mercersburg.  Nearly  twelve  years  later,  Rev.  H.  H.  Harbaugh,  D.  D., 
of  blessed  memory,  and  Rev.  E.  E.  Higbee,  D.  D.,  then  professors  in 
the  seminary,  men  of  observation  and  prudence,  and  fully  alive  to  the 
wants  of  the  church  in  her  educational  work,  found  that  there  was  a 
(Strong  desire  for  a  college  in  this  section,  and  a  reasonable  prospect  of  its 

Appendix.  2^1 

success.  They  accordingly  urged  theClassis  of  Mercersburg  to  purcbaae 
the  old  collej^e  property,  which  luad  reverted  to  the  citizens  of  Mercers- 
burg.  The  purchase  was  made,  the  school  organized,  and  in  1865,  the 
Court  of  Franklin  County  granted  a  very  liberal  charter  to  the  Board  of 
Regents  of  Mercersburg  College. 

Rev.  Thos.  G.  Apple,  D.  D.,  a  graduate  of  Marshall  College,  and  a 
student  of  Dr.  Nevin's  in  theology ;  a  sound  and  logical  reasoner,  and 
very  clear  in  the  expression  of  his  thoughts,  was  ele_cted  the  first  Presi- 
dent. He  was  assisted  by  an  able  faculty,  and  the  fiis*  class  through  the 
regular  course  was  graduated  in  1871.  The  Theo'ogical  Seminary  was 
removed  to  Lancaster  in  1870.  Rev.  Dr.  Higbce  then  resigned  bis  chair 
(of  Church  History)  in  the  Seminary,  and  Dr.  Apple  was  elected  to  fill 
his  place.  To  the  Presidency  of  the  College,  left  vacant  by  the  resigna- 
tion of  Dr.  Apple,  Dr.  Higbee  was  elected  by  the  Board  of  Regents. 

Rev.  Dr.  Higbee,  who  is  now  President,  is  a  graduate  of  the  Universi- 
ty of  Vermont,  and  studied  theology  under  Dr.  Nevin  and  Dr.  Philip 
Schaff.  He  is  a  thorough  classical  scholar,  and  is  eminently  successful  not 
only  in  imparting  instruction  to  his  students,  but  also  in  maintaining, 
with  the  aid  of  a  faculty  of  able  and  energetic  young  men,  the  general 
discipline  of  the  College. 

During  the  twelve  years  that  have  elapsed  since  its  institution,  Mercers 
burg  has  been  quietly,  but  steadily  progressing  in  character  and  reputa- 
tion. It's  standard  of  instruction  is  as  high  as  that  of  the  most  renowned 
institutions  of  the  kind  in  the  country,  and  year  by  year  it  sends  forth 
small,  but  thoroughly  drilled  classes  of  graduates.  It  has  now  a  post- 
graduate course  in  Theology,  in  successful  operation.  It  possesses  abun- 
dant chemical  and  philosophical  apparatus,  and  the  college  libraries,  in- 
cluding those  of  its  two  literary  societies,  the  Marshall  and  the  Washing- 
ton Irving,  number  over  four  thousand  volumes,  and  are  constantly 
receiving  additions  from  publications  on  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic. 


Tnis  very  elegant  mansion,  situated  on  East  Main  street,  on  lot  No.  4 
adjoining  the  residence  of  the  father  of  Mr.  F.  is  constructed  of  brick  and 
as  will  be  seen  is  3  stories  high.  It  is  elegantly  furnished,  even  up  to  the 
roof,  and  furnished  with  all  the  modern  conveniences.  With  a  tank  in 
the  garret  of  a  capacity  of  35  barrels,  it  is  supplied  with  hot  and  cold 
water  troughout,  and  would  be  a  credit  to  a  large  city,  as  it  isto  its  proprie- 
tor. The  dimensions  of  this  house  are  37  feet  front  by  100  deep.  The 
lower  room  is  used  as  a  store  room,  and  the  balance,  as  the  residence  of 
Mr.  Forney.  At  the  rear  end  of  the  lot  there  is  a  very  convenient  stable. 
Mr.  F.  was  engaged  in  tanning  forabout  13  years,  and  a  view  of  the  estab- 
lishment will  be  found  in  this  book,  but  he  has  also  contributed  to  the 
prosperity  of  the  town,  by  erecting  a  number  of  buildings,  5  of  which  he 
has  now  in  the  occupancy  of  tenants.  Adam  Forney,  who  is  a  son  of 
Mr.  L.  S.  Forney,  was  born  Oct.  15th,  1840.  He  married  Ada,  daughter 
of  Wm.  Dice,  Esq.,  of  Scotland,  Pa.,  May  10th,  1870.  They  have  two 
children,  viz:  Wm.  Dice,  and  Lillio. 

262  Appendiv. 


Tlie  buildings  represented  in  our  sketch  consist  of  a  stone  log,  cased 
with  brick,  and  brici<  house,  and  also  a  very  capacious  barn.  The  farm 
wiiich  contains  17:!  acres  of  first  quality  of  flint,  gravel  o.nd  limestone 
land,  adjoining  which  Mr.  Hege  has  another  one  of  10."")  acres,  is  situated 
a  little  south  ot  the  Warmspring  road,  about  six  miles  from  Mercersburg, 
12  from  Chambersburg  and  \\  from  Williamson  Station  on  the  S.  P.  K.  li. 
The  land  was  first  taken  up  by  a  Mr.  Clapsaddle,  and  was  purchased 
from  one  of  his  descendants,  George  Clapsaddle,  about  03  years  ago  by 
John  Hege,  father  of  the  present  owner.  Jacob  H.  at  the  time  of  the 
purchase  was  a  boy.  His  father  was  born  in  Lancaster  County  but  came 
to  this  county  at  the  age  of  14  years  and  resided  with  his  parents  at 
Marlon,  lie  married  Mary,  daughter  of  Jacob  Lesher,  near  Greencaslle. 
He  resided  on  a  farm  belonging  to  his  father-in-law  until  the  death  of 
Mr.  Lesher  which  occurred  on  December  .31st,  ISIH,  when  he  purchased 
and  removed  on  the  property  represented  in  the  picture.  At  this  time  a 
cabin  built  of  unhewn  logs  and  roofed  with  clapboards,  occupied  a  place 
now  included  in  the  front  yard.  This  Mr.  H.  allowed  to  remain  for  about 
ten  years,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  he  had  erected  a  larger  log 
house  24  by  2.")  feet,  the  part  of  the  present  one  that  is  now  cased  witii 
brick  and  forms  the  centre  of  the  Iniilding.  He  also  erected  a  stone 
kitchen,  same  width  as  the  log  house,  and  about  18  feet  long  which  also 
remains  as  built.  Mr.  Jacob  Hege  has  made  an  addition,  of  brick,  17  feet 
long  at  the  north  end,  which  is  also  the  same  width  as  the  log  brick  cased 
part.  This  is  now  occupied  by  him  as  a  residence,  the  other  portion  being 
used  by  his  son  Jacob  W.  and  his  family.  When  this  land  was  purchased 
by  John  Hege  it  was  nearly  all  covered  with  heavy  timber,  only  about  10 
or  .-)  acres  having  been  cleared.  The  price  paid  for  about  73  acres,  was 
$00  per  acre,  and  afterwards  he  secured  a  large  tract,  some  as  low^  as  %A 
per  acre.  At  the  time  of  his  death,  which  occured  in  his  80th  year,  he 
was  possessed  of  700  acreu.  He  built  a  substantial  log  barn  over  100  feet 
long  with  floors.  This  barn  was  torn  away  to  give  place  to  the  one  built 
l)y  his  son  Jacob  in  18G7.  The  present  brick  barn  contains  3  threshing 
floors,  five  long  stables,  one  of  which  is  17  feet  wide,  constructed  for  the 
purpose  of  fattening  cattle.  The  land  which  is  somewhat  rolling  is  well 
adapted  to  grain  or  stock  raising,  about  30  acres  are  still  well  covered 
with  thrifty  timber.  There  is  a  never  failing  well  of  good  water,  23  feet 
deep,  near  the  house.  Two  good  cisterns,  one  at  house  the  other  at  barn. 
There  is  a  lime  kiln  of  700  or  800  bushels  capacity  on  this  place,  the  good 
effect  of  its  product  being  demonstrated  by  the  fact  that  the  average  yield  of 
wheat  is  about  1,000  bushels,  1,000  bushels  of  corn,  1,000  bushels  of  oats 
as  well  as  a  goodly  supply  of  hay.  There  is  also  a  fine  apple  orchard  in 
full  bearing,  and  an  abundance  of  small  fruits.  Jacob  Hege  was  married 
Dec.  17th,  1844,  to  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Jacob  Weaver,  of  St.  Thomas 
Townsliip.  They  have  two  children  Jacob  W.  and  George.  The  former 
as  already  noted,  living  in  part  of  the  house  represented,  and  the  latter  on 
the  adjoining  farm.  Jacob  W.  was  married  to  ISLary,  daughter  of  Joseph 
Kriner.  They  have  had  three  children,  viz:  Elizabeth,  John  Henry,  and 
an  infant.  John  Henry  is  dead.  Georce  married  Fanny,  daughter  of 
Samuel  Etter,  near  Marion.  They  have  one  child  named  William  I\Iilton. 
Tiie  farm  on  which  they  reside  contains  IT..")  acres,  which  united  with  the 
other  one,  makes  438  acres.  The  Father  of  Jacob  Hege  and  also  his 
mother  were  buried  on  this  farm  in  a  family  burying,  ground,  known  as 
Hege's  graveyard.  Hans  Hege  the  progenitor  of  the'  Hege  family,  emi- 
grated from  Schauft'hausen,  near  Zwcibrucken,  at  Ebcrstcin  Hoft,  in  Switz- 

Appendlr.  20;l 

eriand.  He  landed  in  Philadelphia,  Sept.  27lh,  1727,  havinsr  been  a  pas- 
senger on  the  ship  "James  Goodwill,"  David  Crockett,  Capt.  He  was 
accompanied  by  his  brother-in-law  Hans  Lehman  and  about  fifty-three 
other  families.  From  Philadelphia  they  went  to  Rapho  Township,  Lan- 
caster County,  and  settled  near  Manheim.  Mr.  H.  bought  a  farm  there, 
where  he  remained  all  his  life  and  was  buried  on  his  own  place. 


This  delightful  place,  late  th£  residence,  and  old  homestead,  of  the  cel- 
ebrated Wilson  family,  is  situated  about  seven  and  a  half  miles  west  of 
Chambersburg  and  about  3  miles   from  the  village   of  St.  Thomas.     It 
was  purchased  by  its  present  owner,  Jan.  4th  1872,  of  James  Shields  of 
]\Lount  Pleasant  Borough,  Westmoreland  Co.  Pa.,  one  of  the  heirs  at  law  of 
tlie  Wilson  estate.     The  barn  which  is  a  very  fine  brick  structure  102  feet 
long  by  63  feet  wide,  was  built  in  the   year  1847,  and  the  commodious 
house,   which  is  also  of  brick  58   by  40  feet,  was  erected  in  1848  by  the 
surviving  children  of  John  Wilson,  Sr.,  and  Sarah  his  wife,  but  remained 
unoccupied  as  a  residence  until  Feb.  1855.     The  deed  from  Wm.  Steel,  of 
Hamilton  Township,  at  that  time,  Cumberland  Co.,  Pa.,  to  John  Wilson, 
Township  of  Derry,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  bears  date  twenty — October  A. 
D.    1779.      The  place  then  contained  212  acres  and  allowance,  and  was 
sold  for  what  would  appear  to  be  the  enormous  sum  of  nine  thousand 
pounds.     Remembering  however  that  at  that  date  the  continental  currency 
was  at  a  very  large  discount,  the  price  was  probably  much   less  than  it 
would  now  bring  without  its  valuable  improvements.     The  family   of 
John  and  Sarah  Wilson  consisted  of  seven  sons  and  three  daughters,  viz: 
i\[ose3,   David,  James,  John,  Alexander,  William,  Robert,  Elizabeth  W. 
afterwards  Mrs.  Shields,  Florence,  afterwards  Mrs.  Patton,  and  Sarah.  All 
of  these,  with  the  exception  of  the  two  designated,  continued  in  a  state  ot 
single  blessedness.      John  Wilson,  Sr.,  died  Jan.  31st,  A.  D.  1820,  aged 
about  76  years.      Mrs.  Sarah  Wilson,  after  attaining  the  age  of  96  years, 
o  months  and  28  days,  died   July  1st,  1848.      The  children  now  all  sleep 
with  their  fathers,  Moses  at  the  age  of  80  vears,  died  Oct.  15th,  1861,  David 
aged  78,  died  27th  Feb.  1862,  James  who  died  July  28th  1847,  was  56  years 
old,  John  Jr.,  died  March  10th,  1818  being  yet   in  his  29th  year,  Alexan- 
der still  younger,  departed  this  life  Sept.  24th  1823,  at  the  age  of  24  years, 
William  attained  the  age  of  71  years  and  died  Jan.  29th  1869,  Robert  in 
tlie  month  of  July,  the  6th  day,  aged  only  54,  Elizabeth,  Mrs.  Shields,  ex- 
ceeded the  remarkable  age  of   her  mother  and  died  March  23d,  1873,  97 
years  old,  Florence,  Mrs.  Patton,  died  March  6th  1855,  aged  68  years  and 
Sarah  the  munificient  benefactress  of  AVilson  College,  in  whose  honor  it  was 
named,  died  Fel).  9th,  1871,  aged  76  years.     We  have  been  thus  careful  to 
give  this  chronological  list  of  deaths  for  the  reason  that  amongst  the  many 
families  and  individuals  who  have  resided  in  Franklin  County  none  are 
more  deserving  to  be  kept  in  grateful  rememberance  than  that  of  the  Wil- 
sons.    Not  alone  because  of  the  aid  that  their  honestly  accumulated  wealth 
atfi)rded  in  establishing  an  institution  of  learning   that  is  an  honor  to  our 
county,  but  also  because  of  tiic  fact  tiiat  one  of  the  peculiar  characteristics 
of  these  people  was  their  unstinted   liberality  and  humanity  to  the  poor, 
and   tlicir  fair  and  honorable  dealings,  not  only  with  their  many  tenants, 
but  with  the  public  generally.     Tlio  old  house  around  whose  hearthstone 
this   numerous  family   gathered  for  so  many  years,  ceintinued  to  be  occu- 
pied by  the  surviving  uicuibers  until  its  destruction  by  fire  in  Fcl).  1865. 
It  will  be  noticed  that  the  present  brick  structure  was  erected  in  1848,  yet 

2G4  Appendix. 

notwithstanding  its  attractive  appearance  and  commodious  apartments 
the  recollections  of  childhood  days  were  so  entwined  around  their  heart- 
strings that  nothing  but  the  devouring  element  was  able  to  cause  them  to 
leave,  for  better  accommodation, those  made  dear  by  memory's  early  hours. 
With  the  old  building  many  valuables,  consisting  of  money,  bonds  and 
notes,  together  with  a  lavish  supply  of  bedding  and  other  household  goods 
were  destroyed,  and  even  title  papers,  in  the  iron  safe,  were  so  charred  as, 
in  some  instances,  to  be  rendered  illegible,  as  was  the  case  with  the  baJ- 
lance  of  the  date  on  the  first  deed  of  this  farm. 

John  Walker,  Esq.,  the  present  well  and  favorably  known  proprietor, 
waa  born  in  St.  Thomas  Township,  April  24th,  1824.  His  grandfather 
Robert  Walker  was  a  native  of  Ireland  and  landed  in  Philadelphia,  Aug. 
23d,  A,  D.  1786.  On  ihe  first  of  September  of  the  same  year  he  located 
near  Franklin  Furnace,  and  soon  after  commenced  the  erection  of  the 
first  fulling-mill  west  of  Carlisle,  employing  as  a  power  and  appropriating 
the  site  now  used  by  the  saw-mill  of  Mr.  John  Heckman.  He  died  April 
16th  A.  D.  1837  aged  78  years.  George  Walker,  the  father  of  John,  was 
born  Feb.  2l8t,  1790  and  died  June  13th,  A.  D.  1868  aged  78  years,  leaving 
two  children,  one  daughter,  now  Mrs.  George  Sprecher,  and  the  owner  of 
the  place  under  consideration.  John  Walker  has  been  twice  married,  his 
first  wife  was  Sarah,  daughter  of  Wm.  Gillan,  Esq.,  of  Hamilton  Town- 
ship, now  deceased,  to  whom  he  was  married  March  12th,  1846.  She 
died  in  1869  at  the  age  of  43  years  leaving  an  interesting  family  of  seven 
children,  three  sons  and  four  daughters.  His  second  wife,  Sarah  Shields 
of  Hamilton  Township  formerly  of  Westmoreland  County,  is  one  of  the 
descendents  of  the  Wilson  family,  being  a  granddaughter  of  Elizabeth 
W.  They  were  married  in  1873,  and  have  one  child  a  son.  Few  men 
who  have  entered  into  the  matrimonial  venture,  for  the  second  time,  are 
as  fortunate  as  has  been  Mr.  W.,  at  least  the  writer  is  acquainted  with  no 
one  who  has  drawn  two  prizes  of  equal  worth.  At  the  time  of  the  pur- 
chase of  the  farm,  for  which  he  paid  $14,627.32  it  contained  241  acres,  but 
Mr.  Walker,  who  has  another  farm  but  a  shsrt  distance  away,  has  reduced 
this  one  to  143  acres. 


In  the  year  1873  Dr.  Ripple  of  Waynesboro',  Pa.,  purchased  the  site 
on  which  his  very  convenient  home  is  now  located.  At  that  time  it  Avas 
occupied  by  an  old  school  building.  The  lot  has  a  width  of  83  feet,  is  200 
feet  deep,  and  the  hotisc  standing  back  65  feet  from  the  pavement,  is 
adorned  with  beautiful  shade  trees.  It  is  42  feet  front  by  30  feet  deep, 
and  has  a  back  building  30  feet  long  attached.  The  paternal  ancestors  of 
Dr.  R.,  three  or  four  generations  back,  were  natives  of  Germany,  and 
their  first  settlement  in  this  country,  at  a  very  early  date  was  in  Hagers- 
town,  Md,,  where  they  engaged  in  agriculture.  In  the  year  1810  Lewis 
Ripple,  the  grandfather  of  the  Doctor,  purchased  wiiat  is  now  known  as 
the  Monterey  Springs  property,  at  that  time  occupied  by  an  old  log  house 
which  was  used  a  tavern  stand.  This  Mr.  R.  removed  and  erected  in  its 
stead  a  commodious  stone  structure  together  with  the  necessary  out))uilil- 
ings.  The  property  tlion  became  widely  known  as  Ripple's  Tavern. 
About  SIX  years  after,  tU*;  hotel  building  proper,  was  destroyed  by  fire,  but 
was  rebuilt  by  its  proprietor  who  continued  to  keep  a  favorite  place  of  ac- 
commodation for  man  and  beast  until  abotit  the  year  1S40  wiien  ho  dis- 
posed of  it  Ui  Samuel  Buhrnian,  and  removed  to  Waterloo  now  Rouscr- 
ville,  where  he  again  engaged  in  the  Iiotel  business  and  continued  so  em- 
ployed until  tho  time  of  hia  death,  His  family  consisted  of  four  sons 
John,  Janies,  Joseph  and  Lewis,  and   five  daughters  Elizabeth,  Matilda, 

Appendir.  0(55 

Harriet,  Margareta  and  Julia  Aun.  Of  these  the  two  oldest  sons  John 
and  James  are  dead.  Joseph,  the  father  of  the  Doctor,  was  born  in  the 
year  1813  and  when  he  had  attained  a  suflacient  age  he  entered  the  employ 
of  his  father,  taking  charge  of  one  of  his  teams,  of  which  he  had  several 
for  the  purpose  of  conveying  freight  to  and  from  the  cities  of  Baltimore 
and  Pittsburg.  He  continued  at  this  business  until  about  the  year  1845 
when  he  engaged  in  farming  near  Beaver  Creek  Md.  He  was  married  in 
1835  to  Mary  daughter  of  Mr  Sheeler  who  lived  on  the  property  now 
owned  by  Christian  Shockey  north  of  Rouzerville.  Mr  R.  resided  for 
some  years  in  Maryland  after  which  time  he  purchased,  from  his  father 
75  acres  of  land  near  Rouzerville,  about  the  year  1850,  upon  which  he  re- 
mained until  1865  when  he  disposed  of  it  to  Christian  Shocky  and  pur- 
chased the  farm  upon  which  he  is  now  living,  but  which  he  sold, 
in  the  spring  of  187G,  to  his  sen,  Dr.  J.  M.  Ripple  in  svhose  possession  it 
still  remains.  This  farm  is  situated  about  one  mile  from  Waynesboro', 
near  the  Baltimore  and  Pittsburg  turnpike,  and  3  miles  froni  the  Waynes- 
boro', station  of  the  W.  M.  R.  R.  It  contains  130  acres  of  highly  culti- 
vated land,  and  is  sapplied  with  very  attractive  buildings  which  were 
erected  in  I860  by  Jaraea  Brumbeck.  The  soil  is  limestone  and  is  well 
adapted  to  the  production  of  grain,  or  for  stock  raising.  The  surface  is 
rolling  and  is  well  watered  by  two  fine  springs  which  empty  into  a  stream 
running  nearly  parallel  with  the  farm,  the  house  is  supplied  by  a  well  of 
excellent  water.  The  capacity  of  the  farm,  which,  by  judicious  culture, 
is  being  year  by  year  increased,  has  been  as  much  as  30  bushels  of  wheat 
per  acre.  Dr.  J.  M.  Ripple,  who  graduated  from  Jefferson  Medical  Col- 
lege in  theepring  of;i868,and  who  immediately  upon  his  graduation  located 
in  Waynesboro',  was  compelled  to  hew  his  own  way  to  the  honorable 
position  which  he  now  occupies,  and  the  remarkable  energy  which  he 
displayed  in  early  life  aJFords  the  secret  to  his  present  success.  He  was 
married  in  the  year  1873  to  Margaret  Lee,  daughter  of  Jacob  B.  Cook, 
Esq.,  of  Quincy  Town§hip,  and  has  two  children  Joseph  and  Martin. 


Whilst  we  are  satisfied  that  our  artist  has  done  justice  to  the  above 
named  commodious  place  of  entertainment  wearecertain  that  the  guests, 
and  they  who  chance  to  be  made  the  recipients  of  the  kind  and  generous 
attention  of  the  gentlemanly  host,  Mr.  M.  G.  Minter  and  his  estema- 
ble  family,  can  alone  give  full  credit  to  this  establishment.  The  hotel 
property  is  owned  by  Mr.  Jacob  J.  Miller,  who  purchased  it  April  Ist, 
1807  from  Valentine  V.  Gilbert  and  Rebecca  his  wife.  It  is  located  on 
the  north-west  corner  of  the  diamond,  is  built  of  brick  and  contains  80 
rooms.  The  dining  room,  that  which  is  of  so  great  importance  in  a  hotel, 
is  18  by  40  feet,  and  has  had  gathered  around  its  sumptuous  tables  as 
many  as  33  regular  boarders.  The  house  can  accommodate  75  guests,  and 
the  stabling  has  a  capacity  for  the  care  of  50  head  of  horses.  The  lot 
occupied  by  a  large  portion  of  this  property  is  what  is  known  as  No.  30 
on  the  general  plan  of  the  town,  and  was  conveyed  by  John  Wallace,  the 
original  proprietor,  on  the  27th  day  ot  June  171)8  to  Michael  Stoner,  Sr., 
and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  from  those  parties  to  Christian  Funk  and  Jose- 
phine his  wife.  From  Christian  Funk  and  wife  it  passed  into  the  poses- 
sion  of  Francis  Bowdcn  and  Mary  Ann  his  wife.  The  deed  from  Bowden 
and  wife  to  V.  B.  Gilijert,  ia  dated  August  1st,  1865.  The  hotel,  which 
contains  a  large  store-room,  occupies  a  frontage  of  81  feet  and  has  a 
<lepth  of  about  the  same  extent.  It  was  built  in  the  year  1818  by  Michael 
8toncr,  ar.,  and  the  east  cud,  has  ever  since  been  used  as  a  hotel.     In  its 

360  Ap'pendi.f. 

general  appearance,  and  all  its  appliances,  it  does  lull  credit  to  the  enter- 
prising town  of  Waynesboro'. 


The  region  which  is  fringed  by  the  South  Mountain,  so  replete  in  min- 
eral wealth,  and  constituting  some  of  the  most  productive  farms  in  this 
county,  appears  to  have  been  settled  upon  by  sturdy  Irish,  and  Scotch- 
Irish  and  their  descendents  at  a  very  early  period.  The  homestead  which 
we  represent  in  our  picture  is  located  about  G  miles  south-east  of  Cham- 
bersburg,  in  Guilford  Township,  near  the  little  village  of  New  Guilford. 
It  is  about  2  miles  from  Fayettevillc  station  on  the  Mount  Alto  Railroad. 
The  land  was  taken  up  by  Richard  Cowden  in  the  year  1762,  from  whom 
it  passed  into  the  possession  of  the  Wallace  family.  The  first  buildings, 
which  remained  until  about  60  years  ago,  were  of  stone  and  logs.  These 
have  disappeared  and  the  present  house  which  is  also  of  logs,  weather- 
boarded,  with  a  brick  extension,  was  built  in  the  sprin^of  1820  by  Rebecca 
Duffleld,  the  grandmother  of  the  present  proprietor.  It  has  on  several 
occasions  been  remodeled  by  his  father,  Simon  Duffield,  and  by  himself. 
The  barn  which  is  built  of  stone,  frame  and  brick,  is  94  feet  long  and  was 
erected  by  its  present  owner  in  the  year  186G.  The  farm  contains  110 
acres,  20  of  which  are  well  covered  with  excellent  timber,  viz:  hickory, 
white  and  black  oak.  It  is  in  a  fine  state  of  cultivation,  and  is  adapted  to 
the  production  of  all  kinds  of  grain.  Having  an  abundance  of  lime-stone 
and  the  facilities  for  the  conversion  of  it  into  lime,  the  time  is  in  the  far 
distant  future  when  this  will  be  known  as  any  other  than  a  fertile,  thrifty 
place.  The  grandfather  of  the  present  well-to-do  owner  of  this  land, 
William  DufBeld,  a  native  of  Ireland,  arriveJ  iu  this  country  sometime 
during  the  Revolutionary  war,  and  entered  into  the  service  of  his  adopted 
country.  After  the  expiration  of  his  enlistment  he  married  into  the 
Wallace  family  and  raised  a  family  of  five  sons  and  two  daughters,  viz: 
Simon  (father  of  Pharcz)  Josiah,  Philip,  James,  William,  Anne  and  Sarah. 
These  all  sleep  with  their  ancestors,  James  the  last  one  having  died  Jan. 
24th,  1878  at  an  advanced  age.  Josiah,  the  date  of  whose  death  is  not 
known,  encountered  the  perils  of  war  at  Baltimore  in  1812.  Simon  Duf- 
field, who  was  born  in  1780  on  this  farm  continued  to  reside  here  until 
the  time  of  his  death  which  occurred  in  1856.  His  mother  also  died  in 
the  same  house  having  resided  there  during  her  widowhood.  Pharcz 
Duffield  married  Sarah  Jane,  daughter  of  George  Cook,  Esq.,  of  Quincy 
Township,  in  the  year  184!).  He  came  into  possession  of  this  property  by 
inheritance  and  purchase,  in  the  year  1856.  His  children  numbering  six, 
consiBt  of  four  sons  and  two  daughters,  viz:  Cassius  W.,  John  J.,  Mar- 
shall C,  George  P.,  Sarah  E.,  and  Ida  J. 


The  buildings  represented  in  the  sketch  are  situated  in  Waynesboro',  on 
a  lot  on  East  Main  street,  which  formerly  belonirel  to  the  Garland  estate. 

The  tannery  wa?  erected  in  the  spring  of  1831,  was  remodeled  and 
enlarged  in  1858,  and  has  a  capacity  of  two  thousand  hides  per  annum. 
Philip  Forney,  Sr.,  great  grandlather  of  L.  S.  Forney,  emigrated  at  a 
very  early  date  from  France.  His  son  Philip,  (grandfather  of  L.  S. 
Forney)  was  born  Sept.  2!»th,  172-1 ;  was  married  May  18th,  175:;,  and  liad 
tpn  children.  Mr.  Philip  Forney,  Jr.,  died  Ftb.  17lh,  178;!,  ana  his  wife, 
Elizabeth,  died  August  10th,  17!)4. 

Adam  Forney,  (father  of  L.  S.  Forney,)  was  born  June  15th,  1754. 
He  married  Rachel,  daugliler  of  David  Schricl)er,  who  lived  near  Win- 
chester, Md.,  Oct.  2(;th,  1784.  She  was  born  Jan.  7th,  1767.  Their  family 
coDsisted  of  ten  children. 

Appendix.  2^7 

David  Schrieber,  Sr.  (grandfather  of  L.  S.  Forney,)  was  a  member  of 
the  Maryland  State  Legislature  for  many  years.  His  son  David,  was, 
when  a  boy,  pressed  into  service  in  the  Continental  Army  under  Gen. 
George  Washington.  He  was  afterwards  educated,  and  appointed  to  a 
position  on  the  U.  S.  Engineer  Corps,  which  he  held  for  a  considerable 
length  of  time.  He  assisted  in  the  survey  of  the  Mason  &  Dixon's  Line, 
and  in  the  laying  out  of  the  National  Road  from  Baltimore,  Md.,  to 
Wheeling,  Va.  He  held  a  government  position  until  within  a  few  years 
of  his  death. 

L.  S.  Forney  was  born  in  Hanover,  York  County,  Pa.,  May  36th,  1805, 
and  was  the  youngest,  save  one,  of  a  family  of  10  children,  5  of  whom  are 
still  living.  Samuel  the  eldest  of  the  surviving  members,  was  born  March 
8th,  1790,  and  now  resides  at  Gettysburg,  Pa.  Mr.  L.  S.  Forney  was 
married  Nov.  1st,  1832,  to  Mary,  daughter  of  Jacob  Hollinger.  She  was 
born  Nov.  5th,  1811,  and  died  Jan.  23d,  1873.  They  had  eleven  children, 
three  of  whom  died  in  infancy,  the  rest  are  still  living.  Although  ad- 
vanced in  years,  Mr.  Forney  is  still  actively  engaged  in  business.  He  has 
contributed  very  largely  to  the  prosperity  of  the  town  in  which  he  has 
spent  so  large  a  portion  of  his  useful  and  unobtrusive  life.  His  residence, 
situated  on  East  Main  St., — one  of  eleven  brick  houses  erected  prior  to 
1831,  was  purchased  by  its  present  occupant  in  1854. 


This  homestead  is  located  about  3^  miles  south-west  of  Waynesboro'  on 
the  public  road  leading  to  Hagerstown.  At  a  very  early  date  the  land,  of 
which  this  constitutes  a  part,  was  taken  up  by  Henry  Miller,  the  great 
grandfather  of  the  present  owner.  Deeds  in  possession  of  the  family, 
show  that  its  proprietorship  dates  back  to  178(j,  and  it  has  continued  in 
the  Miller  name  ever  since.  Henry  Miller  who  was  a  native  of  Germany, 
entered  the  patriot  army  and  served  during  the  entire  period  of  the  Revo- 
lutionary war.  After  his  death  the  property  passed  into  the  hands  of 
his  son  whose  name  was  also  Henry.  At  the  death  of  Henry,  Jr.,  it  be- 
came the  property  of  his  son  Samuel,  and  is  still  owned  by  his  heirs.  He 
had  three  sons,  John,  Samuel  and  Henry.  John  Miller  the  father  of 
Jacob  J.  is  still  living,  at  the  age  of  77  years,  on  part  of  the  homestead. 
He  married  Eve  Harbaugh  about  the  year  1831.  They  have  three  chil- 
dren, viz:  Jacob  J.  Daniel  R.  and  Susan,  now  Mrs.  Benjamin  Funk.  The 
farm  represented  by  the  illustration  contains  1G2  acres.  The  buildings, 
which  are  very  attractive,  are  of  brick,  and  the  barn  which  is  80  by  54 
feet,  in  ita  convenience  and  finish,  is  considered  one  of  the  best  in  that 
section  of  the  county.  It  was  built  in  1873  and  has  a  never  failing  woU 
of  water  beneath  a  portion  of  it.  The  present  owner  of  this  place  is  the 
architect,  ot  and  superintended  the  construction  of  all  these  buildings. 
Whilst  the  house  was  being  erected  in  18G2  the  memorable  battle  of 
A ntietam  was  fought,  and  few  can  imagine  the  anxiety  and  consterna- 
tion of  IMr.  M,  during  these  troublous  times,  but  with  a  rarely  cf[ualed 
amount  of  energy  he  pushed  forward  the  work  to  completion.  The  soil 
of  this  very  productive  farm  is  ot  limestone,  and  its  greatest  capacity 
has  been  as  much  as  45  bushels  of  wheat  to  the  acre,  but  this  was  ex- 
ceptional. The  average  production  is  from  20  to  25  bushels.  Mr.  Miller, 
who  is  also  the  o'vncr  of  that  capacious  and  well  known  hostelry,  the 
Waynesboro  Hotel,  moved  upon  this  property  shortly  after  his  marriage 
which  occurred  Feb.  I'.Hh,  185<;.  His  wife  was  Elizabeth  C.,  daughter 
of  Harry  and  Susan  Funk.  The  children  of  Jacob  J.  Millor  and  wile 
are  seven  in  number,  viz  :  John  J.  H.,  Adolphua  B.,  Martha  8.,  Charles 
Otlis,  Daniel  L.,  Mary  Elizabeth  and  Etta  Viola. 

268  Appendir. 


This  farm,  which  is  now  owned  by  Frederick  B.  Crawford,  but  occu- 
pied by  hia  brother  Milton,  ia  situated  in  Guilford  Township,  about  one  and 
a  half  miles  from  Fayetteville  and  one  mile  from  the  Mount  Alto  Railroad, 
and  is  part  of  the  original  tract  taken  up  by  Edward  Crawford,  a  native 
of  Drumgavan,  near  Donegal,  Ireland,  and  at  that  time  (1740)  known  by 
the  name  of  Clearfield.  He  erected  the  first  buildings  of  log,  which  re- 
mained until  about  the  year  1832,  when  the  house  was  torn  down  and  re- 
built, about  50  yards  from  the  original  site,  by  his  grandson,  James 
Crawford,  using  the  same  material.  This  building  is  still  standing.  The 
house  and  barn  which  we  represent,  and  which  are  of  brick,  were  built 
by  James  Crawford,  the  former  in  1828  and  the  later  in  1838,  and  have 
not  received  any  alteration  or  change  since  then,  except  by  the  great 
mutator  of  all  things  earthly,  old  Father  Time.  The  dimensions  of  the 
house  are  CO  by  25  feet,  and  the  barn  72  by  50  feet.  The  farm,  which  is 
ef  limestone  soil  and  very  productive,  contains  171  acres,  of  which  about 
30  are  in  choice  oak  and  hickory  timber.  It  has  a  fine  stream  of  water 
running  through  it,  and  as  an  evidence  of  its  productiveness  we  will  state 
that  its  last  year's  crops  (1877)  consisted  of  1,300  bushels  of  wheat,  2,500 
bushels  of  corn,  500  bushels  of  oats  and  about  80  tons  of  hay.  The  family 
history  of  these  descendents  of  the  first  Edward  Crawford  deserves  more 
than  a  passing  notice  at  our  hands.  Whilst  most  of  them  have  been  un- 
obtrusive in  their  characters,  yet  as  a  family  they  have  been  noted  for  their 
intelligence,  and  for  possessing  that  old  styled  gentility  that  unfortunately 
at  the  present  day  is  giving  way  to  the  leveling  influences  of  that  reckless- 
ness that  is  inaptly  denominated  progress.  Of  the  family  of  Edward 
Crawford,  consistino-  of  nine  children,  viz:  Martha,  John,  James,  Eliza- 
beth, Ruth,  Edward,  Joseph  and  Mary,  John  and  Edward  were  soldiers 
of  the  Revolution.  John,  who  was  a  Lieutenant,  was  captured,  together 
with  2,300  other  prisoners,  at  Fort  Washington,  and  was  kept  in  custody 
on  Long  Island  during  the  remainder  of  the  war.  We  append  to  this 
article  a  letter  written  by  him  to  his  father,  which  demonstrates  the  fact 
that  there  were  hard  money  men  in  his  time  as  well  as  now.  Edward 
Crawford  will  be  still  remembered  by  some  of  the  oldest  residents  of  the 
county  as  the  clerk  of  tho  first  court  ever  held  in  Chambersburg.  Joseph 
was  killed  by  the  Indians.  John  and  James  inherited  the  farms  and  in 
179G  John,  in  consideration  of  300  pounds  paid  to  his  brother  James, 
became  proprietor,  of  the  341  acres  held  by  said  brother.  James  removed 
to  Mercersburg  where  he  died  ;  and  in  1827  John  died  on  the  same  larm 
on  which  he  was  born.  Ilis  family  consisted  of  eleven  children  of  whom 
but  two  now  survive,  namely  Joseph  and  Beckie,  now  Mrs.  McKee,  relict 
of  the  late  Matthew  Mckee.  Holmes,  one  of  the  number,  was  for  many 
years  the  honored  head  and  front  of  the  old  Chambersburg  Saving  Fund. 
He  also  was  a  soldier  of  the  war  of  1812  and  was  present  at  the  siege  of 
Fort  McHeury.  For  a  long  time  a  resident  of  Chambersburg,  no  one  ever 
enjoyed  a  more  unsullied  reputation  for  integrity  and  for  everything  that 
goes  to  make  up  the  christian  gentleman.  James  Crawford,  the  father  of 
the  present  owner,  and  also  of  the  present  occupant  of  the  farm,  died 
Jan.  18lh,  1872.  His  family  consists  of  three  sons  John  E.,  Frederick 
B.,  and  Milton.  John  Crawford  died  May  1875  and  has  also  left  three 
children,  viz;  Walter  B.,  Jane  Ann  and  Martlia.  Joseph  Crawford,  full 
of  years,  and  revered  by  all  who  know  him,  is  slillliving  on  his  farm. 
He  togellier  with  his  Ijrothurs  James  and  John  inhcriied  the  farms  Avhich 
made  up  this  very  valuable  tract  of  productive  Oand.  All  of  the  original 
tract  of  land  which  was  owned  and  occupied  by  the  first  Edward  Crawford 

Appendi.f.  269 

in  1740,  elill  remains  in  the  possession  and  occupancy  of  bia  descendents. 
First  letter  written  by  Lieutenant  John  Crawford,  to  bis  parents  after 
be  was  taken  prisoner. 

New  Youk,  Novembek  31st,  177G. 

Honored  Father  and  Mother  : — I  am  a  prisoner  bere  and  witboutclotbes 
or  bard  money,  only  wbat  was  on  me  wben  I  was  taken.  I  left  my 
clothes  with  Eddy  tbe  otber  side  of  tbo  river,  expect  to  get  them  again,  I 
would  be  glad  you  could  send  me  some  bard  money  as  no  other  will  pass 
here.  I  have  tbe  liberty  of  walking  tbe  streets.  You  need  not  be  uneasy 
about  me.  I  am  Avell  at  present  and  live  in  hopes  to  see  you  yet.  I  am 
your  dutiful  son  and  humble  servant, 

Lieutenant  John  Ckaweokd. 

I  was  taken  tbe  Kith  inst.,  at  Fort  Washington  with  about  two  thousand 
three  hundred  more. 


This  fine  brick  structure  which  is  located  near  the  east  end  of  Seminary 
street,  adjoining  tbe  borough  of  Mercersburg,  is  30  by  o7  feet  with  a  back 
building  18  by  22  feet,  and  was  erected  by  Mr.  II.  in  1877.  The  land  upon 
which  it  was  built  was  purchased  in  tbe  same  year  from  Mr.  A.  II.  Snively. 
Tbe  farm  of  Mr.  Hoke  is  located  in  Montgomery  Township,  about  2  miles 
south  of  Mercersburg.  It  was  purchased  from  John  Myers  in  186G  by 
Michael  Hoke,  Jr.,  who  willed  it  to  its  present  owner  in  187i>.  It  con- 
tains 196  acres,  is  provided  with  a  brick  dwelling  house  and  stone  barn. 
There  are  4  good  wells  of  water,  2  at  the  house  and  2  at  tbe  barn.  Tbe 
lime  kiln  on  tbe  place  has  a  capacity  of  ]«,100  bushels.  The  fencing  is  of 
very  good  quality.  Tlie  grandfather  of  Mr.  A.  M.  Iloke,  Michael  Iloke, 
Sr.,  was  born  April  25th,  176o,  and  died  Nov.  15tb,  1846;  Elizabetb,  bis 
wife  was  born  Jan.  11th,  1770,  and  died  Aug.  20th.  1833;  Michael  Hoke, 
Jr. ,  was  born  Oct.  lOth,  1808,  and  died  Oct.  30tb,  1875 ;  Hannah  Bossman , 
his  wife  was  born  June  2od,  1812,  and  died  Nov.  12th,  1851). 


The  very  attractive  j^lace  represented  in  the  sketcb,  is  situated  just 
outside  of  the  borough  limits,  on  the  turnpike  leading  from  Mercersburg 
to  Waynesboro'.  The  large  and  commodious  house  is  constructed  of 
brick,  in  the  modern  style,  and  in  its  internal  arrangement  is  very  con- 
vetjient.  The  barn,  which  is  built  of  stone  and  frame,  is  intended 
to  secure  the  product  of  tlie  75  acres  of  fertile  land  which  serves  to  make 
np  this  place.  Mr.  Imbrie  who  is  a  son  of  John  Imbrie,  a  now  deceased 
citizen  of  Beaver  County,  came  to  this  country  in  1843,  and  engaged  in 
merchandizing  at  Mercersburg.  He  moved  to  Oreencastle  in  1861,  where 
he  continued  tlic  mercantile  pursuit  until  1863,  wlien  he  engaged  in  tbe  for- 
warding and  eommission  Ijusiness,  to  which  be  still  devotes  nearly  all 
of  his  time.  He  purchased  tbe  place,  which  we  have  just  attempted  to 
deHcribe,in  the  year  1875,  and  occupied  it  at  once. 

S70  Appendix. 


This  substantial  edifice,  erected  at  a  cost  of  $9,064.11  under  the  con- 
tractorship  of  John  Waidlich,  was  connmenced  in  the  spring  of  18G7  and 
was  consecrated  to  the  service  of  the  Triune  God  on  the  oth  of  July  1868. 
P'rior  to  the  year  1740,  the  now  widely  extended  denomination  of  Chris- 
tians know  as  the  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church,  was  unknown  in  this 
section  of  the  State,  the  tirst  families  having  settled  in  what  is  now  styled 
Franklin  County  in  1742.  In  1765  Kev.  John  George  Eager,  who  resided 
at  Conewego,  YorkCounty,  began  to  make  semi-annual  visits  to  the  Luth- 
eran settlements,  preaching  the  word,  catechising  and  confirming  the 
youth  and  administering  the  holy  sacraments.  The  members  of  the  de- 
nomination in  the  region,  of  Mercersburg  were  organized  into  a  congre- 
gation by  Rev.  John  Euthrauff  about  the  year  1800.  They  worshiped  in 
an  old  log  house  until  the  year  1813,  when  a  stone  church  was  built  on 
the  old  site,  conjointly  by  the  Lutherans  and  German  Reformeds.  Rev. 
Ruthrauff  resigned  in  1827  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Mr.  Shultze,  who 
served  the  church  for  two  years.  In  1830  Rev.  Mr.  Baughey  became  the 
pastor  and  contiued  in  thatcapacity  until  1832,  when  Rev.  Reuben  Weiser, 
now  the  venerable  Doctor  of  Divinity  who  resides  in  Georgetown,  Colo- 
rado, took  charge.  During  his  ministry,  the  church  building  was  re- 
paired at  a  cost  of  $1,000,00.  The  church  membership  at  that  time  being 
60.  Rev.  Weiser  resigned  in  1835,  and  left  his  pastorate  in  a  prosperous 
condition.  From  1835  to  1840,  no  stated  pastor  had  charge  of  this  flock, 
but  at  the  end  of  this  period.  Rev.  Michael  Eyster,  who  had  taken  charge 
of  the  congregation  at  Greencastle,  also  preached  at  Mercersburg,  He 
resigned  in  1849  and  in  1851  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  P.  P.  Lane,  who 
also"resigned  in  1853,  after  which  Rev.  M.  M.  Bachtel  served  the  church 
for  one  year.  In  1854  Rev  S.  McHenry  was  settled  as  pastor  in  the  Mer- 
cersburg charge,  which  position  he  occupied  until  1859,  when  he  was 
immediately  followed  by  Rev.  G.  Roth.  In  June  1860  the  Sunday  School 
was  organized,  and  in  the  spring  of  1863  Rev.  Roth  resigned,  and  was 
succeeded  by  Rev.  A.  M.  Whetstone,  Jan.  1st,  1866.  Having  been  called 
to  the  Lutheran  church  at  Somerset,  Rev.  W.  took  leave  of  his  devoted 
people,  and  was  succeeded,  Feb.  1872  by  Rev.  A.  J.  Hessan,  the  present 
pastor.  The  church  at  this  time  has  a  membership  of  210.  The  lot  occupied 
by  the  church  and  parsonage  was  bought  for  the  sum  of  $820,  and  during 
the  summer  and  fall  of  1876  the  parsonage  was  built  at  a  cost  of  $4,800, 
under  the  supervison  of  Waidlich  &  Bros.,  who  where  also  the  architects. 
It  was  occupied  in  the  spring  of  1877. 


This  very  valuable  i)lantation  was  taken  up  in  two  tracts,  the  north  cud 
consisting  of  about  108  acres  was  surveyed  on  a  warrant  in  the  name  of 
Wm.  Rankin,  dated  May  Slh  1751.  The  other  consisting  of  about  210 
acres  was  surveyed  on  application  of  James  ]\lcFarlan,  the  date  of  which 
was  March  13th,  1767.  That  taken  up  by  Rankin  was  purchased  by 
McFarlan  Oct.  30th,  1765,  and  after  the  location  of  the  other  it  was  all 
known  ])y  the  name  of  the  ]\IcFarlan  tract.  In  1804  John  Wilson,  the 
fatlicr  of  tlio  celebrated  Wilson  family,  became  its  owner.  The  first 
buildings,  consisting  of  a  log  house  and  barn,  were  erected  by  James 
McFarlan,  these  remained,  the  1»arn  until  18  14  and  the  house  until  1816, 
when  the  present  substantial  and  attractive  buildings  were  placed  in  their 
stead  Vjy  the  lieirs  of  John  Wilsi^n.  The  house  as  will  be  seen  is  a  two 
story  brick  edifice  constructed  in  the  form  of  an  L.      The  barn  which  is 

RESOF  PHAREZ  OUF FIELD  cuilford   twp  franklin  co  pa/'"''' 




Appendix.  371 

one  hundroil  and  one  feet  long  is  also  of  brick.  At  the  present  time 
about  eighty  acres,  of  these  three  hundred  and  eighteen,  are  well  set 
-with  thriving  timber.  As  it  is  located  on  the  dividing  ridge  between  the 
Slate  and  limestone  regions,  the  land  is  of  good  quality  and  is  well 
adapted  for  either  grain  or  stock  raising.  It  is  rolling  in  character  and 
is  well  watered  by  a  stream  running  through  it.  The  largest  production 
of  wheat  in  one  year  was  about  1,500  bushels.  Mr.  Croft  became  the 
owner  of  this  place  in  the  year  1871,  having  purchased  it  from  Mrs. 
Elizabeth  Shields  of  Westmoreland  County,  at  that  time  the  only  surviv- 
ing member  of  the  Wilson  family,  the  price  paid  being  $22,100.00.  One 
very  remarkable  circumstance  connected  with  Mr.  Croft's  relation  with 
this  place  is  the  fact,  that  he  resided  on  it,  and  conducted  the  farming 
operations,  for  o3  consecutive  years  as  tenant  of  the  Wilsons,  a  strong 
evidence  that  his  integrity  was  such  as  to  merit  the  respect  and  confidence 
of  his  landlords.  Mr.  C.  has  always  lent  his  aid  in  improvements  of  all 
kinds,  but  in  no  one  thing  has  he  contributed  to  the  wellfare  of  his  neigh- 
borhood in  a  greater  decree  than  in  his  efforts  to  elevate  the  grade  of  the 
neat  cattle  of  the  county.  His  first  purchase  of  thorough  bred  cattle 
was  in  the  year  1873,  the  first  pair  "Albert"  a  herd  book  animal,  got  by 
the  "Duke  of  Hewston,"  was  from  the  farm  of  Charles  W.  Wordsworth, 
of  Livingston  County  N.  Y..  and  "Edith"  also  a  herd  book  heifer,  got  by 
the  4th  "Grand  Duke  of  Oxford,"  from  the  farm  of  James  Wordsworth, 
of  Genessee,  N.  Y.  Plis  second  purchase  was  from  the  herd  of  S.  F. 
Letton,  Paris,  Ky.,  and  consisted  of  a  thorough  Jbred  animal  named 
"Adina's  Duke,"  sired  by  "London  Duke  2d."  This  animal  was  sold 
by  Mr.  Silas  Corbin,  of  Paris,  Ky.  The  fine  south-down  ram  No.  271 
was  purchased  from  John  D.  Wing,  of  Duchess  County,  N.  Y.  Thrown 
upon  his  own  resources  very  early  in  life,  Mr.  C.  has  worked  his  way, 
tlirough  many  tribulations,  up  to  the  enviable  position  he  now  occupies. 


The  works  represented  in  our  sketch  are  situated  on  South  Railroad 
avenue,  Greencastle,  Pa.  They  consist  of  wood  and  paint  shops,  black- 
smith shop  and  warehouse.  They  have  a  capacity  of  about  50  new 
machines  per  annum,  besides  repairing,  &c.  Mr.  H.  employs  10  men 
besides  salesmen  through  the  country.  His  sales  last  year  (1877)  amounted 
to  53  new  vehicles  and  75  secondhand  ones,  and  the  value  of  the  repairing 
was  to  the  extent  of  |2,800.  Four  years  ago,  the  successful  proprietor  of 
this  large  and  growing  business,  commenced  at  this  place,  in  these  shops, 
but  had  been  engaged  in  manufacturing  carriages  nearly  all  the  time  since 
he  entered  upon  his  trade  at  the  age  of  14  years.  He  employs  none  but 
first-class  workmen  and  has  everything  done  under  his  own  supervision. 
These  buildings  which  are  all  frame,  were  erected  4  years  ago  and  as 
soon  as  completed  were  occupied  by  Mr.  H.  A  great  deal  of  the  work 
manufactured  here  is  shipped  west  and  south,  to  Maryland,  Virginia,  &c., 
and  in  as  much  as  all  styles  and  classes  of  work  are  turned  out,  the  re- 
quirements of  even  the  most  exacting  can  be  met.  The  proprietor,  not- 
withstanding his  large  sales  endeavors  to  keep  a  supply  of  all  kinds  of 
vehicles  on  hand,  and  is  prepared  to  repair,  or  construct  new  work  on  the 
shortest  notice.  The  energy  of  Mr.  Ilarperis  very  commendable  when  we 
consider  that  during  the  dark  days  of  the  Rebellion,  whilst  living  at 
Greenmount,  10  miles  from  Gettysburg,  he  was  stripped  of  all  he  pos- 
sessed. His  property  consisting  of  store  goods  was  appropriated,  his 
carriage  works  were  used  as  a  hospital,  and  all  of  his  movable  effects 
were  consumed  by  the  armies,  both  Union  and  Confederate.      And  as  if 

272  Ap'pendix. 

not  content  with  thus  reducing  an  unoffending  citizen  to  penury,  the  das- 
tardly invaders  at  last  took  his  body,  and  carried  it,  as  well  as  that  of  his 
aged  father  to  be  incarcerated  in  their  hellish  prison  pens.  Wm.  Harper, 
the  father  of  J.  A.,  who  during  nearly  his  whole  life  had  followed  farm- 
ing, was  captured  as  a  private  citizen  at  Gettysburjf,  was  taken  t<)  Salis- 
bury, North  Carolina,  and  after  having  endured  all  the  privations,  and  in- 
fernal tortures  of  rebel  prison  life,  for  the  period  of  18  months  he  died, 
with  the  sole  comfort  of  having  the  attendance  of  his  faithful  son,  J,  A. 
Harper,  who  was  captured  whilst  acting  as  Post-master  at  his  home, 
Greenmount.  He  was  first  taken  to  Staunton,  Va. ,  where  he  was  kept  two 
weeks,  then  taken  in  a  box  car  to  Richmond.  Va.,  and  thrown  into 
"Castle  Lightning,"  here  he  was  stripped  of  all  his  valuables,  money,  etc., 
and  on  the  same  day  was  taken  to  Libby  Prison,  where  he  remained  4 
weeks.  From  there  he  was  removed  to  "Castle  Thunder,"  where  he  re- 
mained but  a  short  time,  when  he  was  taken  to  Salisbury,  North  Carolina, 
and  was  put  into  the  Rebel  Penitentiary,  where  he  was  confined  until 
Feb.  22d,  1805.  His  father,  Wm.  Harper,  was  taken  sick  directly  after 
reachmg  Salisbury,  and  had  the  tender  care  of  his  son,  who  was  acting 
as  hospital  steward,  and  when  he  died  his  remains  were  carefully  buried, 
the  son,  under  guard,  being  allowed  to  attend  to  the  sad  rites.  Two 
brothers  of  J,  A.  Harper,  George  and  "William  served  in  the  Union  army 
duriug  the  rebellion.  William  was  in  the  cavalry  that  burned  the  Salis- 
bury Prison,  only  one  day  after  his  brother  J.  A.  was  removed  with  the 
other  prisoners  to  Richmond.  After  the  war  he  engaged  in  rail  roading, 
and  was  a  conductor  on  the  unfortunate  train  that  met  with  the  fearful 
calamity  at  Ashtabula,  Ohio,  and  is  supposed  to  have  been  among  the  lost 
as  he  has  never  been  heard  of  since.  George  is  now  living  in  Harrisburg. 
J.  A.  Harper,  after  his  fathers  death,  was  shipped  back  to  Richmond  and 
again  incarcerated  in  Libby  Prison,  from  there  he  was  taken  to  "Castle 
Thunder,"  and  from  there  down  the  river  to  Akiens  Landing,  and  deliv- 
ered to  a  company  of  Union  Cavalry,  after  having  been  in  confinement  for 
2^  months.  During  the  time  of  his  imprisonment  the  average  number 
of  deaths,  amongst  the  inmates  was  about  sixty  per  day.  Leaving  these 
sad  scenes  we  will  return  to  the  consideration  of  Mr.  J.  A.  Harper,  as  he 
is  now  surrounded  by  his  interesting  family.  He  was  married  in  1857  to 
Lydia  Ann,  daughter  of  Abraham  Plani,  who  was  born  April  0th,  1834. 
They  having  seven  children  living  and  three  dead.  Those  now  living  are 
as  follows:  Henry  Clay,  Sarah  Virginia,  Lillie  May,  Lydia  Ann,  Jacob 
Edward,  Wesley  Plank  and  Clinton  Hayes.  The  dead  were  named 
Nettie  E.,  Cora  Bell  and  John  A. 


These  attractive  buildings  are  situated  in  the  promising  vdlage  of  Leh- 
mastcr's  Station,  in  Peters  Township,  Franklin  County,  IG  miles,  by  rail 
road,  west  of  Chambersburg,  at  the  intersection  of  the  public  roads  lead- 
ing from  Greencastle  and  Mercersburg  to  Loudon.  Five  miles  south-east 
of  the  latter  place  and  4  miles  north-east  of  Merceisburg.  The  village 
consists  of  the  buildings  represented  in  the  sketch,  and  has  a  Postoftice, 
Express,  Ticket  and  Freight  office,  together  with  a  store  and  nine  other 
dwelling  houses.  It  now  covers  about  12  acres  of  ground  which  was  pur- 
chased March  20^,  1874  by  Mr.  P.  formerly  a  resident  of  Sinking  Springs, 
Berks  County,  Pa.,  but  a  native  of  Franklin  County,  from  Jacob  Lehmas- 
ter,  from  whom  it  derived  its  name.  At  the  time  of  the  purchase  by  Mr. 
Plum  there  were  no  houses  liere  except  the  farm  buildings  of  Mr  L.     The 

Ap2^endlr.  2t?) 

wareliou3e,  which  was  erected  in  the  spring  of  1874,  is  a  irame  structure 
50  by  26  feet,  witli  a  slate  roof,  and  is  located  on  the  south  side  of  the  rail 
road.  It  has  a  capacity  of  storing  upw^ards  of  5,000  bushels  of  grain, together 
with  a  large  space  for  the  reception  of  freight;  and  contains  the  Post, 
Ticket,  Express  and  Freight  oftices,  together  with  a  ladies  and  gentlemens 
waiting  room.  Mr.  Plum  also  erected  his  fine  dwelling  house  during  the 
summer  of  1874.  It  is  a  brick  building  33|^  feet  front  by  40  feet,  is  covered 
with  slate  and  contains  '?>  rooms  and  1  hall  on  the  first  floor,  and  5  rooms 
and  2  halls  on  the  second.  Samuel  Plum  was  born  near  Keller's  mill  in 
St.  Thomas  Township  on  the  29th,  of  Dec.  1837.  He  is  a  son  of  Chris- 
tian Plum,  who  was  born  in  Adams  County,  Pa,  His  grandfather,  Adam 
Plum,  a  native  of  Switzerland,  located  in  Adams  County  when  quite 
young  and  engaged  in  the  pursuit  of  farming,  to  which  occupation  lie 
reared  his  sou  Christian.  The  maternal  grandfather  of  Samuel  Plum  was 
Jacob  Qelsinger,  a  native  of  Berks  County,  who  had  married  a  Miss 
Christina  Hershberger,  and  Mr.  Plum's  mother  was  Hannah,  daughter  of 
the  above  named.  Whilst  living  at  Sinking  Springs,  Berks  County,  Mr. 
Plum  married  Mary,  daughter  of  Isaac  Ruth  of  said  place, and  they  have  three 
children,  viz:  Lizzie,  Willie  and  Irvin.  Together  with  conducting  the 
warehouse  where  he  deals  largely  in  lumber,  coal,  plaster,  salt,  etc.,  he  is 
also  Postmaster,  Express  and  Freight  Agent.  During  the  year  1877  he 
shipped  000,000  feet  ot  lumber,  600,000  shingles,  and  a  vast  quantity  of 
grain.  Considering  that  his  enterprise,  as  well  as  the  entire  village,  is 
only  four  years  old,  we  can  safely  predict  a  large  degree  of  prosperity  for 
the  energetic  pioneer  and  his  earnest  co-workers. 


The  farm,  upon  which  the  buildings  that  appear  in  our  illustration  are 
located,  is  situated  in  Quincy  Township,  one  and  a  half  miles  north-east 
of  Waynesboro'.  It  has  for  its  nearest  railroad  station  Mont  Alto.  The 
buildings  as  represented,  with  the  exception  of  the  barn,  were  built  by 
the  present  owner.  The  house  which  preceeded  this  one  was  constructed 
of  logs  and  was  one  and  a  half  stories  high,  with  a  stone  back  building, 
it  was  erected  by  Jacob  Friedly,  and  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  the  year 
18G7.  In  the  same  year  Mr.  M.  caused  the  present  fine  brick  structure, 
with  slate  roof,  to  be  built.  Its  dimensions  are  42  by  30  feet  with  a  back 
building  24  feet  long.  The  barn  which  is  of  stone  is  40  by  85  feet,  and 
is  roofed  with  straw.  This  place  consists  of  165  acres  of  limee  one 
land,  somewhat  broken  and  rolling,  well  adapted  to  the  production  of 
grain.  It  is  well  watered  and  under  good  fencing.  The  minerals  to  be 
found  on  this  land  are  iron  ore  and  baryta.  Mr.  Middour's  fine  stock  of 
horses  and  cattle  are  supplied  with  pure  water  by  means  of  a  Stovsr  Wind 
Engine,  a  labor  saving  machine  that  is  more  appreciated  the  longer  it  is 
used.  The  average  product  of  wheat  on  this  place  is  35  bushels  per  acre 
and  that  of  corn  GO  bushels  per  acre.  Mr.  M.  is  a  son  of  Jacob  Middour, 
Sr.,  who  was  Vorn  in  the  year  1780  and  died  in  1802.  His  maternal 
grandfather  was  John  Hess,  the  date  of  whose  birth  was  in  the  year  17GS 
and  who  departed  this  life  in  1819.  The  property  came  into  the  possession 
of  Mr.  M.  by  purchase  from  his  brother  Samuel  Middour  in  1864.  He 
was  married  in  1855  to  Mary,  daughter  of  David  and  Susan  Shank.  They 
have  eight  children. 

2?4  Appendix. 


This  properly  is  located  on  West  Main  street,  in  the  thriving  town  of 
Wayneaboro'.  It  is  35  feet  front  by  60  feet  deep  and  baa  an  office  at- 
tached. The  house  proper  was  built  in  the  year  1858,  by  John  Ervin, 
and  was  bought  by  Dr.  F.  in  1870,  and  occupied  by  him  in 
1871,  when  he  built  the  office  and  made  other  improvements.  lie 
is  one  of  a  family  of  seven  sons  and  one  daughter,  children  of 
Christian  Frantz,  who  were  named  Isaac,  John,  Abraham,  Jacob,  Chris- 
lian,  Samuel,  Benjamin  and  Anne.  Isaac,  John  and  Anne  are  dead. 
Abraham,  Jacob  and  Christian  are  farmers,  and  Samuel  is  a  miller,  re- 
siding near  Waynesboro'.  Dr.  Benjamin  Frantz  commenced  the  study 
of  medicine  wfth  Drs.  Martin  &  Jacob  Muner,  of  Lampeter  Square,  near 
Lancaster,  Pa.,  and  finished  with  Dr.  A.  H.  Senseny,  of  Chambersburg. 
He  graduated  from  Jefferson  Medical  College,  in  the  class  of  1840,  and 
located,  and  commenced  the  practice  of  medicine  in  Waynesboro',  where 
he  has  enjoyed  a  lucrative  practice  ever  since.  He  was  married  Oct.  lP)th, 
1849,  to  Mary  A.,  daughter  of  Michael  Ryder,  of  Loudon,  Pa.  They 
have  ten  children  living  and  one  dead,  viz:  Samuel,  Charlotte,  Caroline, 
Joseph,  Isaac,  Abraham,  Anne,  John,  Mary  and  Herman.  Dr.  F.  was 
born  Oct.  17th,  1834,  near  Litiz,  Lancaster  County,  Pa.  Mrs.  F.  was 
born  April  15th,  1830,  in  Franklin  County,  near  Dry  Run,  in  Path  Valley. 
The  progenitors  of  the  Frantz  family  in  this  country,  migrated  at  a  very 
early  date,  in  company  with  many  tamilies  who  were  driven  from  their 
native  land,  Switzerland,  Palatinate,  on  account  of  persecution  by  the 
Lutherans  and  Catholics,  who  denounced  their  religious  belief,  they 
being  "Anabaptists."  They  came  to  Lancaster  County,  having  procured 
a  grant  for  a  eettleraent  from  the  proprietors  along  the  Peque  Creek. 
The  Frantz  who  first  came  here,  probably  as  early  as  1G70  or  80,  was  the 
great,  great  grandfather  of  Dr.  Benj.  Frantz,  and  very  many  of  his 
descendants  are  still  to  be  found  near  where  he  first  settled.  Christian 
Frantz,  the  father  of  the  Dr.  came  to  this  country  in  the  spring  of  1825, 
and  purchased,  and  settled  on,  a  farm  formerly  belonging  to  John  Stoner, 
a;nd  now  owned  by  John  R.  Frantz.  It  has  remained  in  the  Frantz  name 
ever  since.  Nearly  all  the  buildings  on  this  place  were  erected  by  Chris- 
tian Frantz,  who  also  made  many  improvements  on  the  farm.  In  the 
spring  of  184o  he  ceased  farming,  and  sold  the  place  to  his  son  John,  and 
built  for  hiniself,  a  residence  on  land  now  owned  by  John  Frantz's  heirs, 
near  Fair  View  Mill,  now  in  the  possession  of  John  Philips,  Esq.,  where 
he  resided  until  his  death,  which  occurred  ia  Feb.  1863,  at  the  age  of  76 
years  and  some  months.  Mr.  Frantz  was  ordained  as  a  minister  of  the 
Reformed  Menonite  Church,  while  he  yet  resided  in  Lancaster  County, 
and  he  spent  nearly  his  whole  time  preaching,  having  stated  meetings 
near  Carlisle,  Shippensburg,  Chambersburg,  Loudon,  and  near  Hagers- 
town,  Md.,  and  was  the  only  minister  of  this  denomination  in  this  county 
for  many  years.  He  frequently  took  long  trips  on  missionary  duty, 
through  New  York  State,  Canada,  Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois  and  other 
states.  Although  he  was  the  first  of  the  denomination  of  which  he  was 
a  member,  who  came  to  this  county,  he  was  shortly  after  followed  by 
others,  among  whom  can  l)e  mentioned  the  Fricks,  Bakers,  Lantzes, 
Beshores,  Millers,  etc. ,  etc.  It  was  through  his  efforts  that  the  church  was 
established  near  Ringgold,  Md.,  about  the  year  1827.  There  was  also  a 
house  of  worship  erected  in  Waynesboro'  in  1876.  On  account  of  his 
untiring  efforts  in  advocating  the  doctrines  of  this  church,  which  to  most 
of  his  hearers  was  before  unknown,  it  is  by  many  called  the  "Frantzite 
Church,"  and  its  members  arc  called  "Frantzites." 

I.O.O  r.     HALL. 

NO  TION  8r  DRY  GOODS   S  TORE,  OF  J  AS.  P  S^J.  M.  ^OLFF.        J/J. 
219  E    MAIN    HT-  WAYNESBORO,       PA. 

Appendix.  275 

HALL  OF  I.  O.  O.  F.,  WAYNESBORO,  PA. 

Waynesboro  Lodge,  No.  219  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  of 
Pennsylvania, was  inatiluted  al  Waynesboro  Feb.  ir)tb,1847,  in  a  room  abore 
wbat  was  tben  known  as  Henry  Htonebouse's  Cigar  Store,  and  the  Lodge 
continued  to  hold  their  meetings  in  that  place  until  May  17th,  184H. 
During  this  time  the  Trustees  were  instructed  to  purchase  a  lot  of  ground 
upon  which  to  build  a  Hall.  At  a  meeting  held  Oct.  2d,  1847,  they  re- 
ported that  they  bad  contracted  with  H.  Btonebouse  for  the  ground,  and 
iheir  report  being  accepted,  their  action  was  ratified  by  the  Lodge. 
September  28th,  1847,  the  following  named  persons  were  appointed  to  act 
as  a  building  committee  in  the  construction  of  the  lirst  Odd  Fellows  Hall, 
W.  S.  Hollinberger,  H.  H.  Miller,  D.  li.  Russell  and  Jas.  Brotherton,  Jr. 
The  dimensions  of  the  building  under  contemplation  were  25  by  50  leet, 
and  its  erection  was  commenced  when  the  Lodge  was  as  yet  linancially 
very  weak.  They  sent  appeals  for  aid  to  sister  Lodges  in  the  State,  but 
these  met  with  little  substantial  response,  and  they  were  compelled  to 
complete  their  work  by  issuing  certificates  of  stock,  bearing  six  per  cent, 
interest  payable  semi-annually.  The  building  was  dedicated  May,  17th, 
1818,  and  was  occupied  from  that  time  untilJan.  13th, il87;{,  when  the 
present  Hall  was  commenced.  It  was  completed  about  the  last  of  Decem- 
l)er  1873.  The  members  constituting  the  building  committee  in  the  con- 
struction of  this  one  were,  W.  F.  Horner,  W.  A.  Price,  W.  F.  Grove, 
Ge«rge  Stover  and  W.  J.  Bikle.  This  structure  is  26  feet  front  by  05 
deep,  and  is  three  stories  high.  Its  cost  was  nearly  $7,000  and  it  is  one 
of  the  finest  buildings  in  the  place.  The  first  floor  is  occupied  by  J.  P.  & 
J.  ]^r.  Wolf  as  a  dry  goods  store,  the  second  by  the  Village  Record  office, 
and  the  third  by  Waynesboro  Lodge,  No.  219  I.  O.  O.  F.  of  Pa., 
Widow's  Friend  Encampment  No.  71  I.  O.  O.  F.,and  1.  O.  of  Red  Men, 
Uncas  Tribe,  No.  101.  The  inside  of  the  Hall  is  elegantly  furnished,  and  it 
is  considered  one  of  the  finest  buildings,  for  the  purpose  for  which  ii  ia 
used,  in  the  State.  The  Lodge,  whose  property  it  is,  is  very  flourishing, 
having  in  addition  to  all  the  property  vested  here,  about  |1,500  of  a  sur- 
plus fund.  The  following  list  comprises  its  entire  membership  from  ita 

The  Charter  Members  were  as  follows:  J.  "W.  Stoner,  H.  Stone- 
house,  J.  B.  Resser,  Wm.  C,  Tracy,  Frederick  Harbaugh,  Joseph 
Bender,  John  Null.  The  initiated  were  as  follows:  February  IGth, 
1847,  G.  W.  Rupp,  II.  S.  Stoner,  John  Logan,  John  Shoemaker,  Wm.  A. 
Tritle,  John  P.  Waggoner,  M.  T.  Tracy,  W.  H.  Morehead,  M.  J.  Homer, 
Francis  Bowden,  James  R.  Weagly,  David  B.  Russell;  March  2,  W.  F. 
Horner,  Geo.  Bender,  Henry  Logan;  March  23,  R.  F.  Gibson;  March  30, 
(Jeo.  AV.  Knight;  April  G,  Elijah  Durnbaugh;  April  20,  James  Brotherton, 
Jr.,  JohnPhilips;  April27,  Joshua Suman;  May  4,  Michael  Haustine,  Sr; 
May  18,  W.  S.  HoUenberger ;  May  25,  J.  L.  Welsh,  Morris  Henlin; 
June  8,  Charles  Gordon;  June  15,  John  Nead,  Samuel  P.  Stoner;  June 
29,  Henry  McFerren,  Geo.  Andrews,  Peter  Heefner,  A.  S.  Adams,  Wm. 
H.  Miller;  July  27,  Martin  Kissell;  Aug.  3,  James  Fisher;  Aug.  10,  John 
Kuhn;  Aug.  24,  David  L.  Stoner ;  Sept.  7,  M.  M.  Stoner;  Sept.  14, 
Thomas  Pilkington;  Oct.  5,  Wm.  Blair,  Absalom  French;  Oct.  12, 
Andrew  S.  Wilson,  Samuel  Ritter;  Nov.  12,  John  B.  Waynant;  Nov. 
IG,  Thomas  B.  Withers;  Nov.  23,  P.  H.  Dougherty;  Nov.  30,  John 
Gehr,  J.  S.  Zeigler;  Dec.  7,  Henry  F.  Davis,  John  C.  Eckman :  Dec.  14, 
C.G.French,  Levi  Saunders;  Jan.  11,  1848,  John  H.Smith;  Feb.  1, 
Martin  Sheeler,  JohnMcCush;  Feb,  8,  David  Winkfceld,  Wm.  Overcash; 
Feb.  15.  David  Kuhnley,  J.  B.  Waynant;  Feb.  23,  Washington  Parkhill; 

27C  Appendi.v. 

Fel).  211,  John  Mentzer;  March  21,  Daniel  Minnch;  April  11,  Geo  W. 
Thorns;  May  2il,  Andrew  Crillj';  0th,  Samuel  Gilbert,  Martin  J.  Reatj-; 
inth,  K.  G.  Rua;  2:!a,  John  S.  Long;  June  27th,  Peter  Benedict;  Aug. 
1st,  John  Sweeney;  Sept.  19th,  John  H.  Williams;  Oct.  inih,  S.  C.  Ritter; 
2lth,  Leonard  Walter;  Nov.  Mth,  Henry  Moore;  2lBt,  Levi  Pickle;  28th, 
D.  M.  Eiker;  Dec.  2rith,  Abraham  Stoner,  F.  J.  Filbert;  Jan.  10th,  1849, 
U.  Augustus  Smith;  Feb.  27th,  Geo.  J.  Balsley,  X^eter  Doch ;  March  0th, 
Samuel  Secrist;  irjth,  Daniel  Patter;  April  Hd,  John  Beck;  17th,  Jacob 
C.  Secrist,  James  A.  Cook;  Aug.  28,  Geo.  A.  Poole;  Sept,  35th,  Hugh 
Logan;  Nov.  i:!th,  Peter  Grumbine;  27th,  Jacob  Brenneman,  Jr.;  Dec. 
2."ilh,  Noah  Sneider;  Jan.  Ist,  1850,  John  M.  Winders,  Jas.  IL  Clayton; 
15th,  Edward  C.  Brown;  Feb.  25ih,  1851,  W.  L.  Hamilton,  John 
Grove;  March  4th,  Robert  C.  Fiemmmg;  25th.  Anthony  Kunkle;  April 
1st,  Thos.  N.  Herr,  Geo.  S.  Wight;  8t~h,  John  Miller;  June  10th,  Abra- 
ham Barr;  Sept.  r,Oth,  W.  R.  Kreps;  March  2d,  1852,  L,  F.  McComas; 
10th,  John  Withers;  June  8th,  John  Q.  Schwartz;  Feb.  4th,  185:],  W. 
G.  Smith;  15th,  Ephriam  Sellers;  March  1st,  Wm.  Marshall;  July  12th, 
185o,  Adam  Dysert ;  Aug.  2d,  Jerome  Beaver;  Oct.  18th,  J.  G.  Grumbine, 
Henry  Walter;  Jan.  10th,  1854,  Author  Bennett;  April  18th,  D.  S.  Gor- 
don; Sept.  12ih,  Geo.  fititzel;  Oct.  17th,  David  Shoop.  Dec.  20th,  J.  P. 
VonStine;  Feb.  13th,  1855,  Jeremiah  Cooper;  Aug.  21st,  Samuel 
Hawker;  April  2:id,  1850,  E.  S.  Troxel;  May  10th,  Chas.  Gordon;  Dec. 
9th,  Felix  J.  Troxel.  Samuel  Morehead;  June  9th,  1857,  Marks  Feilheimer; 
July  14th,  Jos.  C.  Clugston;  Dec.  1st,  E.  A.  Herring;  Feb.  2d,  1858, 
Joseph  W.  Miller;  March  COth,  J.  P.  Waggoner;  June  1st,  Jacob  Swank  ; 
March  1st,  1859,  W.  F.  Grove,  Henry  Dreyfoos,  Geo.  Stover;  April  19th, 

F.  Dougherty;  Oct.  23d,  1800,  Samuel  Hitter;  Dec.  17th,  1801,  A.  A. 
Lechlider;  Jan.  7th,  1802,  F.  Forthman;  14th,  Jos.  H.  Gilber,  Sr., 
Henry  Nuger;  28th,  Eli  Litle;  Feb.  11th,  H.F.  Stover;  25th,  Wm. 
Crilley;  April  23d,  Philip  WeisnC;r;  29th,  C.  A.  Bikle;  July  15th,  J.  H. 
Welsh;  22d,  J.  R.  Wolfersberger ;  Feb.  17th,  1803,  P.  Dock,  Wm.  A. 
Strealy;  Feb.  2d,  1804,  Henry  P.  Litle;  Dec.  12th,  1805,  J.  A.  Royer: 
Jan.  10th,  1800,  G.  F.  Lidy;  23d,  Harry  V.  Gilbert;  27th,  J.  F.  Remm- 
ger,  AV.  A.  Price;  March  13th,  Jeremiah  M.  Cooper;  Aug.  7th,  John  W. 
Bryson;  Mth,  Reuben  Shoner,  David  J.  Rhea;  Jan.  15th, 1807,  Samuel  J. 
Lecrone;   Feb.  12th,  A.  Burhman,  L.  D.  French,  Geo.  W.  Mowen,  Geo. 

G.  Pilkington  ;  April  9th,  Daniel  Snively  ;  May  21st,  Joseph  Woolard  ; 
23th,  Jacob  Hoover;  Aug.  20th,  Chas.  H.  Dickie,  John  H.  Miller;  Nov. 
12th,  Jos.  Douglas,  J.  B.  Russell;  20th;  D.  H.  Hafleigh,  Jos.  Walter, 
Lewis  M.  Leismyer;  Dec.  3d,  J.  B.  Brenneman;  Jan.  7th,  1808,  W.  R. 
Zeigler,  J.  L.  Meredith;  28th,  H.  Dutrow;  April  7th,  R.  C.  Mullen;  May 
5th,  J.  H.  Crilley;  19th,  W.  A.  Foltz;  June  2d,  J.  M.  Ripple;  May  28th, 
Emanuel  Robinson;  Sept.  15th,  B.  F.  Burger;  Jan.  5th,  1809,  C.  M. 
Stroader;  12th,  W.  J.  Bikle,  J.  Sheise;  Feb.  9th,  Francis  Robinson,  Wm. 
A.  Haustine;  March  9th,  John  H.  Harris;  April  20th,  David  Izer;  May 
25th,  Geo.  W.  Kcagy,  Samuel  Miller;  June  22d,  Chas.  Cooke  Jason  Bell; 
July  20th,  Alfred  Burhman;  Oct.  19th,  L.  C.  Brackbill ;  20th,  Samuel 
Kuhns;  Nov.  9th,  Upton  M.  Bell;  10th,  John  H.  Gchr,  Franklin  Bender; 
Jan.  4th,  1870,  A.  D.  Morganthall;  June  7th,  W.  H.  Crouse;  28th,  A.  A. 
French;  July  20th,  U.  H.  Balsley;  Aug.  23d,  J.  W.  Sourbeck ;  30th, 
Henry  Stoner,  Samuel  C.  Miller;  Sept.  20th,  Geo.  J.  Balsley,  Jr.,  W.  O. 
P.  Hammond;  Oct.,  4th,  Jacob  H.  Brown;  18th,  Jno.  F,  Beckner;  25th, 
David  U.  IMinor;  Dec.  27th,  Theo.  G.  Dock;  Jan.  3d,  1871,  Daniel 
Gilbert;  17th.  H.  S.  Rider;  24th,  Geo.  W.  Wood;  31st,  Geo.  Snively;  April 
4th,  Lewis  W.  Dctrick:  11th,  Samuel  Neowcomer;  18th,  Geo.  M.  D. 
Bell;    25tl),  A.  II.  Stonohouso;    June  0th.  T,  C.  Resser;    July  4th,  J.  M. 

Appendiv.  371' 

Lecrone;  11th,  D.  F.  Rozer;  Aug.  29th,  J.  P.  Lowell,  A.  N.  Russell; 
Sept.  19th,  T.  R.  Gilland,  J.  C.  Gilland,  J.  McDowell ;  Oct.  IJd,  J.  Mor- 
ganthall;  Slat,  G.  W.  Baughman,  Barton  Manuel,  F.  J.  Wolf;  Jan.  23d, 
1872,  Philip  AVolf;  April  2d,  S.  R.  Frantz;  iiOth,  G.  B.  Resser,  W.  B. 
Dock;  June  4th,  Geo.  B.  Beaver;  Dec.  17th,  J.  Aliver  Besore;  Jan.  14th, 
1878,  M.  M.  Gilland;  March  4th,  J.  M.  Wolf;  11th,  C.  G.  Frantz;  2r)th, 
J.  H.  Gilbert,  Jr.;  May  13th,  Samuel  Johnston,  June  17th,  Geo.  H. 
Russell;  Oct.  7th,  David  A.  Miller,  Jno.  McDowell;  Feb.  3d,  1874,  A. 
O.  Frick;  Jan.  20th,  1875,  Samuel  G.  Horner;  Feb.  9th,  A,  E.  Canode, 
D.  S.  Barnhart;  IGth,  D.  J.  Binkley,  D.  E.  Stine;  23d,  C.  F.  Bell;  March 
2d,  Jacob  Craly,  B.  F.  Snyder;  Sept.  7th,  V.  C.  Bell;  Nov,  30th,  M.  L. 
Rowe,  R.  W.  Price;  May  23d,  Charles  Sprenkle;  June  6th,  Lewis 


This  attractive  place  was  the  residence  of  the  late  Abraham  Barr,  who 
purchased  it  from  Mr.  Jacob  Funk,  October  2l8t,  1848.  It  being  part  of 
the  real  estate  of  which  John  Funk,  father  of  the  said  Jacob,  died 
possessed,  having  inherited  it  from  his  lather,  John  Funk,  Sr.  A  consid- 
erable portion  of  this  tract  was,  prior  to  the  establishment  of  Mason 
&  Dixon's  line,  in  Maryland,  as  is  shown  by  a  patent  deed  made  by  the 
Right  Honorable  Lord,  proprietor  of  the  late  province  of  Maryland,  bear- 
ing date  the  tenth  day  of  August,  A.  D.  1753,  to  a  certain  Jacob  Gans, 
who  deeded  the  same  to  John  Miller  on  the  22d  day  of  June,  A.  D.  1784. 
About  three  acres  arc  still  in  the  State  of  Maryland ;  the  balance,  212 
acres,  are  in  Washington  township,  Franklin  County,  Pa.,  two  miles  due 
south  of  Waynesboro,  on  the  Maryland  line,  while  that  beautiful 
stream,  the  now  historic  Antietam,  flows  through  it,  watering  its  rich 
meadows.  It  is  supplied  with  three  excellent  springs  of  cold  water,  and 
quite  near  the  house  there  is  a  good  water  power.  The  land  is  diversified 
in  its  character,  being  limestone,  sandstone  and  soapstone.  Having  an 
abundance  of  first-class  material  for  lime,  it  is  not  a  matter  of  surprise 
that  it  is  in  good  condition  and  very  productive. 

Dr.  Isaac  Newton  Snively  is  one  of  the  lineal  descendents  of  John 
Jacob  Schnebele,  who  emigrated  from  Switzerland  to  Lancaster  County, 
in  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania,  about  the  year  1707.  He  was  naturalized 
in  Philadelphia,  October  14th,  A.  D.  1729,  in  the  third  year  of  the 
reign  of  King  George  the  II,  and  died  at  the  age  of  eighty-four  years. 
His  son,  Jacob  Schnebele,  was  born  A.  D.  1694,  and  died  August  24th, 
A.  D.  1766,  in  his  seventy-second  year.  He  had  two  sons  by  his  first  wife. 
The  second  was  Christian  Schnebele,  who  was  born  August  15th,  A.  D. 
1731,  and  died  March  16th,  1795,  in  his  sixty -fifth  year.  He  was  married  to 
Miss  Margaret  Washabaugh  about  the  year  17G1.  He  had  eight  children. 
His  second  child,  *John  Schnebele,  (grandfather  to  Dr.  Snively),  was 
born  February  25th,  A.  D.  1766.  He  was  married  to  Miss  Anna  Hege, 
(grandmother  to  the  Doctor),  October  24th,  A.  D.  1794,  and  died  in  July, 
1844,  in  his  seventy-ninth  year.  His  wife,  Anna,  died  August  17th,  A. 
D.  1852,  in  her  seventy-seventh  year.  Anna  Hege  was  one  of  the  de- 
scendents of  Hans  Haggy,  who  emigrated  from  Switzerland,  in 
SchaufiFhausen,  near  Zweibruken,  at  Ebersten  Hoff,  to  the  American  colo- 
nies, which  are  now  the  United  States.  With  Hans  Haggy  came  his 
brother-in  law,  Hans  Leaman.  They  had  families,  and  brought  with  them 
Henry  Lesher  and  two  of  his  sisters,  orphan  children.  Henry  was  six- 
teen years  of  age.    These  parties  being  related  and  of  the  same  neighbor- 

*The  name  Snively  was  originally  Schnebele. 

2<o  Appendix. 

liood  emigrated  together.  Fifty-three  families,  numbering  in  all  two 
bundred  persona  arrived  at  this  time.  They  came  over  in  the  ship  James 
Goodwill,  David  Crocket,  Captain,  I'rom  Rotterdam,  and  landed  at  Phila- 
delphia, Pa.,  September  29th,  A.  D.  1727,  where  they  ^ere  required  to 
repeat  and  sign  the  following  declaration:  "We,  subscribers,  natives  and 
late  inhabitants  of  the  Palatinate  upon  the  Rhine  and  places  adjacent,  hav- 
ing transported  ourselves  and  families  into  this  Province  of  Pensilvania, 
a  Colony  subject  to  the  Crown  of  Great  Britian,  in  hopes  and  expectations 
of  finding  a  Retreat  and  peacable  Settlement  therein.  Do  solemnly  pro- 
mise and  engage,  that  we  will  be  faithful  and  bear  true  Allegiance  to  his 
present  Majesty  King  George  The  Second,  and  his  Successors  Kings  of 
Creat  Britain,  and  will  be  faithful  to  the  Proprietor  of  this  province;  And 
that  we  will  demean  ourselves  peacably  to  all  His  said  Majesties  Subjects 
and  strictly  observe  and  conform  to  the  Laws  of  England  and  of  this  Pro- 
vince, to  the  utmost  of  our  Power  and  best  ot  our  understanding."  (See 
"Colonial  Records,"  vol.  Ill,  page  28;}  and  284,  Sept.  21st  and  27th,  1727). 
From  Philadelphia  they  went  to  Rapho  township,  Lancaster  county.  Pa., 
near  Manheim,  where  they  settled.  Hans  Haggy  had  a  son  John  who  was 
married  to  Miss  Elizabeth  Pealman,  and  lived  near  Bridgeport,  Franklin 
county.  Pa.  His  third  child.  Christian  Haggy,  was  born  in  1751,  and  died 
May  13th,  A.  D.  1815.  Hin  wife  was  Mariah  Stouffer.  They  had  four 
children.  The  eldest  was  Anna  Hege,-  grandmother  to  the  Doctor  on  his 
fathers'B  side. 

John  Snively  (Doctor  Snively's  father)  was  born  near  Qreencastle, 
Franklin  county,  Pa.,  January  12th,  179'J,  on  the  ancestral  homestead 
now  occupied  by  his  brother  Jacob's  family,  and  farmed  by  his  nephew, 
Benjamin  F.  Snively,  Esq.  This  farm  is  a  portion  of  the  original  tract 
patented  by  the  original  John  Jacob  Schnebele  family  in  the  days  of  the 
Penns,  and  has  been  handed  down  from  father  to  son  for  over  a  century 
and  a  half.  He  was  m  irried  to  Miss  Catharine  Keefer,  daughter  of  the 
late  Jacob  Keefer  near  Marion,  Franklin  county,  Pa.,  who  moved  here 
from  Lancaster  county.  John  Snively  died  March  4th,  A.  D.  1853,  in 
his  tifty-flfth  year;  his  wife,  Catharine,  was  born  in  Lancaster  county, 
Pa.,  August  22d,  1802,  and  died  September  ;{Oth,  1854,  in  her  fifty-third 
year.  John  Snively  had  seven  children,  four  sons  are  living,  three  of 
whom  are  physicians.  The  eldest,  John  K.  Snively,  is  a  farmer  residing 
on  the  old  homestead  near  Jackson  Hall,  Franklin  "county.  Pa.  The  sec- 
ond is  Dr.  L  N.  Snively.  The  third  is  Dr.  Samuel  K.  Snively  of  Wil- 
liamsport,  Md.  The  fourth  is  Dr.  Andrew  J.  Snively  of  Hanover,  York 
county,  Pa.  Dr.  Isaac  N.  Snively  was  born  near  Jackson  Hall,  Franklin 
county.  Pa.,  February  2od,  18o9,  where  he  spent  his  early  life  upon  his 
father's  farm,  assisting  in  the  various  farm  duties  during  the  summer 
months,  and  attending  the  public  schools  during  the  winter.  At  the  age  of 
fourteen  he  was  left  an  orphan,  and  started  out  in  quest  of  em- 
ployment. Arriving  in  Chambcrsburg  he  entered  the  store  of 
Hutz  &  Son  as  salesman,  with  his  cousin,  John  P.  Keefer,  who 
very  kindly  jfave  him  access  to  his  fine  library.  He  soon  ac- 
quired a  fondness  for  books  which  disqualified  him  for  the  duties  of  a 
clerkship,  and  he  withdrew  to  enter  the  Fayetteville  Academy,  then  un- 
der the  supervision  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Kennedy.  From  here  he  returned  to 
Chamber^burg  and  entered  the  private  classical  school  of  that  noted 
teacher,  the  late  Thomas  J.  Harris,  in  whose  school  he  for  a  short  time 
was  assistant,  and  afterward  taught  in  the  public  schools  and  took  an  ac- 
tive part  in  the  Franklin  County  Teachers'  Association.  In  1857,  lie 
graduated  at  Duff's  Commercial  College  of  Pittsburg,  Pa.  In  1858,  whilst 

Ajjpendu'.  379 

teachiug  the  Mt.  Veruou  school  near  Waynesboro,  Pa.,  he  commenced 
the  study  of  Anatomy  witli  Dr.  Benjamin  Frantz.  In  the  spring  of  1859, 
he  became  a  pupil  of  the  late  Dr.  John  C.  Richards  of  Chambersburg,  l^a., 
and  graduated  at  the  Jefferson  Medical  College  of  Philadelphia  in  1862. 
He  commenced  the  practica  of  medicine  in  Chambersburg,  and  in  1863, 
when  the  Confederate  army  invaded  our  state,  he  went  to  Harrisburg  be- 
fore the  State  Medical  Board,  and  after  passing  the  required  examination, 
was  commissioned  hy  the  Governor  of  Pennsylvania,  as  assistant  Surgeon , 
his  commission  bearing  date  June  30th,  1803.  He  was  assigned  by  Dr. 
King,  Surgeon  General  of  Pennsylvania,  to  duty  at  Camp  Curtin.  He 
became  acting  Surgeon  of  the  20th  Pa.  Reg.,  Col.  Wm.  B.  Thomas  com- 
manding. He  allowed  himself  to  be  mustered  out  of  service  with  this 
regiment  and  returned  to  Chambersburg,  where  he  associated  himself  in 
the  practice  of  his  profession  with  his  late  preceptor,  Dr.  J.  C.  Richards. 
Besides  their  regular  practice  they  had  charge  of  the  Town  Hall  Hospital. 
September  8th,  18Go,  the  Surgeon  General  of  Pennsylvania  sent  him  a 
commission,  assigning  him  to  the  IS.Ith  Regiment,  Pa.  Vol.,  then  en- 
camped at  Beverly  Ford,  Va.,  Maj.  Ewing  commanding.  He  declined 
this  as  well  as  a  lucrative  appointment  on  the  Pacific  Coast  in  a  Marine 
Hospital,  preferring  to  continue  in  the  practice  with  Dr.  Richards.  De- 
cember 24:th,  1863,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Alice  B.  Barr,  daugnter  of  the 
late  Abraham  Barr,  esq.,  near  Waynesboro,  Pa.  They  moved  in  the 
(lawyer)  Smith  property  on  Main  Street,  where,  July  30th,  1864,  they  lost 
all  their  personal  property  (not  even  saving  their  ward-robes)  through  the 
burning  of  the  town  by  the  rebel  hordes.  The  Doctor  being  out  of  town 
at  the  time,  his  wife  barely  escaped  the  llames  of  the  burning  building. 
Left  destitute,  in  less  than  a  week  he  was  found  on  duty  in  the  U.  S. 
Army  General  Hospital,  Beverly,  New  Jersey.  He  continued  on  duty  here 
until  the  war  was  about  closing,  when  he  resigned  to  take  the  place  of  Dr. 
James  Brotherton,  Jr.,  of  Waynesboro,  Pa.,  who  had  lately  died,  where 
he  has  enjoyed  a  lucrative  practice  ever  since.  He  was  one  of  the  founders 
of  the  present  Medical  Society  of  Franklin  county,  Pa.,  and  was  President 
of  that  society  in  1874. 



This  dwelling,  which  is  a,  two  story  brick  one,  and  is  30  feet  long  by  26 
wide,  was  erected  by  the  late  Alexander  Hamilton,  in  the  year  1851. 
Having  been  purchased  by  its  present  occupant,  it  was  remodlcd  in  1868. 
It  is  located  on  East  Main  street,  and  is  a  good  representative  of  the  char- 
acter of  the  buildings  in  the  thriving  town  of  Waynesboro.  Dr.  Hering, 
who  has  met  with  marked  success  in  his  calling  as  a  physician,  is  a  native 
of  Frederick  County,  Md.  His  paternal  ancestory  were  Germans.  His 
great  grandfather  and  grandfather,  both  of  whom  had  the  surname  Henry, 
were  born  near  Basil,  Switzerland.  His  grandfather  visited  this  country 
in  the  year  17U1,  and  being  greatly  delighted  with  the  western  world,  re- 
turned to  his  native  place  and  persuaded  his  father  and  his  brother,  with 
his  family,  to  emigrate  to  America  with  him.  This  they  did  in  the  year 
171)3.  They  purchased  a  largo  tract  of  land  at  Beaverdam,  iu  Frederick  . 
County,  Md.,  and  built  a  Hour  mill,  as  well  as  a  saw  mill,  where  for  many 
years  they  and  their  dcacendcnts  conducted  a  successful  business.  These 
mills  arc  still  in  active  operation.  Henry  Hering,  Sr.,  died  about  the  . 
year  1810.  The  younger  Henry  married  Mary,  daughter  of  Rev.  Daniel 
Sayler,  of  Frederick  County,  in  179'J,  and  died  in  1829.  His  wife  sur-  . 
vived  him   until  Feb.  7th,  1872,  having  reached,  within  a  few  weeks  the 

S80  Appendix, 

advanced  age  of  1)8  years,  and  was  a  woman  of  remarkable  mental  and 
bodily  vigor.  Her  father,  Rev.  Daniel  Sayler,  who  was  born  in  Lancas- 
ter County,  in  1750,  and  who  acquired  the  homestead  established  by  his 
father,  Daniel  Sayler,  Sr.,  in  1760,  died  in  1840,  at  the  age  of  90  years. 
His  father,  Daniel  Sayler,  who  was  also  a  German,  emigrated  to  this 
country  with  his  family  in  the  year  1743,  and  was  compelled  to  consign 
some  of  his  children  to  a  watery  grave  whilst  crossing  the  ocean. 

Daniel  S.  Bering,  father  of  Dr.  Hering,  was  born  at  Beaverdam,  March 
6th,  1800.  He  married  Margaret  Orr,  daughter  of  Joseph  Orr,  of  Sam's 
Creek,  Carroll  County,  Md.  Her  father  was  an  American  by  birth,  but 
was  of  Irish  parents,  who  came  to  this  country  before  the  Revolutionary 
war.  Daniel  S.  Hering  died  in  1876,  having  been  bereft  of  his  wife  Mar- 
garet in  1863.  His  family  was  very  large,  so  large  that,  although  he  was 
enabled  to  bring  them  up  comfortably,  he  did  not  possess  the  means  to 
provide  each  one  with  a  liberal  education,  but  he  did  succeed  in  giving 
them  that  which  was  next  best,  a  thorough  training  in  the  way  of  indus- 
try and  an  ambition  to  become  the  architects  of  their  own  fortunes.  Dr. 
H.  having  early  acquired  a  fondness  for  the  medical  profession,  but  know- 
ing the  great  barriers  in  the  way  determined  that  by  dint  ot  industry  and 
perseverance  he  would  reach  the  goal  of  his  ambition.  Applying  himself 
for  3  or  4  years  to  a  laboiious  business,  he  realized  sufficient  means  to  en- 
able him  to  enter  upon  his  studies.  His  preliminary  course  was  conducted 
at  Mountain  View  Academy,  and  in  1852  he  entered  the  ofHce  of  Dr.  Sid- 
well  in  JohnsviUe,  Frederick  county,  Md.,  and  in  1854,  became  an  office 
student  of  Prof.  Miltenberger  of  Baltimore.  He  graduated  from  the  Uni- 
versity of  Maryland,  March  6th,  1855.  He  located  first  in  Frederick 
county,  Md..  where  he  continued  for  two  and  a  half  years,  when  he  re- 
moved to  his  present  location  in  October,  1857.  On  the  lOth  of  April,  1864, 
he  married  Frances  M.,  youngest  daughter  of  the  late  Alexander  Hamil- 
ton. His  family  is  not  as  numerous  as  was  that  of  his  father,  as  he  has 
but  two  children,  a  son  and  daughter. 


Animated  by  the  same  spirit  of  enterprise  that  actuated  his  neighbor, 
John  Croft,  Esq. ,  Col.  Dixon  has  made  his  place  noted  for  iis  production 
of  fine  cattle  and  hogs.  Those  that  are  represented  in  the  sketch  are  of 
the  purest  breeds  that  intelligence  and  money  could  procure.  The  bull  is 
called  "DouWeDukethe  3rd."  He  is  nearly  pure  "Duchess,"  with  a  dash 
of  Oxford"  blood,  and  was  bred  by  Jonathan  Tallcott,  of  Rome,  Oneida 
county,  N.  Y.  The  hogs  are  known  as  the  "Duroc"  breed,  and  are 
greatly  celebrated  for  their  rapid  development  when  being  fed  for  the 
slaughter.  They  were  bred  by  the  Hon.  Wm.  Holmes,  of  Greenwich, 
Washington  county,  N.  Y.,  and  ere  the  only  ones,  of  this  strain,  south- 
westofN.  Y.  City.  JohnDlxon,  the  great  grandfatherof  the  Col.,  was  of 
the  house  of  Argyle,  and  was  born  on  the  north-west  coast  of  Scotlanl. 
On  account  ot  political  trouble?  he  was  compelled  to  leave,  with  the  bal- 
ance of  the  family,  in  the  year  1690,  at  the  age  of  15  years.  They  fled  tu 
the  North  of  Ireland,  in  order  to  keep  out  of  the  way  of  the  friends  of 
King  James  II.,  and  about  the  year  169.3,  he  came  to  this  countrj^  laud- 
ing at  Philadelphia,  where  he  remained  for  eome  time.  From  thence  he 
went  to  Donegal  Meeting  House  in  Lancaster  county,  from  there  to  Car- 
lisle, then  to  Shippensburg,  and  finally  in  1737,  he  located  at  the  place 
where  the  buildings  in  our  illustration  now  stand,  He  had  seven  sons. 
William,  the  grandfather  of  Col.  Dixon  was  born  at  this  place,  and  at  the 
age  of  seven  years  he  was  captured  by  the  Indians  and  retained  in  their 

Apyendlx.  281 

custody  for  eleven  weeks,  u  good  part  of  the  Ihue  in  h  cave  ou  au  adjoin- 
ing farm,  now  owned  by  Jacob  Bittner.  Through  the  humanity  of  an  old 
squaw  he  wa3  returned  to  his  parents,  and  because  of  the  kindness  showu 
her  on  different  occasions,  she  warned  the  family  to  leave  for  a  safer  place, 
for  the  Indians,  who  had  gone  away  to  hold  a  great  council,  intended  to 
return  in  two  moons  and  slaughter  all  the  whites.  The  family  took  the 
warning  and  went  back  to  Carlisle,  where  they  remained  tor  about  three 
years.  William  Dixon  was  a  Sergeant  in  Col.  Boquet's  command,  and 
served  to  the  end  of  the  campaign.  He  was  with  Maj.  Dunwoodie  in  the 
massacre,  and  was  one  of  the  three  that  escaped  to  Fort  Loudon.  The 
remainder,  with  the  Muj.,  were  all  killed  and  scalped.  He  also  joined  a 
company,  that  was  raised  in  the  county,  at  the  commencement  ot  the  war 
for  Independence,  and  was  made  ensign  of  his  regiuient,  which  position 
he  retained  until  the  end  of  the  war,  having  declined  frequent  offers  of 
promotion,  preferring  rather  to  have  charge  of  the  colors.  Wm.  Dixon 
had  four  brothers  in  the  army,  one  was  killed  at  the  battle  of  Monmouth, 
one  at  the  battle  of  Brandy  wine,  one  was  killed  by  the  Indians  near  the 
junction  of  the  two  Conococheagues,  and  the  other  one  died  from  the 
effects  of  a  bath  taken  in  the  Yellow-Britches  Creek,  whilst  on  his  way 
home,  from  the  army,  after  his  discharge  at  the  close  of  the  war.  The  wife 
of  Wm.  Dixon  was  isfancy  Dunlap,  an  aunt  of  James  Dunlap,  author  of 
Purdon's  Digest.  Col.  Wm.  Dunlap  Dixon  was  married  to  Martha, 
daughter  of  the  late  Wm.  Gillan  Escj,  in  June  1855.  They  have  two 
children,  one  son  and  one  daughter.  The  upper  half  of  the  place  on  which 
he  resides  came  into  his  possession  as  heir  at  law,  and  the  lower  part  by 
purchase.  He  acquired  his  military  title,  not  in  the  way  that  many  old 
time  militia  men  "had  greatness  thrust  upon  them,"  but  by  actual  and 
faithful  service  and  promotion,  in  the  Gth  Regiment  of  Pa.  lies,  in  the 
great  war  of  the  Rebellion.  His  commission  as  Capt.,  of  Co.  D  bears 
date  April  24th,  18(31.  As  Lieut.  Col.  Sept.  12th,  186-].  Brev.  Col.  and 
Brev.  Brig.  Gen.  Mar.  13th,  1805.  And  he  was  mustered  out  with  his 
Regiment,  June  11th  1804. 


Spring  Dale  Farm  is  pleasantly  located,  about  one  quarter  of  a  mile 
south-east  of  Wavnesboro.  This  farm  is  a  part  of  the  oritrinal  tract  of 
lands  of  Thomas  Wallace,  sold  August  20th,  A.  D.  1828,  to  John  Wallace 
as  by  deed  of  conveyance  made  by  Daniel  Royer,  administrator  of  Thos. 
Wallace,  December  22d,  A.  D.  ISliS,  and  by  John  Wallace  to  John  Clay- 
ton by  deed  of  conveyance  made  April  Gth,  A.  D.  is:j7.  At  the  death 
of  John  Clayton,  taken  by  James  H.  Clayton,  at  the  valuation  and 
appraisment,  as  the  eldest  son  and  heir  at  law,  and  sold  to  George  Besorc 
by  deed  of  conveyance  made  April  Drd,  A.  D.  1855,  and  which  at  the 
death  of  George  Besore,  descended  to  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Dr.  A.  H. 
Strickler,  in  whose  possession  it  still  remains.  This  farm  contains  one 
hundred  and  thirty  acres,  is  of  the  best  quality  of  limestone  land,  is  in  au 
excellent  state  of  cultivation,  and  very  productive.  The  large  brick 
mansion  was  built  by  Mr.  George  Besore,  in  the  year  1850.  He  resided  in 
Waynesboro  and  never  lived  on  the  farm.  This  is  one  of  the  most  attrac- 
tive and  most  desirable  properties  in  Washington  Township,  having  a 
beautiful  spring  of  never  failing  water  close  by  the  dwelling. 


The  Stricklers  of  this  county  are  of  German  or  Switis  descent.  Their 
ancestors  came  across  the  waters  at  a  very  early  period.     The  name  is 

283  A'pi^endix. 

found  in  all  parts  of  Pennsylvania,  in  parts  of  Ohio,  Illinois,  Iowa,  and 
Virginia.  Henry  Strickler  was  the  first  of  the  name  who  located  in 
Franklin  County.  He  came  from  York  County,  near  the  Lancaster 
County  line,  at  Columbia,  in  the  year  1807,  and  settled  near  Greencastle. 
Not  many  years  afterward  all  the  children  (except  David)  of  his  brother 
Joseph,  near  Marietta,  Lancaster  County,  followed  and  settled  in  this 
county.  Their  names  were  Samuel,  Joseph,  Henry,  Benjamin  and  Eliza. 
Henry  afterward  moved  to  Ohio,  Samuel,  Jacob  and  Benjamin  to  Illinois. 
Eliza  remained  here  and  now  resides  in  Mercersburg. 

The  names  of  the  children  of  the  Henry  Strickler  who  first  came  to  this 
county,  were  Martha,  Elizabeth,  Henry,  Joseph,  Barbara,  Susan,  Mary 
and  Sarah.  Martha  never  came  to  the  county.  Babara  went  from  hero 
to  Ohio,  Henry,  Mary  and  Sarah  to  Illinois,  and  Susan  to  Cumberland 
County.  Joseph  resided  near  Greencastle  during  his  lifetime.  Henry 
married  Mary  Price,  near  Waynesboro.  His  children  were  Jacob,  Nancy, 
Susan,  Henry,  Abraham,  Catharine,  Mary,  Hannah  and  Joseph.  All 
these  have  gone  to  Illinois  except  Jacob,  who  lives  near  Chambersburg. 

Joseph  Strickler,  who  lived  near  Greencastle  during  his  lifetime,  mar- 
ried Mary  Snively.  His  children  were  Snively,  Henry,  Joseph  B.,  and 
Abraham  H.  Snively  was  a  lawyer  by  profession,  practiced  law  in 
Chambersburg  for  a  number  of  years,  published  the  leading  Republican 
newspaper  of  the  county,  the  Repository  i^"  Transcript,  (now  the  Ecponi- 
tory)  for  a  short  time.  Afterwards  moved  to  Greencastle,  and  is  now 
deceased.  Henry  graduated  at  Eastman's  Commercial  College,  at  Pougli- 
keepsie,  N.  Y,,  was  a  Sergeant  in  the  126th  Kegiment  Pennsylvania 
Volunteers,  in  the  war  against  the  Ilebellion,  was  severely  wounded  at 
the  battle  of  Fredericksburg,  Va.,  in  December  18G3,  and  was  ejected  and 
served  two  terms  as  Register  and  Recorder  of  Franklin  County.  He  is 
now  Deputy  Collector  of  Internal  Revenue  and  resides  in  Chambersburg. 

Joseph  B.  followed  merchandising  in  Greencastle  for  some  years,  was 
a  let  Lieutenant  in  the  2d  Regiment  Pennsylvania  Volunteers  at  the  com- 
mencement of  the  war  against  the  Rebellion,  moved  to  Nemaha  County', 
Nebraska,  in  1872,  and  is  now  farming. 

Dr.  Abraham  H.  graduated  at  the  College  of  New  Jerscr,  Princeton,  in 
1863,  graduated  at  the  Bellcvue  Hospital  Medical  College,  New  York 
City,  in  1866,  and  now  resides  in  Waynesboro,  prominently  engaged  in 
the  practice  of  medicine. 

Dr.  A.  H.  Strickler  married  Clara  Anna,  only  child  and  daughter  of 
George  and  Eliza  Besore,  of  Waynesboro'.  They  have  one  child,  Harry 
Clark,  now  three  years  old. 

George  Besore,  the  father  of  Mrs.  Strickler.  descend  3d  from  an  old 
Huguenoiic  family.  The  name  was  originaly  La  Basseur.  He  was  born 
in  Washington  Township,  Franklin  County  in  the  year  1799,  and  during 
the  greater  part  of  his  lifetime  resided  in  Waynesboro'.  He  married 
Eliza  Snively,  and  is  now  deceased,  having  died  August  16lh,  1871. 

George  Besore  was  well  known  as  one  of  the  strong  pillars  in  tiie 
Reformed  Church.  Nature  made  him  a  man  , Grace,  a  Christian  Disciple. 
He  was  a  ruling  elder  in  the  Church,  an  ofllce  which  he  lield  for 
upwards  of  forty  years.  As  a  public  man  ho  was  well  known  in  the 
Eastern  Synod  of  the  Reformed  Church  in  llie  United  States.  He  heltl 
during  his  lifetimeivarious  positions  of  trust  in  the  Church,  and  had  frequent 
overtures  to  accept  political  honors,  to  which  he  never  consented.  Wilh 
his  brotlier  Jacob,  of  blesp.ed  memory,  who  died  in  Baltimore  many  years 
ago,  and  Daniel  Crouse,  George  Harbaugh,  Sr.,  and  a  few  others,  he  first 
moved  in  the  building  of  a  Reformed  Church  in  Waynesboro.  This  was 
a  log  structure  and   was  erected    oa   the   site   of    the  present  church, 

Appendix.  283 

and  was  consecrated  May  20th,  1827.  It  gave  place  to  a  brick 
building,  which  was  dedicated  to  the  worship  of  God  June  21st,  1 8o4,  and 
was  subsequently  enlarged  to  meet  the  wants  of  the  congregation.  In 
1871  the  old  brick  church  was  torn  down  and  the  present  stately  edifice 
erected  in  its  stead.  The  ceremony  of  consecration  was  performed  Dec. 
24lh,  1871.  Thus  did  Elder  Besore,  for  the  third  time,  render  efficient 
aid  in  building,  enlarging  and  rebuilding  the  house  of  God.  He  was 
prominent  in  "the  organization  of  the  tirst  Sunday  School  in  the  town, 
which  occurred  on  the  10th,  day  of  August,  1S34.  Of  this  school  he  was 
superintendent  during  its  entire  existence,  within  his  lifetime,  with  the 
exception  of  an  interval  of  a  few  years.  The  following  is  from  his  own 
pen.  "The  school  had  been  started  upon  Union  principles,  teachers  and 
scholars  were  received  into  the  schooi  from  all  denominations  of  Chris- 
tians. The  schooi  was  however  all  the  time  under  German  Reformed 
influence,  and  principally  made  up  of  German  Reformed  material.  In  the 
course  of  live  years  from  its  commencement  the  Lutheran  members  with- 
drew and  organized  a  Lutheran  School,  a  few  years  later  the  Methodists 
withdrew  and  formed  a  Methodist  School,  and  several  years  afterward 
the  Presbyterians  also  withdrew  and  organized  a  Presbyterian  School." 
From  this  original  school  have  gone  forth  some  fifteen  or  more  ministers 
of  the  gospel.  Among  these  we  can  now  recall  the  following:  Revs. 
Henry  Harbaugh,  D.  D.,  Samuel  Gans,  D.  D.,  G.  B.  Russell,  D.  D.,  C. 
C.  Russell,  Joseph  11.  Johnston,  A.  C.  Whitmer,  Geo.  H.  Johnston  and 
S.  S.  Miller.     Besides  these  there  arc  several  m  other  denominations. 

Elder  Besore  was  in  a  certain  sense  proud  of  his  school.  In  the  erec- 
tion of  the  Theological  Seminary  at  Mercersburg,  he  served  on  the  build- 
ing committee.  He  was  long  a  meraber  of  tlie  board  of  trustees  of  the 
Seminary,  of  the  board  of  visitors,  and  Treasurer  of  the  Seminary  funds, 
also  a  member  of  the  board  of  trustees  of  the  College  at  Mercersburg, 
and  afterwards  at  Lancaster.  He  was  a  staunch  friend  of  the  Reformed 
Church  printing  eslablishnicut  in  its  years  of  embarrassment.  He  was 
fre(iuenlly  a  delegate  to  represent  the  charge  in  the  Classis,  and  from 
Classis  to  the  Synod,  in  Avhich  capacity  he  served  on  many  prominent 
committees,  and  took  an  active  part  in  some  of  the  most  important  debates 
before  the  Church. 


This  very  elegant  and  productive  farm,  well  meriting  the  name  by 
which  it  is  l^nowu,  is  located  in  Guilford  Township,  seven  miles  south- 
east of  Chambcrsburg  and  within  convenient  distance  to  Fayetteville 
station  on  the  Mont  Alto  R.  R.  Its  original  owner  was  a  member  of  the 
great  Smith  family  but  not  the  ubiquitous  John.  His  name  was  Henry 
and  the  precise  time  at  which  he  located  this  tract  is  unknown.  But  on 
llie  lOlh  day  of  June  in  the  year  1762  it  was  purchased  by  John  Cowden 
and  was  disposed  of  by  his  executors,  John  Andrews  and  John  Reynolds, 
to  John  and  IMarlin  VVingert.  At  that  time  it  contained  4G1  acres  and 
was  by  them  divided,  Martin  taking  the  unper  tract  and  .John  the  lower. 
Martin's  portion  at  that  time  received  the  name  of  "Farmers  Hope" 
whilst  the  original  name,  "Farmer's  Delight,"  was  retained  by  John. 
This  portion  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  heirs  of  its  owner  about  the 
year  1812  and  was  again  divided  between  John  Jr.  and  his  brother 
Jacob.  John  acciuiiing  tlic  southern  portion  and  Jacob  the  northern  each 
liaviiig  loO  acres.  In  the  year  J 842,  by  the  last  will  and  testament  of 
John  Wingert,  John  Sollenberger,  his  son-in-law,  came  into  possepsiou 
of  f-.e  property  and  he  retained  it  until  18GJ  when  it  became  the  property 

384  Appendi.c. 

of  his  sou,  the  geulleman,  who  so  successfully  couducls  its  management, 
in  all  of  its  details.  The  buildings  which  consisted  of  a  log  house  30  by 
'do  feet,  and  a  bank  barn  90  by  40  feet  built  of  stone  and  brick,  were 
erected  in  the  year  1814  by  John  Wingert.  The  barn  which  is  in  an  ex- 
cellent state  of  preservation,  is  the  one  represented  in  our  sketch.  The 
house  was  however  remodled  by  its  present  owner  in  1863.  As  it  now 
stands  it  is  of  brick  50  by  30  feet  2^t  stories  high  and  contains  all  the 
modern  convenlerrces  that  add  so  much  to  the  comfort  of  a  country  home. 
The  barn  although  very  capacious  does  not  meet  the  requirements  of  this 
very  productive  place,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  20  acres  are  still 
covered  with  a  fine  growth  of  first  class  timber.  The  farm  land  which  is 
roUing,  every  foot  of  which  can  be  put  to  good  use,  is  of  a  heavy  lime- 
stone cnaracter,  and  as  the  thrift  of  Mr.  S.  has  fully  proven,  is  well 
adapted  to  the  cultivation  of  every  variety  of  grain  and  the  successful 
rearing  of  stock  of  all  kinds.  By  means  of  a  Stover  .Wind  Engine,  his 
fine  herd  of  cattle,  as  well  as  his  noble  looking  farm  houses,  are  supplied 
witu  the  purest  of  water,  from  a  never  failing  well,  w^hich  is  conveyed  by 
means  of  pipes  to  proper  receptacles  at  the  barn.  The  enclosures  of  the 
fertile  fields  on  this  place  are  first  class,  consisting  of  fences  of  locust 
posts  and  chestnut  rails,  as  well  as  living  fences  of  osage  orange,  which, 
with  Mr.  S.  has  been  a  decided  success.  To  give  an  idea  of  the  capacity 
of  this  valuable  homestead,  we  will  state  that  it  has  produced,  in  one  year 
as  much  as  loOO  bushels  of  wheat,  3000  bushels  of  corn  in  the  ear,  80  tons 
of  hay  and  150  bushels  of  potatoes.  The  oroduct  of  his  dairy,  Avhich  is 
supplied  by  8  or  10  fine  short  horned  cows  is  very  large,  and  the  butter, 
which  is  of  first  quality,  is  sent  direct  to  Washington  D.  C.  where  it  com- 
mands the  highest  price  in  the  market.  The  orchard  is  supplied  by  500 
bearing  apple  trees,  150  choice  pear  trees  and  the  vineyard  contains  300 
vines  of  the  finest  varieties  of  grapes.  Of  small  fruits  he  has  a  profusion, 
llis  apiary  consists  of  betwee'n  40  and  50  skeps  of  pure  bred  Italian  bees, 
and  its  yield  in  one  year  has  been  as  high  as  GOO  lbs  of  honey.  Mr.  B. 
married  Lizzie  a  daughter  of  JacobDeardofi'in  the  year  18G2  and  if  homo 
surroundings,  together  with  the  means  to  perfect  them,  are  all  that  are 
required  to  make  people  happy,  certainly  the  occupants  of  this  home 
should  be  content. 


The  house  represented  in  our  sketch  was  built  by  Mr.  J.  J.  Ervinin  1852 
and  was  occupied  by  Mr.  Hoover  in  Oct.  186G,  at  which  time  it  was  owned 
by  Mrs.  Margaret  Kreps.  Jan.  1871  it  was  purchased  by  its  present 
owner  who  put  it  in  complete  repair  in  1873.  Daniel  Hoover  born  Oct. 
19th,  1833,  is  a  son  of  David  and  Elizabeth  Hoover  who  still  reside  in 
district  No.  9  in  Washington  Co.  Md.,  about  two  miles  from  Lcitersburg, 
on  a  farm  purchased  by  them  48  or  50  years  ago.  Ilia  grandfather's 
name  was  Christian  Hoover.  David  H.  father  of  Daniel  was  born  in  the 
year  179G  near  Graceham,  Frederick  County  Md.  and  is  the  only  surviv- 
ing member  of  his  family,  being  nearly  82  years  old.  Ilis  wife  Elizabctli, 
a  daughter  of  David  Zentmyer,  was  born  in  1803  near  Harbaugh's  church 
on  Mason's  &  Dixon's  line  at  the  loot  of  the  South  Mountain — wcstside — 
where  her  father  had  l»etn  engaged  in  farming  for  many  years.  She  has 
a  brother  and  sister,  Jacob  and  Barbara,  still  living  near  the  old  home, 
and  one  brother  John,  living  near  Huntingdon,  Pa.  At  the  age  of  22 
years  Daniel  Hoover  left  the  parental  roof  and  started  out  in  life  for  him- 
self. The  Geiser  Seimrator  was,  at  that  time,  in  its  infancy,  aud  the  origin- 
al inventor,  Peter  Geiser  having  married  Mary,  sister  of  Mr.  H.  he  look  an 

Appendu'.  285 

interest  iu  the  new  machine  and  bought  one  of  the  first  that  were  sold,  it 
having  been  built  at  Smithsburg  Md.  by  Wm.  Frankinberry.  He  took  it 
to  Middletown  Md.  and  engaged  in  threshing  during  the  season  of  1856. 
After  that  he  engaged  in  different  pursuits,  sometimes  working  on  the 
farm,  traveling  in  the  interest  of  the  Geiser  machine  as  agent,  and  again 
following  threshing  until  18(30  at  which  time  he  was  married,  and  became 
a  member  of  the  firm  of  Geiser,  Price  &  Co.  as  a  silent  partner  and  was 
employed  as  traveling  agent.  In  January  18G8  he  bought  one  half  of  J, 
F.  Oiler's  interest  in  the  firm  and  in  Jan.  18G9  they  secured  a  charter  and 
became  an  incorporated  organization.  From  which  time  until  Oct.  1870 
he  was  engaged'  as  traveling  agent.  From  that  time  until  1874  he  occu- 
pied various  important  and  responsible  positions  in  the  company. 
Since  then,  with  the  exception  of  1875  he  has  been  traveling  in  the  inter- 
est of  the  Company. 


The  parcel  of  ground  consistmg  of  1  j  acres,  upon  which  these  con 
venient  buildings  are  erected  is  located  in  St.  Thomas  Township  along  the 
S.  r.  R.  R.  about  six  miles  from  Mercersburg,  six  from  Qreencastle  and 
ten  from  Chambersburg.  It  was  purchased  from  S.  L.  Ilawbecker  Esq., 
and  the  store  house  which  is  of  stone  two  stories  high,  30  by  60  feet,  and 
the  brick  dwelling,  also  two  stories  high,  with  a  basement,  16  by  32  feet, 
were  built  m  the  j'ear  1871.  The  business  of  general  merchandising  was 
commenced  Jan.  1st.  1873.  A  Postoflice  was  established  at  his  place 
Sept.  1872.  Mr.  H.  who  was  not  a  novice,  having,  prior  to  this,  success- 
lully  conducted  business  at  Uagerstown  Sid.  has  fully  initiated  himself 
into  the  confidence  of  the  community,  and  the  prosperous  trade  which  he 
is  enjoying  is  a  sure  guarantee  of  future  prosperity. 


Asbury  G.  Blair,  the  proprietor  of  the  first  steam  printing  press  in 
Waynesboro,  Franklin  County,  Pa.,  is  the  eldest  son  of  William  Blair, 
Esq.,  editor  and  publisher  of  the  Village  llecord. 

In  187-1  he  commenced  the  book  and  job  printing  business,  which 
increased  to  such  an  extent  as  to  require  the  use  of  steam.  His  facilities 
are  first-class  for  commercial  and  pamphlet  printing  on  lowest  terms.  He 
is  established  in  a  town  where  each  business  man  seems  to  vie  with  his 
neighbor  in  placing  Waynesboro  at  the  head  of  the  list  for  enterprise  in 
the  County. 


Prior  to  the  year  1705  the  m*  mbers  of  the  Lutheran  Church  of  this 
town  had  no  place  which  they  could  call  their  own,  but  in  connection 
with  the  German  Reformed  congregation  used  a  union  structure  called 
the  "Old  Log  church,"  which  stood  upon  the  present  burying  ground  of 
the  latter  denomination  and  was  the  first  house  of  worship  erected  iu  the 
place.  The  corner  stone  of  the  first  Lutheran  church  was  laid,  with 
appropriate  ceremonies,  on  the  l;Jlh  day  of  Sept.  1793  as  is  stated  iu  a 
copy  of  paper  deposited  in  the  stone,  whicii  document  also  gives  the  fol- 
lowing names  of  tlie  earlier  members.  Nye,  Bayer,  Saylor,  Bashore, 
Hoefiich,  Gerard,  Hocblerder,  Simon,  Bruudliuger,  Zimmerman,  Schaff- 

38G  ApperuU.r. 

ner,  Klapsaddle,  Wagucr,  Feifer  and  Manu.  The  building  was  not 
finished  until  1705  when  Rev.  John  Ruthrauff  took  charge  and  served  the 
congregation  as  pastor,  for  forty  years,  preaching  and  conducting  ser- 
vice in  the  German  language.  The  fi»st  English  pastor,  Rev.  John  Beck 
was  installed  in  1834  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Jer.  Harpel  in  lS3o. 
During  his  ministry,  that  is  in  1837,  the  church  building  was  enlarged. 
Pastors  succeeded  in  the  following  order  ;  Rev.  Jacob  Martin  1830  ;  Rev. 
Peter  Sahn  D.  D.  1840  ;  Rev.  Michael  Eyster  1845  ;  Rev.  Christian  F, 
Kunkle  served  as  supply  during  part  of  1850,  when  Rev.  James  M.  Ilar- 
kcy  was  duly  installed  as  pastor.  lie  was  followed  by  Rev  Edward 
Breidenbaugh  in  1853  whose  terra  of  service  was  lengthened  out  to  13 
years.  Following  him  in  18G5  Rev.  Prof.  Wm.  F.  Eyster  ;  1869.  Rev. 
T.  T.  Everett,  and  in  1872  Rev.  Frederick  Klinefelter,  the  present  in- 
cumbent was  installed.  In  Aug.  1874  the  congregation  resolved  to  erect 
a  new  church  edifice  upon  the  site  of  the  old  one.  The  plans  were  drawn 
by  Mr.  S.  D.  Button  architect,  of  Philadelphia  and  tlie  contract  was 
awarded  to  Messsr.  F.  &  J.  Waidlich  of  Mercersburg.  The  lot  is  218  by 
7G  feet,  the  building  of  brick,  its  length  including  tower  and  recess  85  feet. 
The  spire  is  136  feet  high  and  is  covered  with  slate  as  is  also  the  roof. 
The  last  service  in  the  old  church  was  held  on  the  14th  day  of  March 
1875,  and  the  first  in  the  new  lecture  room  was  Feb.  Gth  187G.  The  corner 
stone  having  been  laid  June  loth  1875. 


This  elegant  and  two  a  half  story  brick  house,  constructed  with  all  the 
modern  improvemens,  26  by  48  feet,  with  a  wing,  having  a  porch  its 
entire  length,  is  situated  on  the  south  side  of  West  Main  street.  It  was 
built  by  Rev.  G.  W.  Glessner,  a  German  Reformed  Minister,  who 
sold  it  to  the  late  Alexander  Hamilton.  It  was  purchased  by  Rev.  Oiler 
in  1870,  and  by  him  it  was  remodled.  The  lot  on  which  it  stands  is  272 
by  200  feet,  and  has  a  two  acre  field  in  the  rear  containing  a  thrifty  apple 
and  peach  orchard.  There  is  also  a  very  fine  stable  on  the  property. 
Rev.  J.  F.  Oiler  was  born  Jan,  18th,  1825,  near  Waynesboro.  His  father, 
Joseph  Oiler,  who  was  of  the  Catholic  faith,  was  born  Jan.  13th,  1704. 
His  "mother,  Rebecca  Oiler,  daughter  of  David  Stoner,  of  Washington 
Township,  was  born  March  22d,  1803.  Mr.  J.  F.  Oiler  was  reared  on  a 
farm,  butjat  the  age  of  20  years  he  engaged  in  school  teaching,  and  after- 
wards, associated  with  Mr.  Philips,  under  the  firm  name  of  Philips  it 
Oiler,  he  embarked  in  the  dry  goods  business  iji  which  he  continued  until 
1852,  when  he  left  Waynesboro  and  located  on  a  farm  near  Chambersburg, 
where  he  lived  for  six  years,  during  which  time  he  was  elected,  in  185G, 
to  the  ministery  in  the  German  Baptist  Church.  After  his  election  his 
mother  was  also  received  into  membership  in  the  same  church.  During 
his  residence  on  this  farm  he  lost  his  house  with  its  contents  by  fire,  after 
which  he  took  up  his  abode  near  "Hopewell  Mills"  in  Washington  Town- 
ship, where  he  continued  the  pursuit  of  agriculture.  He  afterwards  sold 
his  farm  and  moved  to  his  fathers,  and  purchased  a  part  of  his,  and  con- 
tinued larming  until  ISGl,  when  he  moved  to  the  village  of  Quincy,  and 
bought  the  Eckraan  homestead  and  continued  merchandizing  with  farming 
until  the  fall  of  18GG,  when  he,  together  with  Daniel  Geiser,  J.  Fahrney 
and  Beu.j.  E.  Price,  bought  the  establishment  now  known  as  Geiser  Man- 
ufacturing Companys  works,  the  style  of  the  firm  being  Geiser,  Price  & 
Co.  He  acted  as  finaucial  manager  until  the  Geiser  Manufacturing  Com- 
pany was  organized  in  Jan.  ISGO,  in  which  he  has  held  important  and 
respoubiblo  positions.     Mr.  Oiler  is  one  of  the  successful  lueuof  Waynes- 


WA  Y 




ApjiendLv.  287 

boro,  always  favoring;  improvements  and  aJl  that  pertains  to  the  general 
good  of  the  people.  Liberal  as  well  as  enterprising,  lie  is  one  of  those 
who  remember  that  it  is  more  blessed  to  give  than  to  receive.  He  was 
married  July  22d,  1S48,  to  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Jacob  Bonebreak,  near 
^yaynesboro.  Their  family  consits  of  seven  children,  three  sons  and 
four  daughters,  viz:  Joseph  J.,  Jesse  I\.,  John  B.,  Rel)ecca  A.,  Sudie  E. 
Annie  G.,  and  Mary  B, 


This  attractive  and  very  convenient  residence  was  built  by  its  present 
owner  in  the  year  1808.  It  is  3  stories  high,  constructed  of  brick,  has  a 
tower  attached  to  it,  and  for  artistic  finish  and  everything  that  goes  to 
make  up  the  comfort  of  a  home  is  seldom  surpassed.  It  is  located  on 
the  west  side  of  Church  street,  nearly  opposite  the  Lutheran  church.  The 
dimensions  of  this  house  are  58  by  3o  feet,  it  is  covered  with  tin  and  is 
provided  with  two  cisterns,  so  as  to  preserve  the  winter  water  for  sum- 
mer use.  There  is  also  a  fine  stable  erected  on  the  rear  of  the  lot.  Daniel 
Geiser  was  elected  President  of  the  Geiser  Manufacturing  Co.  at  the  time 
of  its  organization  in  1809  and  has  continued  to  hold  the  position,  as  well 
as  that  of  general  business  manager,  ever  since.  He  is  a  man  of  remark- 
able energy,  and  his  name  is  destined  to  live,  in  connection  with  the  in- 
valuable grain  separator,  which  his  company  manufactures,  for  ages  to 
come.  He  was  born  March  11th  1824  near  Smithburg  Md.  and  was  en. 
gaged  in  farming  for  some  years,  on  a  place  adjoining  the  one  on  which 
he  had  been  born,  prior  to  1800,  when  he  came  to  Waynesboro  and  en- 
tered the  employment  of  George  Frick  who  was  then  engaged  in  building 
the  famous  Geiser  Separator.  In  18GG  he  became  one  of  the  firm  of 
Geiser,  Price  &  Co.  who  procured  a  charter  in  1809  and  acquired  the 
corporate  title  of  the  Geiser  Manufacturing  Company.  Mr.  G.  was  mar- 
ried Nov.  24:th  1848  to  Anna,  daughter  of  John  Newcomer  of  Washington 
Co.  Md.  She  died  April  4th  1801  leaving  one  child  named  Mary 
Catherine.  On  Oct.  30th  1854  Mr.  Geiser  remarried,- his  second  wife 
Nancy,  being  a  daughter  of  David  Hoover  of  Washington  Co.  Md.  and  was 
born  March  5th  1827.  Three  children  are  the  result  of  this  union  viz. 
Chancy  D.,  Clara  E.,  and  Norris  D.  John  Geiser,  father  of  Daniel,  was 
born  Nov.  2d  1784  in  Washington  Co,  Md.  He  married  Mary  Singer  who 
v/as  born  July  12th  1792.  They  are  both  dead,  but  have  left  a  large  family. 
The  names  of  their  children  were  as  follows,  David,  who  died  when 
quite  young,  Susie,  now  deceased,  Joha,  Mary,  these  two  are  also  dead, 
Catherine,  Daniel,  Peter,  Martin,  Elizabeth  deceased,  David,  Pamuel, 
Nancy  and  Sarah. 

Peter  Geiser,  who  was  the  original  inventor  of  the  Separator  and  whose 
elegant  residence  is  portrayed  in  connection  with  that  of  his  brother,  a 
two  storied  mansion  with  finished  attic,  is  situated  on  "Geiser  HIU"  over- 
looking the  town.  Its  dimensions  are  34  by  34  feet.  There  is  also  a 
summer  house  22  by  17  feet,  attached  to  the  rear.  The  conveniences  as 
far  as  water  supply  to  this  house  are  only  equaled  by  those  who  have 
the  advantage  of  public  water  works.  Two  cisterns,  situated  in  the 
rear  of  the  dwelling  and  above  the  ievel  of  the  ground  floor  furnish  a 
bountiful  profusion  of  water,  and  by  their  peculiar  connection  through 
two  filters,  one  of  sand  and  the  other  of  charcoal  and  sand,  the  impurities, 
that  accidentally  contaminate  the  water  as  it  falls  from  the  clouds,  are 
removed.  The  water  can  be  stopped  off  in  cistern  No.  1  and  by  that  means 
the  winter  water  is  kept  in  No.  2  free  from  the  summer  heat.  Peter 
Geiser  inventor!  the  self  regulators  for  which  are  used  on  the  grain  sepera- 

2^8  Appendix. 

tor,  now  known  as  the  "Geiser  Grain  Separator,  Cleaner  and  Bagger." 
Improvements  have  lieen  made  from  time  to  time,  liy  Peter  and  Daniel 
Geiser  and  patents  have  been  obtained  on  llie  same.  Peter  Geiser  was  born 
March  0th  1820.  He  was  married  to  Marv,  daughter  of  David  Hoover  of 
Washington  Co.  Md.  April  20th  1^5,-..  'She  was  born  April  ist  1835. 
Their  cbildren  eleven  in  number  are  named  as  follow.  John  A.,  Wm.  D., 
Jas.  P.,  Dixon  H.,  Libbie  A.,  D.  Singer,  Joseph  F.,  M.  Mintie,  Harry  E., 
Elvin  T.,  and  Elsie  A.  K. 


Near  the  Maryland  line, about  one  and  a  half  miles  south-east  of  Waynes- 
boro, is  a  very  considerable  cave,  and,  among  the  many,  which  abound 
in  this  portion  of  the  county,  this  is  probably  the  most  extensive.  This 
cave  lies  at  the  northern  extremity  of  a  high  ridge,  running  north-east  by 
south-west.  The  entrance  is  at  the  base  of  the  ridge,  and  leads  in  a 
southerly  direction,  being  not  exactly  parallel,  with  the  course  of  the  hill 
itself.  The  entrance  of  the  cave  is  only  large  enough  for  two  persons 
to  walk  in  at  once,  by  stooping  a  little.  On  passing  through  the  entrance 
an  apparent  vestibule,  of  say  thirty  feet  in  diameter,  and  fifteen  to  eighteen 
feet  high  is  reached.  Then  ascending  a  few  steps  juut  opposite  the  en- 
trance, a  defile  averaging  about  four  feet  wide,  and  seven  to  nine  feet 
high,  extends  to  a  distance  of  about  one  hundred  yards,  to  a  clear  and 
beautiful  stream  of  water,  gushing  up  from  beneath  the  wall  of  rocky 
formations,  on  the  east  side  of  the  passage.  This  stream  then  lakes  the 
regular  course  of  the  cave,  which  seemingly  becomes  narrower,  and  the 
water  shows  considerable  depth. 

Crossing  this  subterraneous  stream,  and  clambering  up  a  short  distance 
a  small  room  is  found  very  interesting  and  beautiful,  being  ornamented 
with  innumerable  crystal  formations — stalactites  and  stalagmites  which 
sparkle  profusely,  when  illuminated  by  the  light  of  torches,  or  candles. 
Just  over  this  little  room  there  is  an  opening,  into  another  passage,  similar 
to  the  first,  already  described,  leading  to  a  distance  of  perhaps  one  hun- 
dred and  thirty  yards,  when  it  becomes  so  narrow  as  to  render  further  ex- 
ploration impossible.  The  cave,  from  beginning  to  end,  is  one  of  much 
interest.     It  is  commonly  known  as  "Needy's  Cave." 

There  is  also  a  very  remarkable  series  of  underground  passages,  or 
miniature  caves,  under  certain  portions  of  the  town  of  Waynesboro.  The 
entrances,  into  these  caves,  are  through  arches  in  the  foundation  walls  of  a 
number  of  houses,  of  West  Main  Street,  the  south  side.  These  arched 
entrances  are  used  in  summer,  as  refrigerators,  being  made  very  cool  by  a 
constant  current  of  air  from  the  caves.  The  best  entrances  are  in  the  cel- 
lars of  Dr.  J.  N.  Snively  and  Mrs.  Sarah  Brotherton. 

Strange  to  say,  these  passages  well  represent  the  streets  of  a  town,  lead- 
ing in  numerous  directions,  and  often  crossing  each  other  at  right  angles, 
thus  enabling  visitors  to  start,  at  a  given  point,  and  proceeding  around 
again  return  to  the  place  of  starting.     This  is  done  frequently. 


This  fine  place,  of  91  acres,  is  located  on  the  Antietam  creek,  two  miles 
east  of  Waynesboro,  ad)oining  lands  of  Henry  Bonebreak,  father  of  Dan- 
iel, John  M,  Hess,  J.  Frantz,  and  others.  Its  nearest  railroad  station  is, 
on  the  South  mountain,  about  3  miles  distant.  The  land  was  first  owned  by 
Henry  Thomas,  from  whom  it  passed  to  Philip  Reed.    It  was  purchased 

Appendii' .  289 

from  liim  by  Zachariah  AUbaugb,  and,  in  ISIO,  it  was  deeded  by  Allbaugh 
to  Conrad  Bonebreak,  grandfather  of  its  present  owner.  In  1848  it  was 
sold  by  the  heirs  of  C'onrad  iionebreak  to  Henry,  one  of  his  sons,  and 
father  cf  Daniel,  who  in  1801  disposed  of  it  to  his  son  Daniel.  The  first 
buildings  were  erected  by  Zachariah  Allbaugh,  These,  wliich  consisted 
of  a  log  house,  part  of  which  was  two  stories  high,  the  balance  one  story, 
rough  cast,  and  a  small  stone  bank  barn,  remained  until  the  years  1850  and 
1800,  when  tliey  were  removed  by  Henry  Bonebreak,  to  give  place  to  the 
present  fine  structures.  The  house,  which  is  built  of  brick,  with  a  slate 
roof,  is  :10  by  50  feet,  and  was  erected  in  1859.  The  barn  50  by  9G  feet, 
also  of  brick,  with  slate  roof,  was  built  in  1800.  The  average  yield  of  the 
farm,  is  about  35  bushels  wheat,  and  50  of  shelled  corn,  to  the  acre.  It 
has  a  fine  orchard  of  young  apple  trees.  It  has  been  well  cared  for  in 
the  way  of  liming,  the  erection  of  necessary  outbuildings,  fencing,  and 
general  repairs  to  property.  Conrad  Bonebreak  was  born  Feb.  24th 
1708,  and  died  Nov.  11th,  1844,  Ilis  wife  Mary  Thomas  was  born  Feb. 
0th  1704  and  died  July  20th,  1835,  Henry  Bonebreak  was  born  July  19th 
1798,  and  was  married  in  Nov,  1829,  to  Anna,  daughter  of  Wm,  Stewart, 
she  was  born  in  1804,  and  died  Aug.  1803.  They  had  8  children,  viz:  Lydia, 
Daniel,  Catherine,  Nancy,  Henry,  Julia  A,  Jacob,  and  Susanna.  Daniel 
Bonebreak  was  born  Nov.  29th,  1832.  He  was  married  in  the  fall  of  1857, 
to  Barbara  A.  Senger,  who  was  born  Jan.  25th,  1838.  They  have  three 
children,  viz :  Ida  A,  Edwin  H.  and  Alice.  The  property  of  Henry  Bone- 
l)reak  Sr.  was  taken  up  by  James  McLanahan,  in  1733,  after  which  it  went 
into  the  possession  of  Henry  Thomas,  from  whom  it  was  purchased  by 
Conrad  Bonebreak,  in  1803,  and  is  still  in  the  Bonebreak  family  belonging 
now  to  Henry  B.  It  consists  of  24  acres.  The  house,  which  is  a  large 
and  fine  one,  is  built  of  stone,  the  barn  is  constructed  of  stone,  and  they 
were  both  erected  by  Conrad  Bonebreak,  There  is  also  a  good  saw  mill 
and  water  power  on  this  place. 


This  properly  is  located  on  the  west  Conococheague  Creek,  in  Mont- 
gomery Township,  midway  between  INEercersburg and  Upton,  three  miles 
irom  either  place,  both  of  which  are  provided  with  a  PostofBce.  The  near- 
est railroad  station  is  Mercersburg.  The  land  upon  which  these  buildings 
are  erected,  was  taken  up,  at  a  very  early  date,  by  a  man  named  Sheffer. 
By  whom  the  power  was  first  utilized,  or  by  whom  the  first  mill  was 
built,  is  unknown,  but  it  is  presumed  to  have  been  Shefier.  In  1825  the 
mills  were  owned  by  William  Brown,  who  disposed  of  them  in  1820  to 
James  Reynolds,  in  whose  possession  they  remained  for  a  number  of 
years,  and  at  his  death  he  bequeathed  the  same  to  his  nephew,  the  Rev. 
Proctor.  In  1859  Mr.  Proctor  disposed  of  the  property  to  Edward  Hayes, 
who  removed  the  old  dwelling  and  built  the  present  one  in  1865.  Hayes 
sold  to  Frederick  Foreman  who  rebuilt  the  mill,  and  added  a  story  to  it, 
in  1875.  The  Messrs  Speck  purchased  fromForeman  in  1870,  remodelling 
the  house  and  erecting  the  back  building.  The  main  structure,  which 
is  of  frame,  is  30  by  33  feet,  and  there  are  15  acres  of  land  belonging  to  the 
property.  The  mills  manufacture  a  good  grade  of  extra  and  family  flour, 
most  of  which  is  shipped  to  the  eastern  markets.  They  have  a  capacity 
of  SO  barrels  per  34  hours,  are  driven  by  two  five  foot  metal  turbine 
wheels,  under  a  head  of  8j  feet  head  and  full,  and  give  employment  to 
from  3  to  4  hands. 

290  Appendu. 


This  farm  and  residence  is  located  in  the  north-eaotern  part  of  Peters 
Township,  eleven  miles  south-west  of  Chambersbnrg,  five  miles  east  ol 
Mercersburg,  and  one  and  a  quarter  miles  from  Williamson  Mills  and 
Po&tofllce.  The  S.  P.  K.  K.  runsthrough  Uiis  place  giving  it  a  Hag  station. 
The  buildings  are  situated  on  a  commanding  eminence,  and  althougli  in 
the  country,  with  constant  communication  with  the  outside  world,  no 
more  desirable  home  need  be  wished  for.  This  land  wr.s  held  by  two 
warrants,  the  first  bears  date  December  3d,  A.  D.  174:5,  in  favor  of  James 
Glenn,  and  the  second  April  2d,  A.  D.  1787,  in  favor  of  Thomas  Wason, 
who  died  in  1803,  but  tiie  land  was  held  by  his  heirs,  until  April  1st,  A, 
D.  1813,  when  it  was  sold  to  Stephen  Kieft'er,  by  Arciiibald  Bard,  Esq., 
and  John  Wason,  executors  of  the  last  will  and  testament  of  Thomas 
Wason,  dec'd.  Stephen  Kietfer  died  July  2Gth,  A.  D.  184G,  and  the  farm 
was  held  by  his  lieirs  until  April  1st,  A.  D.  185o,  when  it  was  bought  by 
Abraham,  one  of  his  sons,  and  is  still  owned  by  him.  The  first  building 
was  a  cabin,  built  in  1787  by  Thos.  Wason,  tliis  was  removed  by  his  lieirs 
in  1810  and  the  present  stone  house  30  by  50  feet,  whicli  was  commenced 
in  1809  was  finished  in  1811.  The  log  barn  which  was  built  by  Thos. 
Wason  in  1788,  was  destroyed  by  lightning  on  the  13th  day  of  July,  1829, 
and  the  present  stone  bank  barn  45  by  90  feet  was  built  by  Stephen  Kielier 
in  1830,  who  also,  in  1833,  made  a  frame  addition  to  the  house.  The  out 
Imildings  which  were  erected  at  different  times  nre  in  good  repair.  The 
farm  contains  350  acres,  50  of  which  are  well  covered  with  timber,  viz: 
hickory,  white  and  black  oak  and  locust.  The  soil  is  limestone  and  slate, 
well  adapted  to  grain  or  stock  raising.  It  is  well  supplied  with  water, 
and  possesses  an  abundance  of  undeveloped  iron  ore.  The  highest  pro- 
duct of  the  farm  in  one  year  was  1,GG5  bushels  of  wheat,  1,400  bushels  of 
oats,  1,500  bushels  of  corn  and  75  tons  of  hay.  The  lowest  product  was 
87G  bushels  of  wheat,  305  bushels  of  oats,  800  bushels  of  corn  and  30  tons 
of  hay.  There  are  two  good  orchards  in  full  bearing  condition  on  this 
farm.  Jacob  Ivieffer,  the  paternal  grandfather  of  Mr.  K.  was  a  native  of 
Germany,  and  came  to  this  country  in  1740  and  located  in  Berks  County, 
ten  miles  from  the  city  of  Reading,  in  Maiden  Creek  Valley.  He  was 
married  to  Susan  Barnitt,  and  raised  a  family  of  four  sons  and  one 
daughter,  viz :  Abraham,  Jacob,  Stephen,  Daniel  and  Susan.  Stephen 
was  born  Oct.  21st,  177G,  and  micrated  to  this  county  about  the  year  1807- 
lie  married  his  second  cousin.  Miss  M.  M.,  daughter  of  Abraham  Kieifer, 
who  had  settled  in  this  county  about  the  year  1790,  but  was  born  and 
raised  near  Womelsdorf  in  the  Lebanon  Valley.  He  was  married  to  a 
Miss  Beaver.  The  father  and  maternal  grandfather  of  the  present  Abraham 
KiefFer  were  pioneer  wagoners  on  the  route  between  Philadelphia  and 
Pittsburg,  and  the  latter,"  with  his  team,  was  prested  into  the  British 
service,  but  made  good  his  escape.  He  also  fought  for  the  independence 
of  his  country.  He  died  at  the  advanced  age  of  90  years  and  some  months, 
having  served  for  many  years  as  ruling  elder  of  the  German  Reformed 
Church,  of  which  he  was  a  prominent  and  exemplary  member.  Stephen 
Kieffer  died  July  3Gth,  184G,  at  the  age  of  G9  years  and  several  months, 
and  his  wife,  who  was  ten  years  his  junior,  died  at  the  age  of  75  years. 
They  were  both  consistent  members  of  the  German  Reformed  Church, 
Mr.  K.  having  served  as  ruling  elder  for  many  years.  The  present 
Abraham  Kieffer  married  Frances  A.  R.,  daughter  of  Jacob  Hassler,  late 
of  Mercersburg,  on  the  17th  of  March,  A.  D.  1844.  They  have  five 
children  now  living,  one   son  and  four  daughters.     Two  sons  dead,  the 

Appendix.  S9i 

rirat  and  third  born.  Among  the  pioneer  settlers,  of  this  neighborhood, 
we  note  the  Sloans,  the  husband  killed  by  the  Indians  and  his  wife  taken 
captive  from  this  farm,  also  the  Wasons,  the  Bards,  the  McCoys,  the 
McColloughs,  the  Dunlaps,  the  McClelanda  and  the  Ridcnours.  Some  of 
these  endured  great  privations,  and  many  tortures,  at  the  hands  of  the 
cruel  savages. 


The  members  of  the  ReTormed  Church  residing  in,  and  around,  Way- 
nesboro were  originally  connected  with,  what  was  then  known  as  Besore's, 
now  Salem  Church,  located  several  miles  west  of  this  place,  then  under 
the  pastoral  care  of  Rev.  Jonathan  Rahauser.  About  the  year  181G, 
however,  the  members  living  at  Waynesboro,  came  to  feel  the  need  of  a 
congregation  nearer  home,  and,  accordingly,  withdrew  themselves  from 
the  Salem  Church,  for  the  purpose  of  effecting  an  organization  here. 

The  congregation,  however,  was  not  fully  organized,  and  regularly 
supplied  with  preaching,  until  the  year  1818,  when  the  Rev.  Frederick  A. 
SchoU,  who  succeeded  Rev.  Mr.  Rihauser  at  Salem,  took  charge  of  the 

At  this  time,  the  congregation  worshipped  in  what  is  still  known  as  the 
Union  Church,  on  Church  street,  owned  jointly  by  the  Lutherans,  Pres- 
byterians and  Reformed,  each  occupying  tiie  building  every  third  Sunday. 

On  account  of  some  difficulty,  or  misunderstanding,  between  the  three 
congregations,  as  to  the  time  when  each  was  entitled  to  occupy  thechurcii 
for  divine  services,  and  to  avoid  all  strife,  the  Reformed  people,  in  1826, 
withdrew  from  the  Union  house,  and  built  for  themselves,  a  small  log 
church,  on  a  lot  of  ground  donated,  to  the  congregation  by  Conrad 
Detterow,  one  of  the  elders  of  the  church  at  that  time.  This  new  build- 
ing was  consecrated  on  the  20th  of  Maj%  1827. 

Inasmuch,  however,  as  the  services  in  the  new  church  were  still  to  be 
conducted  excusively  in  the  German  language,  whilst  the  children  of  the 
Reformed  people  were  being  educated  in  English,  a  demand  now  arose 
for  servicijs  in  the  English  language.  To  supply  this,  and  thereby  save 
the  younger  members  of  Reformed  families  to  the  church  of  their  fathers, 
it  was  resolved,  by  that  portion  of  the  membership  prefering  English 
services,  with  the  permission  of  Classis,  to  call  a  minister  who  could  preach 
in  that  language.  Accordingly,  in  the  year  1831,  an  effort  was  made,  after 
due  deliberation,  to  secure  the  services  of  such  a  minister.  The  choice 
fell  upon  Mr.  G.  W.  Qlessner,  then  a  student  in  the  Theological  Seminary, 
at  York,  Pa.,  who,  after  being  properly  licensed  and  ordained,  com- 
menced his  labors  here  in  the  summer  of  1831. 

About  this  time  Kev.  Mr.  Scholl,  pastor  of  the  German  congregation, 
closed  his  labors  in  the  log  church,  and  Rev.  Mr.  Glessner  commenced 
preaching  in  tnat  building.  The  membership  rapidly  increasing,  under 
the  ministry  of  the  new  pastor,  it  soon  become  evident  that  a  larger  house 
of  worship  was  needed.  It  was  consequently  resolved  to  build  a  new 
church,  of  which  the  corner  stone  was  laid  in  the  spring  of  1833,  and  the 
buildine:  completed  and  dedicated  to  the  worship  of  God  on  the  21st  of 
June,  1834.  This  church  was  built  of  brick,  in  a  neat  and  substantial  man- 
ner, with  an  end  gallery,  and  its  dimensions  were  forty  by  forty-six  feet. 

On  all  ordinary  occasions,  this  church  was  found  large  enough  to  accom- 
modate those  who  assembled  for  divine  worship.  But  on  special  occasions, 
as  the  celebration  of  the  Holy  Communion,  the  want  of  more  room  soon 
made  itself  felt,  and  hence,  in  the  years  1839,  an  addition  of  eighteen  feet 

292  Ap'pendix, 

wa9  built  to  thd  rear  caJ  of  it,  making  tlie  building  now  forty  feet  in 
width,  by  sixty -four  feet  in  lengtli. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Glesauer  resigned  the  pastorate  of  this  church,  and  re- 
moved to  another  field  of  labor,  in  the  spring  of  1840. 

The  Rev.  J.  II.  A.  Bamberger  was  then  elected  pastor,  and  served  the 
congregation  from  the  spring  of  18i0,to  the  spring  of  1845,  when  he  also 
accepted  a  call  to  labor  elsewhere. 

Tlie  immediate  successor  of  Mr.  Bomberger,  was  the  Rev.  Theodore 
Apple,  a  recent  graduate  of  the  Tlieological  Seminary,  at  Mercersburg,  in 
this  county.  Mr.  Apple  a3:3umed  the  pastorate  in  April  1845,  and  resigned 
in  the  spring  of  1847. 

At  this  time,  a  colony  of  about  thirty-five  or  forty  members,  of  this 
church  withdrew  from  its  connection,  and,  having  organized  themselves 
into  a  separate  congregation,  built  a  house  of  worship  near  the  residence 
of  Mr.  George  Hirbvugh,  father  of  Rav.  Dr.  Harbaugh,  known  as  Har- 
baugh's  church. 

After  the  resignation  of  Rev.  Mr.  Apple  the  congregation  recalled  its 
former  pastor.  Rev.  G.  W.  Glessner,  who  entered  upon  the  duties  of  the 
pastorate  a  second  time,  in  April  1847,  and  resigned  in  April  1851. 

In  October  of  1851,  an  election  for  pastor  was  held,  which  resulted  in 
the  choice  of  Rev.  H.  W.  Super,  who  commenced  his  labors  here  in 
November,  of  the  same  year,  and  resigned  in  March  1854,  but,  after  an 
absence  of  one  year,  was  recalled,  returning  in  March  1855,  and  closed 
his  labors  finally  in  April  1862. 

The  vacancy,  caused  by  the  resignation  of  Mr.  Super,  was  filled  by  call- 
ing Rev.  Walter  E.  Krebs,  who  assumed  charge  of  the  congregation  in 
October  1862,  and  resigned  in  August  1868. 

At  an  election  for  pastor,  held  in  March,  18G9,  the  Rev.  H.  H.  W. 
Hibshman  was  chosen,  as  successor  ot  Mr.  Krebs.  Mr.  Hibshman  entered 
upon  the  duties  of  the  pastorate  in  June,  of  the  same  year. 

The  corner-stone,  of  the  present  stately  and  commodious  edifice,  which 
occupies  the  site  of  the  two  former  buildings,  was  laid  on  the  7th  of 
August,  1870,  and  the  building  dedicated  to  the  worship  of  God,  on  the 
34th  of  December,  1871,  under  the  name  of  Trinity  Reformed  Church  of 

The  Second  Reformed  congregation,  of  this  place,  was  organized  on  the 
9th  of  August,  1873,  by  a  number  of  persons  who  were  previously  mem- 
bers of  Trinity  Church,  but  withdrew  from  its  connection,  at  this  time,  for 
the  purpose  of  forming  themselves  into  a  separate  organization.  They 
subsequently  built,  and  now  occupy,  a  very  neat  chapel,  on  Main  street, 
known  as  St.  Paul's  Reformed  Church  of  Waynesboro. 

The  R3V.  H.'H.  W.  Hibshman  resigned  the  pastorate,  of  Trinity  Church 
on  the  1st  of  October,  1877. 

The  present  pastor,  is  Rev.  F.  F.  Bahner,  who  assumed  charge  on 
the  1st  of  December,  1877. 

people's  register. 

The  Centennial  Reguter  was  first  issued  on  the  5th  day  of  .January,  187G, 
and  as  will  be  noticed,  should  have  been  includedin  the  Newspaper  Article 
in  Mr.  McCauley's  History.  From  the  beginning  it  has  been  owned  and 
edited  by  J.  G.  Schaft".  At  the  end  of  about|fifteen  months  from  its  first  issue 
the  word  Centennial  was  droped  as  mappropriate,  and  the  word  People' o 
substituted,  and  it  now  bears  the  title  of  PeopWs  Register.  Under  many 
discouragements  and  disadvantages,  its  projeotor  has  persevered,  and  is 
being  rewarded  by  a  steadily  increasing  circulation.  The  main  object  of 
the  People's  Register  is  to  chronicle  the  local  news. 



Mr.  James  P.  Wolf,  the  senior  partner  of  this  firm,  commenced  busi- 
ness in  Waynesboro,  on  the  site  of  the  present  Odd  Fellows  Hall,  in  the 
summer  of  18G8.  His  rapidly  increasing  business  soon  required  more 
extended  accommodations,  and  the  old  building  was  made  to  give  place 
to  a  new  and  more  commodious  one.  The  present  elegant  room  G5  feet  in 
length,  is  meeting  the  requirements  for  the  present,  but  with  a  growing 
reputation,  for  fair  and  honorable  dealing,  in  a  town  of  remarkable  busi- 
ness enterprise,  it  is  possible  that  at  some  future  day,  even  larger  appart- 
ments  will  be  required.  On  the  loth  of  April,  187G,  Mr.  W.  received  into 
partnership,  his  brother  J.  M.  Wolf,  since  which  time  the  style  of  the 
tirm,  has  been  "Jas.  P.  &  J.  M.  Wolf."  They  have  adapted  the  "cash 
system,"  and  are  so  greatly  encouraged  by  the  plan,  that  they  expect  to 
adhere  to  it.  These  young  men  are  of  German  descent,  and  grandsons 
of  David  Wolf,  Esq.,  who  was  born  March  19th,  1765,  and  was  married 
to  a  Miss  Catherine  Butterbaugh,  and  located  in  this  county,  two  and  a 
half  miles  south  of  Welsh  Run,  near  the  Maryland  line,  where  their 
father,  John  Wolf,  Sr.,  was  born  June  8th,  1812.  He  was  mairiedto  Mies 
Elizabeth  Zuch,  May  14th,  1840.  James  P.  Wolf,  was  born  March  7lh, 
1841,  and  was  married  Jan.  7th,  1868,  to  Miss  Alice  S.  Funk.  He  entered 
the  service  of  his  country,  Oct.  24ih,  1862,  as  a  private  in  Battery  "B," 
112th  Reg't,  Pa.  Vol.,  2d  Artillery.  Jan.  1st,  1863,  he  was  promoted  to 
Corporal,  July,  11th,  1864,  to  Serg't,  Feb.  12th,  1865,  to  Ist  Serg't,  May 
od,  1865,  to  2d  Lieut.,  and  was  commissioned  1st  Lieut.,  Dec.  2l8t,  1865. 
During  this  time  he  participated  in  quite  a  number  of  hotly  contested 
engagements,  in  the  "army  of  the  James."  And  has  now  settled  down 
in  the  peaceful  pursuit  of  merchandising. 


The  lot,  now  occupied  by  the  prominent  building,  of  F.  Forthman.  on 
East  Main  St.,  Waynesboro,  Pa.,  and  occupied  by  him,  as  a  residence  and 
drug  store,  an  engraving  of  which,  we  give  in  this  work,  was  owned  in 
1708,  by  John  Wallace,  who  sold  it  to  Jacob  Stevens,  on  the  25th,  of  May, 
of  the  same  year,  and  after  numerous  conveyances,  it  was  sold  to  Sanders 
Van  Rensellear,  on  the  loth  day  of  April,  1840,  who  in  turn  sold  it  to 
John  C.  Frey,  on  the  10th  day  of  May,  1844.  It  was  afterwards  sold  to 
John  Clayton,  April  11th,  1845.  On  April  1st,  1847,  Mr.  Clayton  dis- 
posed of  it  to  Miss  Martha  Brotherton,  and,  by  her,  it  was  conveyed  to 
John  R.  Sellers,  on  July  27th,  1860,  he  disposing  of  it,  to  F.  Forthman 
on  the  30th  of  March,  1867. 

Mr.  F.  Forthman  commenced  his  business  career  in  Waynesboro,  Oct. 
2d,  1856,  in  the  building  opposite  the  one  he  now  occupies,  then  owned 
by  Mr.  John  Gilbert,  deceased.  He  continued  in  business  at  this  place, 
up  to  November  1867,  at  which  time  he  removed  to  the  building,  erected 
by  him,  and  in  which  his  flourishing  business  is  carried  on. 

This  drug  house  is  finely  located,  and  is  one  of  the  largest  and  finest  in 
the  county,  having  all  the  modern  appliances  for  conducting  the  business 
according  to  the  latest  rules  of  Pharmacy. 


This  desirable   home,    and  valuable  landed  property    are  situated  in 

S{)4  Appendix. 

Metal  Town3hip,  two  miles  north  of  Fannettsburg,  and  ten  miles  north 
of  Richmond,  the  terminus  of  the  South  Peun  Railroad.  They  are  in  the 
centre  of  Path  Valley  and  in  one  of  the  loveliest  spots  of  that  beautiful 
vale.  The  farm  was  originally  taken  up  by  John  Elliot  and  Richard 
Chillison,  and  was  surveyed  in  pursuance  of  a  warrant  dated  May  14th 
17o5.  The  old  mansion  house  was  frame,  and  is  near  to  and  east  of  the 
Doctors  present  residence.  This  house  was  on  the  property  when  John 
Flickinger,  the  grandfather  of  the  Doctor,  purchased  it.  The  house  and 
barn,  shown  in  the  illustration,  v/ere  built  in  1855  by  Joseph  Flickinger, 
and  the  former  was  originally  shaped  as  an  L  but  is  now  nearly  square, 
having  been  enlarged  and  remodled  in  1875  by  his  son  Dr.  John  S. 
Flickinger,  the  present  proprietor.  The  surroundings  were  also  improved 
at  the  same  time.  The  dimensions  of  the  house  38  by  40  feet,  brick, 
shingle  and  tin  roof,  with  upper  and  lower  porches.  The  farm  contains 
225  acres,  50  of  which  are  timber,  consisting  of  locust,  oak,  chestnut, 
maple  and  walnut.  The  land  is  limestone,  adapted  to  wheat  and  corn, 
surface  generally  level,  except  along  the  creek,  where  it  is  more  billy. 
Three  lovely  springs,  come  laughing  and  gushing  up  here  and  there  from 
the  fields,  and  one  beautiful  stream,  which  is  shown  in  the  illustration, 
called  Marsh  run,  bends  its  graceful  curves  through  the  entire  farm,  and 
finds  repose  in  the  bosom  of  the  grand  old  west  Conococheague,  the  last 
named  stream  turning  two  mills  erected  by  Dr.  Plickingers'  father-in- 
law,  the  late  John  McAllen,  Esq.,  a  gentleman  who  was  distinguished 
for  his  enterprise  and  public  spirit,  as  well  as  for  many  estimable  quali- 
ties of  head  and  lieart.  Marsh  run  is  full  of  trout,  and  the  children  of  the 
family  readily  catch  them  in  a  dip  which  they  call  a  net.  No  minerals 
have  ever  been  developed  on  the  property.  The  farm  has  produced  In 
one  year  as  much  as  twelve  hundred  bushels  of  wheat,  and  fifteen  hun- 
dred bushels  of  corn. 

Dr.  John  S.  Flickinger  is  the  only  son  of  Joseph  Flickinger  who  was 
born  near  Lancaster,  Pa.,  in  1789,  his  father,  John  Flickinger,  having 
emigrated  from  that  county  to  Franklin,  and  after  residing  a  few  years 
near  Greencastle  located  in  Path  Valley.  They  were  of  German  descent. 
The  Doctor's  mother's  name  was  Nancy  Stotler,  of  the  vicinity  of  Green- 
castle, said  to  be  of  French  extraction,  a  lady  of  rare  christian  virtues,  as 
all  testify  who  knew  her. 

The  wife  of  Dr.  John  S.  Flickinger,  was  Jennie  S.  McAUen,  whose 
ancestors  were  good  old  Scotch  Irish  Presbyterians  of  the  highest  respec- 
tibility  and  merit,  and  occupyed  a  prominent  position  among  the  people 
of  their  region.  Dr.  Flickinger  after  pursuing  his  studies  for  several 
years  at  Marshall  College,  Mercersburg,  Pa.,  commenced  the  study  of 
medicine  with  Dr.  John  C.  Richards,  of  Chambersburg,  where  he  re- 
mained three  years,  graduating  in  medicine  at  Pennsylvania  College, 
Philadelphia,  March  8th,  1850.  Though  inclined  to  go  South,  he  yielded 
to  the  wishes  of  his  father  and  sisters  (now  all  dead)  and  located  at  his 
father's  house,  where  he  has  practiced  constantly  for  thirty-eight  years, 
his  practice  extending  through  Path  Valley  and  into  Huntington  and 
Fulton  Counties.  His  marriage  took  place  October  10th,  18G7,  r.nd  they 
have  two  children,  Joseph  M.,  and  Edith  S.  The  property  has  come  down 
in  regular  descent  from  John  Flickinger,  the  grandfather  of  the  Doctor, 
who  purchased  it  from  Mr.  Chillison  in  1707. 


Tiie  first  number  of  the  Valley  Spirit  was  issued  in  Shippensburg, 
near  the  close  of  the  first  week  in   July,  1847,  by  John  M.  Cooper  and 

1  i 


Carriage  Works  or  THRUSH,  PEI 

JT  &  ST0UGH,6HipPENSsuf?&,  Fa 


Appendix.  295 

Daniel  Dechert,  under  the  editorial  management  of  the  former.  One  year 
thereafter — July  1st,  18i8— it  was  removed  to  Chambersburg,  when 
Peter  S.  Dechert,  a  brother  of  Daniel,  was  admitted  to  the  firm.  At  this 
time  the  Gumherland  Valley  Sentinel—ongm&Wj  called  the  Franklin 
Telegraph,  (in  1831,  when  it  was  started  by  Ruby  &  Ilatnick,)  and  atter- 
ward  changed,  with  a  change  in  ownership,  to  the  Chambersburg  Times, 
and  subsequently  to  the  title  above  given — was  the  recognized  organ  of 
the  Democratic  party  in  Franklin  County.  But  the  Valley  Spirit 
advanced  rapidly  in  circulation  and  influence,  and  on  the  1st  of  July,  1852, 
its  proprietors  purchased  the  Sentinel  and  added  its  material  and  subscrip- 
tion list  to  that  of  the  Valley  Spikit.  In  1855  Daniel  Dechert  withdrew 
from  the  firm  and  removed  to  Hagerstown,  Md.,  where  he  purchased  an 
interest  in  the  Mail.  In  1857  the  paper  passed  into  the  hands  of  Geo.  H. 
Mengel  &  Co.,  a  change  made  more  for  the  purpose  of  effecting  a  settle- 
ment of  old  accounts  than  with  a  view  to  permanency.  Mr.  Cooper  con- 
tinued to  edit  it,  but  having  received  an  appointment  in  the  Attorney 
General's  oflice  at  Washington,  under  Judge  Black,  the  local  department 
of  the  paper  was  conducted  by  Dr.  Wm.  H.  Boyle,  who  also  contributed 
at  his  pleasure  to  the  general  editorial  columns.  Early  in  1860  Mr.  Cooper 
withdrew  from  the  editorship,  and  from  that  time  till  1862  it  was  edited  in 
all  its  departments  by  Dr.  Boyle,  with  an  occasional  contribution  from 
Mr.  Cooper. 

The  entire  ownership  of  the  establishment  having  fallen  back  to  J.  M. 
Cooper  and  P.  S.  Dechert,  they  sold  it  in  1862  to  11.  C.  Keyser  and  B.  Y. 
Hamsher,  who  subsequently  admitted  William  Kennedy  to  their  firm. 
He  retired  in  1863,  and  Keyser  &  Hamsher  continued  to  edit  and  publish 
the  paper,  (with  a  brief  interruption  caused  by  the  burning  of  the  town 
on  the  30th  of  July,  1864,)  till  the  summer  of  1867,  when  J.  M.  Cooper, 
Augustus  Duncan  and  William  S.  Stenger  became  its  editors  and  pro- 
prietors, their  purchase  dating  from  the  first  of  July  in  that  year,  though 
made  a  month  or  two  later.  The  Daper  was  published  by  J.  M.  Cooper 
&  Co.  from  this  time  till  July,  1869,  when  Mr.  Cooper  retired,  leaving  it 
in  the  hands  of  Duncan  &  Stenger,  who  sold  it  to  Joseph  C.  Clugston  on 
the  1st  of  June,  1876,  when  Mr.  Cooper  returned  to  its  editorial  chair. 
Mr.  Stenger  was  elected  to  Congress  in  187-4  and  re-elected  in  1876,  and 
the  weight  of  his  public  and  professional  duties  induced  him  to  retire 
from  the  paper. 

At  this  date — April,  1878— Mr.  Clugston  remains  the  proprietor  and 
publisher,  and  Mr.  Cooper  the  editor.  They  are  cousins  and  natives  of 
the  county,  both  of  them  having  been  born  about  two  miles  south-east  of 
Marion — Mr.  Cooper  on  the  16th  of  January,  1823,  and  Mr.  Clugston  on 
the  26th  of  March,  1834.  Their  ancestors  were  among  the  early  settlers 
of  Pennsylvania.  Robert  Cooper,  whose  name  appears  in  the  list  of 
taxablcs  in  Antrim  township  in  1786,  given  in  this  book,  was  the  editor's 
grandfather.  He  was  a  native  of  Chester  county  and  came  to  Franklin 
before  the  Revolution,  when  about  17  years  of  age.  John  Clugston,  whose 
name  appears  in  the  list  of  taxables  in  Guilford  township  the  same  year, 
was  a  greatgrandfather  of  both  the  editor  and  publisher.  His  son,  Capt. 
John  Clugston,  their  grandfather,  owned  and  lived  at  the  Big  Spring, 
northeast  of  Brown's  mill  and  southeast  of  Marion,  near  the  close  of  the 
first  quarter  of  this  century.  Mr.  Cooper  is  a  printer  and  much  the  larger 
portion  of  his  life  has  been  spent  in  that  business,  but  Mr.  Clugston, 
previous  to  his  purchase  of  the  printing  oflice  in  1876,  had  been  a  farmer 
and  dealer  in  produce. 

The  Valley  Spikit  has  been  one  of  the  most  successful  "country 
journals"  in  Pennsylvania.     It  went  upward  from  the  start  and  has  never 

29G  Appendix. 

taken  aaybiskward  steps.  Its  circulation  at  this  time  is  five  hundred 
higher  than  that  of  any  other  paper  in  Franklin  county,  and  its  advertis- 
ing and  jobbing  patronage  is  correspondingly  heavy.  In  politics  it  is 
Democratic,  but  it  aims  to  interest  its  readers  of  all  sorts,  and  pays  particu- 
lar attention  to  mitters  of  consequence  to  the  farming  community,  recog- 
nizing agriculture  as  the  foundation  of  all  the  worldly  prosperity  enjoyed 
by  the  people  of  Franklin  county.  The  office  is  eligibly  located  on  the 
north-west  corner  of  the  Diamond,  opposite  the  front  of  the  Court  House, 
and  is  well  stocked  with  printing  materials.  Its  presses  have  been  run 
by  water-power  since  November  1877,  when  a  motor  invented  and  patent- 
ed by  A''.  F.  Eyster  of  Chambersburg  was  put  in. 

The  Valley  Spirit  Building,  of  which  an  accurate  view  is  given  in 
this  book,  is  occupied  on  the  first  floor  by  Kindline  &  Gillau's  Dry  Goods 
Store,  Ludwig  &  Go's.  Jewelry  Store  and  Smith's  Shoe  Store.  The 
Printing  Office  occupies  the  second  floor  and  part  of  the  third,  and  the 
remainder  of  the  third  is  occupied  by  an  Association. 


William  Stover,  grandfather  ot  Jacob  P.  was  born  in  Switzerland,  A. 
D,  1725.  He  migrated  to  Pennsylvania  in  1754,  and  located  upon  a  tract 
of  land  one  mile  east  of  "Shady  Grove,"  now  owned  by  Wesley  Kuntz. 
He  had  seven  children,  viz:  George,  born  1748;  William,  born  1750; 
Margaret,  born  1752;  Michael,  born  1755;  Daniel,  born  1757;  Jacob,  born 
1759 ;  and  Emanuel,  born  1761.  Dr.  George,  and  Emanuel,  married  sisters, 
the  Misses  Hannah  and  Susan  Pr'ce.  Their  great  grandfather,  a  half 
brother  of  the  then  King  of  Prussia,  of  the  House  of  Hapsburg,  came  to 
this  country,  from  Berlin,  Prussia,  with  one  child.  He  left  Prussia 
because  of  the  war  against  the  family.  On  his  arrival  here  he  located  near 
Waynesboro.  Dr.  George  Stover,  sold  his  interest  in  the  farm  given  to 
him  and  his  brother  Emanuel,  to  the  latter,  taking  continental  money  in 
payment,  and  moved  to  Virginia,  having  bought  a  property  there,  but 
before  he  got  to  Virginia  his  money  was  worthless,  and  because  of  his 
failure  to  take  the  land  purchased  there,  he  was  thrown  into  prison  for 
debt.  He  had  some  other  property,  all  of  which  he  gave  to  efi"ect  his 
release.  He  had  the  following  children,  John,  Elizabeth,  Susan,  Jacob, 
Polly,  David,  George,  Catharine,  Hannah,  Abram,  Anna,  William,  Sarah, 
Nancy,  Joseph,  Emanuel,  Joel,  and  two  others  that  died  in  infancy, 
making  nineteen  in  all.  Emanuel  Stover  at  first  engaged  in  tanning  and 
carried  it  on  for  some  time  in  connection  with  farming.  He  was  after- 
wards engaged  in  distilling  for  many  years,  and  died  at  the  place  upon 
which  he  was  born,  A.  D.  1833,  aged  nearly  73  years.  He  had  five  sons 
and  five  daughters,  viz:  Elizabeth,  Polly.  Susan,  John,  Hannah,  Jacob, 
Catharine,  David,  Daniel  and  Samuel.  Jacob  P.  Stover  was  born,  July 
9th,  1800.  He  married  Elizabeth  Emmert,  locating  at  his  present  home, 
purchased  of  James  McLanahan,  near  Greencastle.  A  log  house  and 
birn  were  the  principal  improvements,  these  have  given  place  to  tiie 
present  ones.  The  barn  was  built  in  1819,  and  was  considered  at  that 
lime,  the  best  finished  one  in  the  county,  bnt  unfortunately  on  the  10th  of 
July,  187r),it,  togetlier  with  the  entire  crop  and  much  valuable  machinery, 
was  consumed  by  fire,  causing  a  loss  of  about  $3,000.  It  was  rebuilt  in 
the  fall  of  the  same  year,  by  Mr,  Stover,  wiio  was  then  in  the  7Gth  year 
of  his  age.  The  beautiful  spring,  now  arranged  into  trout  ponds,  where 
liundreds  of  the  finny  tribe,  can  be  seen  sporting  in  the  sunlight,  was, 
until  within  a  few  years  an  unsightly  swamp,  but  through  the  enterprise 
of  his  youngest  son,  J.  JMitchcll  Stover,  who  is,  at  this  time,  residing  on 

Appendix.  297 

the  home  place,  it  has  been  made  a  great  source  of  pleasure,  as  well  as 
profit.  Young  Mr.  Stover  has  also  established  a  promising  dairy  trade, 
and  is  now  furnishing  the  people  of  Greencastle  with  a  pure  article  of 
milk.  The  "Stover  Wind  Engine"  one  of  the  greatest  inventions,  of 
the  age  is  manufactured  at  Greencastle  for  the  Eastern  States,  under 
the  supervision  of  J.  M.  Stover,  one  of  the  partners  of  the  "Stover  Wind 
Engine  Co."  of  Freeport,  111.  In  our  illustration,  just  over  the  barn  is 
seen  a  13  foot  engine,  to  which  is  attached  a  grinder,  close  under  the 
floor  of  the  granary,  and  wnich  receives  the  grain  from  the  garner  above 
and  discharges  it,  ground,  into  a  large  chop-chest  beneath.  This  en- 
gine and  grinder,  at  a  cost  of  about  $100,,prepare  all  the  grain  needed 
for  a  large  stock,  at  the  same  time,  it  can  be  arranged  to  draw,  or  pump 
water  from  the  spring,  or  from  a  well,  and  supply  the  stock  with  pure 
fresh  water,  without  leaving  the  yard.  This  invaluable  machine  has  been 
tested  alongside  of  every  other  Wind  Mill  of  any  note  in  use,  and  has 
gained  great  honors,  at  the  leading  State,  and  hundreds  of  County  fairs, 
all  over  the  United  States,  and  Canada  for  the  past  six  years.  It  also 
received  the  highest  award,  over  all  other  competitors,  at  the  Centennial 
Exhibition  held  in  187G.  To  the  Stover  family  belongs  the  credit,  of 
having  produced  and  perfected  this  admirable  labor-saving  machine,  it 
having  evolved  from  the  brains  of  Emanuel  and  Daniel  C.  Stover,  elder 
brothers  of  this  family,  after  years  of  hard  study.  These  gentlemen,  who 
now  reside  at  Freeport,  111.,  have  discovered  and  patented  a  number  of 
valuable  features,  not  combined  in  any  other  wind  engine  in  use.  One 
of  which,  now  considered  almost  indispensable,  is  the  application  of 
chilled  iron  antifriction  balls,  on  which  the  entire  weight  of  the  engine 
rests,  making  the  action  sensitive  to  the  least  change  of  wind,  and  so 
quiet  and  steady,  are  its  motions  that  after  years  of  use  it  continues  to  do 
its  work,  without  a  jolt  or  a  jar  in  heavy  as  well  as  light  winds. 


This  elegant  place  composed  of  parts  of  two  large  tracts,  called  "Eel- 
fast,"  and  "Smith's  Retirement,"  is  situated  partly  in  Washington,  and 
partly  in  Antrim  Townships,  4  miles  west  of  Waynesboro,  on  the  road 
leading  from  the  Waynesboro  and  Greencastle  turnpike,  to  the  Marsh 
store,  one  and  a  half  miles  north  of  the  latter  place,  and  two  miles  south 
of  the  turnpike.  Greencastle  is  six  miles  distant,  and  is  the  nearest  R.  R. 
station,  nearest  post  office  is  Waynesboro.  This  farm  was  conveyed,  by 
warrant  and  order  of  survey,"  to  Elias  Davison  bearing  date  Aug.  1st  A. 
D.  1766.  By  him  conveyed  to  Henry  Campbell,  Feb.  21st,  1768,  by  Camp- 
bell to  James  Ferris,  March  12lh,  1773,  by  Ferris  back  to  Campbell, 
Aug.  10th  A.  D.  1775,  and,  on  the  same  date  by  Campbell  to  Gotlieb 
Evert.  From  Evert  it  passed  to  James  McNulty,  Oct.  5th,  1782,  and  from 
McNulty  by  deed  of  conveyance  dated  April  11th,  A.  D.  1794,  to  Daniel 
Mowen,  grandfather  of  the  present  owner.  Patent  deed  obtained  by 
Daniel  Mowen,  Dec.  3d,  A.  D.  1 812,  Book  H.  No.  8,  page  369 . 

"Smith's  Retirement"  was  conveyed  to  Abram  Smith  by  patent  deed 
Nov.  2d,  A.  D.  1785  and  by  him  to  Daniel  Mowen,  Feb.  2d,  1795.  By 
public  outcry  it  was  sold  by  Jacob  Snively,  administrator  of  Daniel 
Mowen,  dec'd,  to  John  Lecron,  Sept.  27th,  A.  D.  1824,  and  by  deed  of 
conveyance  dated  March  4th,  A.  D.  1851,  by  him  to  his  son  Simon,  the 
present  owner.  The  first  buildings,  which  consisted  of  a  small  log  shanty 
and  log  stable,  were  erected  by  Campbell,  about  1769  or  1770-  In  1802 
or  1803,  these  were  removed  by  Daniel  Mowen,  who  selected  a  site  about 
300  yards  north  of  the  old  buildings,  and  had  a  Swiss  barn,  66  by  40  feet, 

298  Appe7idix. 

stone  to  1st  square,  the  balance  logs,  and  a  two  storied  stone  bouse, 
with  basement,  06  by  30,  erected  instead.  This  house  is  Blill  standing 
but  the  barn  was  removed  in  1857  by  Mr.  S.  Lecron,  when  the  one  repre- 
sented in  our  picture  was  built.  He  also  erected,  in  1862,  an  addition  of 
18  feet  to  the  house,  building  of  the  same  material  and  making  it  corres- 
spond,  in  height  with  the  original.  The  house  as  it  now  stands,  is  54  by 
;J0  feet,  and  contains  nine  rooms  and  a  basement  kitchen.  The  barn 
which  is  also  of  stone,  is  80  feet  long  by  54  wide.  It  is  constructed  with  a 
view  to  good  ventilation  of  the  stables,  and  is  a  good  substantial  building. 

There  are  one  hundred  and  lifty-one  acres  included  in  this  tract  of 
land,  twenty-five  of  which  are  well  set  with  white  and  black  oak  and 
hickory  timber.  The  soil,  which  is  somewhat  broken,  is  rolling  and  is  of 
clay  mixed  with  sand.  There  is  an  abundance  of  limestone,  which  can 
be  readily  utilized.  About  nine  acres  are  good  meadow  with  a  fine  stream 
of  water  running  through  it.  As  the  land  is  all  well  drained  it  is  well 
adapted  to  the  cultivation  of  every  variety  of  produce.  The  largest  pro- 
duct of  wheat  on  20  acres,  were  37^  bushels  per  acre,  and  the  largest  crop 
in  one  year  12U8  bushels  on  40  acres,  making  a  fraction  less  than  32 
bushels  per  acre.  The  general  average  of  the  farm  is  from  900  to  1,000 
bushels  of  wheat,  GOO  to  800  bushels  of  corn,  400  to  GOO  bushels  of  oats, 
and  40  to  50  bushels  of  rye.  Mr.  L.,  is  feeding  his  farm  by  having  all  of 
his  corn  and  oats  consumed  on  it,  purchasing  the  stock  in  the  fall,  and 
having  it  ready  for  the  spring  market. 

The  paternal  ancestors  of  Mr.  Lecron,  were  of  French  origin,  his 
father,  John  Lecron,  who  departed  this  life  on  the  14th  day  of  Feb. 
1878,  at  the  age  of  84  years,  was  married  in  May,  1817,  to  Catherine, 
daughter  of  Daniel  Mowcn  of  Washington  township.  His  grandfather  is 
said  to  have  left  France,  about  the  beginning  of  the  French  Revolution, 
tied  to  Poland,  and  from  there  to  the  United  States,  and  settled  in  Lancas- 
ter county,  about  the  year  1780,  troni  there  his  two  sons,  Simon  and 
Jacob,  migrated  to  Washington  county,  Md.,  about  the  year  1790.  Simon, 
grandfather  of  the  present  Simon  Lecron,  married  Elizabeth  Lydey,  and 
died  aged  48  3'ears,  in  the  year  1814,  leaving  eleven  children  upon  a 
email  estate.  John,  the  father  of  Simon,  who  was  the  2nd  child,  moved 
to  Pennsylvania  in  the  spring  of  1819,  and  located  upon  a  farm  belonging 
to  his  father-in-law,  in  Antrim  township,  the  same  that  is  now  owned  by 
Daniel  Lecron,  brother  of  Simon.  In  the  spring  of  1825,  he  bought,  and 
moved  upon  the  "Belfast,"  farm  in  Washington  township  and  continued 
there  until  his  death.  The  maternal  ancestor  of  Air.  L.  located  in  Antrim 
Township  at  an  early  day,  and  is  thought  to  have  come  from  Switzerland. 
Ills  son,  Daniel  Mowen,  who  was  the  maternal  grandfather  of  Mr. 
Lecron,  died  in  1819  at  the  age  of  54  years.  Daniel's  3rd  child,  Catherine, 
mother  of  Mr.  L.,  was  born  April  8th,  179G,  and  is  now  at  the  age  of 
almost  82  years,  still  living.  Her  son  Simon,  who  is  her  2nd  child,  was 
born  April  iHili,  1820,  and  was  married  Sept.  7th,  1843,  to  Anna  Eliza- 
beth, daughter  of  Jacob  Middlekaufl",  of  Beaver  Creek,  Washington  Co., 
Md.     They  have  eight  children,  four  sons  and  four  daughters. 

"TIIK    IJUKNS     I'LACE."    farm    I'UOl'EUTY    OF     J.     MOUKOW    IJUUNS,    NEAU 

The  position  occupied  by  o\ir  artist,  when  taking  his  sketcli,  of  tlicsc 
Imildingfl,  was  on  tlie  banks  of  the  historic  Antietani,  on  an  old  road, 
vacated  about  1(10  years  ago,  along  wliicii  the  soldiers  of  tlic  revolution 
marched.  The  farm  is  located  iu  Washington  Township,  three  miles 
cast  of  Waynesboro,  and  four  from   the  Waynesboro   station,    AV,  M.  K. 


Appendix.  299 

E.  It  was  taken  up,  Sept.  Gth,  1762,  by  George  Martin,  and  named 
"Calidity."  Jan.  14th,  1773,  it  passed  into  the  possession  of  George  Sliil- 
ley,  who  sold  it  to  Robert  Espey  on  March  11th,  1772.  From  him  it  was 
transferred  to  John  McGuier,  July  28th,  of  the  same  year.  April  17th, 
1773,  over  a  century  ago,  it  came  into  the  possession  of  John  Burns,  the 
grandfather  of  the  present  occupant.  March  18th,  1803,  Jamea  Crooks, 
and  James  Downey,  executors,  of  John  Burns,  dec'd,  disposed  of  it  to 
Jeremiah  Bourns,  father  of  J.  Morrow  Burns,  who  rented  the  farm,  at  the 
time  of  his  father's  death,  Feb.  IGth,  1817,  and  on  June  21st,  18G3,  ho 
became  the  sole  possessor,  of  the  estate.  The  present  house  was  erected, 
about  the  year  1831  by  Jeremiah  Bourns,  and  is  of  brick.  There  are  the 
neceusary  out  buildings,  and  also  a  good  saw  mill,  on  the  place,  which 
was  originally  erected  in  1774,  over  one  hundred  years  ago.  The  farm 
contains  128  acres,  of  good  soil,  well  adapted  to  grain,  or  stock  raising. 
The  surface  is  level.  There  is  a  never  failing  spring,  and  also  a  good 
water  power  which  drives  the  saw  mill.  The  product  of  the  farm,  in 
1877,  was  about  1200  bushels  of  wheat  and  corn,  and  it  abounds  in  iron 
ore  of  excellent  quality.  In  the  year  1751,  Archibald  Bourns,  with  his 
wife  and  two  young  sons,  accompanied  his  wife's  brother,  the  Rev.  John 
Cuthbertson,_to  Lancaster  County,  Pa.,  from  the  county  of  Lanark,  in 
Scotland,  their  native  land.  Mr.  Cuthbertson  became  permanent  pastor 
to  the  Covenanters,  at  Octorara,  in  Lancaster  couuty.  Mr.  Bourns  set- 
tled in  "Carrol's  Tract,"  now  in  Adam's  county,  Pa.,  on  the  farm  his 
wife  had  received  as  a  gift  from  her  brother,  Mr.  Cuthbertson,  where 
Archibald  died,  leaving  his  sons,  John,  and  James,  still  lads,  to  the  care 
of  their  widowed  mother.  Mrs.  Bourns  re-married,  her  second  husband 
being  Francis  Meredith,  Esq.,  and  her  sons,  now  young  mcu,  found 
homes  of  their  own,  James  settled  in  the  wilds  of  Ohio,  becoming  pro- 
prietor of  parts  of  the  land  on  which  Cincinnati  now  stands.  John  wed- 
ded a  daughter  of  Jeremy  Morrow,  of  the  vicinity  of  "Carrol's  Tract," 
whose  grandson  became  one  of  Ohio's  early  governors,  and  in  honor  of 
whom  one  of  her  counties  is  named.  With  his  young  wife,  John  Bourns, 
made  his  home  on  the  Antietam,  in  the  cpring  of  1773,  on  the  property 
above  described.  He  established  himself,  mainly  in  the  business  of 
manufacturing  sickles,  erecting  a  shop,  and  mill,  for  the  purpose,  and 
also  a  saw  mill.  He  put  about  sixty  acres  of  land  under  cultivation. 
Here  he,  and  his  wife  Esther  reared  their  seven  sons,  and  four  daughters, 
and  here  botli  died,  highly  honored  for  their  personal  worth,  and  Chris- 
tian lives.  They  were  both  intered  in,  what  was  then  called,  tlie  "Cove- 
nanter's" graveyard,  two  miles  lower  down  the  Antietam.  Their  chil- 
dren all  survived  them,  excepting  the  eldest,  their  names  given  in  the 
order  of  birth,  being  Margaret,  Jeremy,  John,  Sarah,  Archibald,  Thomas, 
Elizabeth,  James,  Francis,  William,  and  Esther.  The  eldest  was  born  in 
1773,  and  the  youngest  in  1792,  and  the  last  born  was  the  latest  survivor 
of  the  eleven  children;  Mrs.  Esther  Wallace,  who  died  in  187G.  The 
latest  living,  of  the  sons,  Avas  General  James  Burns,  whose  death  occur- 
red in  187.'5,  he  lacked  but  one  day  of  being  ninety  years  old.  The  gener- 
al, and  his  brothers,  dropped  from  the  family  name  the  ancestral  letter 
"O,"  and  but  one,  of  the  connection,  now  retains  it,  writing  his  name  in 
the  old  manner— J.  Francis  Bourns,  M.  D.  of  Philadelphiaii  Soon  after 
the  birth  of  his  tiiird  child,  in  177G,  John  Bourns  was  summoned  to  be  a 
soldier,  in  the  Army,  of  the  Revolution.  Before  the  close  of  the  war, 
Mr.  Bourns  was  appointed  a  INfagistrate,  and  he  continued  to  hold  the 
office  until  his  deatli,  in  1803.  His  son  Jeremy,  became  owner  and  occu- 
pant of  the  paternal  homestead,  and  succeeded  his  father  in  the,  still  lu- 
crative, business  of  sickle-making,  and  also  in  the  sawing  of  lumber,  and. 

300  Appendix. 

he  somewhat  enlarged  the  work  of  the  farm.  Having  erected  new  mills, 
with  encouraging  business  prospects,  Jeremy  met  with  the  misfortune  of 
having  the  mills,  together  with  his  barn,  totally  destroyed  by  fire.  Part 
of  the  heavy  loss  was  that  of  about  one  hundred  4ozens  of  sickles,  that 
were  nearly  ready  for  the  coming  harvest.  lie  at  once  replaced  the 
buildings,  but  his  business  was  crippled  for  years  afterward.  Jeremy 
Burns  married  Sarah,  daughter  of  John  Renfrew,  Sr.  and  granddaughter 
of  Samuel  Rea,  in  1811,  and  their  children  were  twelve  in  number,  viz  : 
Nancy,  John,  Francis,  Samuel,  Rea,  Esther,  Elizabeth,  Jeremy,  Morrow, 
Sarah,  James  Cuthbertson,  Margaret  Renfrew,  and  Hannah  Jane,  with 
three  others,  that  died  in  infancy.  Margaret  R.  died  when  a  child,  and 
Esther  S.  and  Sarah  in  mature  years  ;  while  the  rest  are  living.  They 
have  their  homes  in  Franklin  County,  John  Francis  excepted,  who  for 
many  years  has  resided,  a  physician,  in  Philadelphia.  Their  father  died 
in  1847,  and  their  mother  in  1855.  Endowed  with  more  than  common 
elevation,  and  force  of  character,  both  departed  as  they  had  lived,  devo- 
ted and  honored  christians.  Covenanters  in  church  fellowship,  they  sleep 
in  the  before  mentioned  family  burial  place,  with  other  beloved  and  hon- 
ored dead,  awaiting  the  resurrection  of  the  just. 

"fair   view  place,"  PROPEUTY    of  JOHN   PHILIPS,  WAS^I^■GTOK   TOWN- 

This  valuable  mill  property  is  situated,  on  the  east  branch  of  Antietam 
Creek,  about  one  and  a  half  miles  southeast  of  Waynesboro,  and  three 
and  a  half  miles  from  the  "Waynesboro  station,  on  tue  W.  M.  Railroad 
and  is  crossed  by  the  line  of  the  proposed  Baltimore  and  Cumberland 
Valley  Railroad,  connecting  Baltimore  with  Chambersburg.  The  mill 
was  built  by  Abraham  Stover  in  1821,  it  is  driven  by  an  overshot  wheel  of 
18  foot  diameter.  Samuel  Frantz  erected  the  mansion  house  in  1847,  he 
also  erected  the  barn  and  miller's  house.  The  mill  which  is  built  of  brick, 
is  50  by  58  feet,  three  and  a  half  stories  high,  there  are|three  runs  of  burrs 
for  wheat,  and  two  for  <>.hopping.  It  has  a  capacity  of  about  13,000  barrels 
of  flour  per  year.  The  water  power,  which  in  addition  to  the  Antietam  is 
furnished  by  two  large  springs,  emptying  into  the  dam,  a  short  distance 
above  the  brest,  is  considered  the  best  on  the  stream.  It  never  fails,  and 
because  of  the  large  amount  of  spring  water,  it  never  freezes.  The  brick 
mansion  house  is  X>  by  36  feet,  with  a  wing  attached,  20  by  30  feet.  It 
contains  eleven  large  rooms,  and  the  cellar  which  is  arched  has  a  well 
cemented  floor.  There  is  a  brick  summer  house  in  the  rear  of  the  main 
building,  10  by  38  feet.  The  cottage,  which  is  a  frame  structure,  is  28  by 
2G  feet.  The  bank  barn  is  constructed  of  stone  and  frame.  The  entire 
number  of  buildings  is  lifteen,  and  they  are  all  in  first-class  condition  and 
present  a  fine  appearance.  The  land,  which  is  mostly  meadow,  is  well 
adapted  to  the  production  of  all  kinds  of  grain,  and  also  to  the  cultivation 
of  tobacco.  Although  consisting  of  only  80  acres,  it  is  considered  one  of 
the  mo£t  productive  farms,  in  the  Township.  It  was  purchased  by  Mr. 
I'iiilips  in  June  1877,  since  which  time  its  appearance  has  been  greatly 
imi)roved  by  painting,  and  other  repairs.  The  stock  in  the  barn  yard  is 
supplied  with  pure  water,  through  pipes,  from  the  forebay,  and  there  arc 
two  good  wells,  one  at  the  summer  house,  and  the  other  at  the  cottage. 
IJesidcs  these  there  is  a  soring  at  the  north-cast  corner  of  the  farm,  and 
running  water  in  every  enclosure,  except  one.  Tiic  fencing,  is  nearly  all 
pitRt  and  rail.  Tlie  buildings  are  all  surrounded  by  fruit  trees,  and  there 
are  two  thrilty  oichards  of  the  most  choice  summer,  and  winter,  varieties 
of  apples.     Tlie  largest  production  in  one  year  from  this]  farm  was  G50 

Appendix,  301 

bushels  of  wheat,  500  barrels  of  corn,  besides  oats,  etc.,  and  about  30 tons 
of  hay.  John  Eichelberger,  the  maternal  grandfather  of  John  Philips, 
who  was  of  German  descent,  served  during  the  Revolutionary  war,  and 
fought  in  the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill,  etc.  He  married  Mary,  daughter  of 
Michael  Leonard.  She  died  Feb.  23d,  1840,  aged  88  years,  he  in  the  year 
1833.  They  both  were  buried  in  the  St.  John's  Lutheran  graveyard,  at 
Hagerstown,  Md.  _  They  had  six